What is Forsythia Fruit?
Research Update:Forsythia suspensa.:
Studies on diversity of quality of Forsythia suspensa:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2007 Mar;32(5):381-4. Chinese.Li WJ, Li XE, Qi JJ.Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Scienes, Institute of Medicinal Plant Culture, Beijing 100094, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study on diversity of quality of Forsythia suspense collected from different regions. METHOD: The hundred-seed weight of shucks was analyzed by the method of hundred grain mass. The thousand-seed weight of seeds was analyzed by the method of thousand grain mass. The contents of the active components in shucks and seeds were determined by HPLC. RESULT: The hundred-seed weight of shucks, the thousand-seed weight of seeds and the contents of the active components in the shucks and seeds from different regions were significantly different. CONCLUSION: The quality of F. suspense from different regions is not consistant.
Characterization of phenolic compounds in the fruits of Forsythia suspensa by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.:Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2007;21(5):715-29.Guo H, Liu AH, Ye M, Yang M, Guo DA.The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100083, P. R. China.
Phenolic compounds are the major bioactive constituents of Forsythia suspensa, an important Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of various infectious diseases. Fragmentation behaviors of the phenolic compounds in F. suspensa were investigated by using a high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS(n)) method. For common phenylethanoid glycosides, the loss of the caffeoyl moiety was the first fragmentation step, then sequential losses of rhamnose, hexose and water were observed in further fragmentations. If a substituent group presented in the beta position, the fragmentation was triggered by initial loss of a substituent group to form structures such as suspensaside A. Then it underwent the common fragmentation pathways as mentioned above, or eliminated characteristic residues of masses 134 or 152 Da, respectively. The latter pathway is reported here for the first time. The fragmentation behaviors of furofuran lignans displayed a typical cleavage of the tetrahydrofuran ring. However, the presence of a hydroxyl group at C-1 led to the successive loss of 30 Da. Neutral loss of CO(2) and benzyl cleavage were characteristic for lignans with a 2,3-dibenzylbutyrolactone skeleton. A neutral loss of 30 Da was also observed in the fragmentation pattern of flavonols. These fragmentation rules were implemented to analyze phenolic compounds in the fruits of F. suspensa. A total of 51 compounds, including 24 phenylethanoid glycosides, 21 lignans and 6 flavonols, were identified or tentatively characterized based on their retention times, UV spectra and MS fragmentation patterns.
Simultaneous determination of 12 major constituents in Forsythia suspensa by high performance liquid chromatography--DAD method.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Feb 19;43(3):1000-6. Epub 2006 Dec 6.Guo H, Liu AH, Li L, Guo DA.The State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, No. 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, PR China.
A high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to simultaneously determine the 12 major constituents of Forsythia suspensa, namely R-suspensaside, S-suspensaside, S-suspensaside methyl ether, (+)-pinoresinol-beta-d-glucoside, forsythiaside, (+)-epipinoresinol-4'-O-glucoside, suspensaside A, rutin, phillyrin, (+)-pinoresinol, (+)-epipinoresinol and phillygenin. The HPLC assay was performed on a Zorbax XDB C(18) column with gradient elution of methanol and 0.3% aqueous acetic acid within 55 min. The detection wavelength was 280 nm. All the compounds showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9998). The method was reproducible with intra- and inter-day variation less than 3%. The recovery of the assay was in the range of 91.2-104.9%. The method was successfully applied to the quantification of 12 constituents in 33 F. suspensa samples. The results indicated that the developed assay could be considered as a suitable quality control method for F. suspensa.
Study on the fingerprints of Fructus Forsythiae by high performance capillary electrophoresis.:Se Pu. 2006 Mar;24(2):196-200. Chinese.Sun G, Mu S, Hou Z, Sun Y.College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China. email@example.com
The capillary electrophoresis fingerprints (CEFP) of Fructus Forsythiae was established to control its quality. The background electrolyte (BGE) was a 75 mmol/L sodium borate solution adjusted to pH 9.7 with 0.1 mmol/L NaOH solution. The detection wavelength was 228 nm and a voltage of 14 kV was applied. The Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl was extracted by water and a set of CEFP containing 29 peaks was obtained. The CEFP had acceptable precision and reproducibility with the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the relative migration time less than 5.0% and the RSD of the relative peak area from 2% to 15%. There were good similarities between the standard CEFP and each set of CEFP of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl from ten different places, and their similarity coefficients were not less than 0.94. The CEFP were also evaluated by the information index I and the relative information index Ir, of chromatographic fingerprint.
The effect of medicinal plants used in Chinese folk medicine on RANTES secretion by virus-infected human epithelial cells.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Sep 19;107(2):205-10. Epub 2006 Mar 17. Ko HC, Wei BL, Chiou WF.Division of Basic Chinese Medical Research, National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Shipai, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
The accumulation of inflammatory cells in the infective sites has been reported to play a crucial role in the progression of chronic inflammation and multiple sclerosis after viral infection. In the present study, nine ethanol extracts of Forsythia suspensa Vahl. (Oleaceae), Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Caprifoliaceae), Isatis indigotica Fort. (Cruciferae), Strobilanthes cusia (Ness.) O. Kuntze (Acanthaceae), Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (Leguminosae), Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz. (Leguminosae), Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Ness. (Acanthaceae), Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fischer. (Leguminosae) and Ligusticum wallichii Franch. (Umbelliferae), medicinal plants traditionally used in China for treating conditions likely to be associated with inflammation and viral infection, were screened for their effect on RANTES secretion by influenza A virus (H1N1)-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (A549). With exception of Lonicera japonica, Isatis indigotica, Astragalus membranaceus and Hedysarum polybotrys, all plants tested at concentration of 200 microg/ml possessed more than 50% suppressing effect on RANTES secretion by H1N1-infected A549 bronchial epithelial cells. Among the plants tested, Andrographis paniculata showed the most promising property to inhibit RANTES secretion with an IC(50) of 1.2 +/- 0.4 microg/ml while the next two were Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Forsythia suspensa (IC(50) ranging from 35 to 48 microg/ml).
Preparation of forsythiaside from Forsythia suspensa by high-performance liquid chromato- graphy:Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2005 Nov;25(11):1398-9, 1404. Chinese.Wu ZH, Tan XM, Luo JB, He F.Analytical Testing Central, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: To prepare forsythiaside from Forsythia suspensa by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). METHOD: A crude extract of Forsythia suspensa was prepared by water extraction and alcohol precipitation prior to polyamide column chromatography. Forsythiaside was prepared from the crude extract by RP-HPLC. RESULTS: Analysis with HPLC showed that the purity of the prepared forsythiaside reached 98%. CONCLUSION: HPLC is simple and effective for the preparation of forsythiaside from Forsythia suspensa.
Purification and characterisation of an antifreeze protein from Forsythia suspensa (L.).:Cryobiology. 2005 Oct;51(2):230-4.Simpson DJ, Smallwood M, Twigg S, Doucet CJ, Ross J, Bowles DJ.Cardiff School of Biosciences, Main Building, Cardiff University, Museum Avenue, Cardiff CF10 3TL, UK. email@example.com
Recrystallisation inhibition (RI) activity has been isolated from cold-acclimated Forsythia suspensa bark and leaves, which is stable when boiled, and not sensitive to reducing agents. The antifreeze activity has been purified to a single 20 kDa protein, using anion exchange, hydroxyapatite chromatography, and gel filtration. The protein is abundant in forsythia bark with 0.5microg pure protein obtained from 35 g bark. RI activity is seen with as little as 6 microg ml(-1) protein. Sequence homology was seen with dehydrins, and forsythia AFP contains the Y-segment, a conserved region found in many dehydrins.
Preparative isolation and purification of phillyrin from the medicinal plant Forsythia suspensa by high-speed counter-current chromatography.:J Chromatogr A. 2005 Aug 12;1083(1-2):102-5.Li HB, Chen F.Department of Botany, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.
Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. has been used widely in traditional medicines to treat gonorrhea, erysipelas, inflammation, pyrexia and ulcer. It has also shown antioxidant activity, as well as antibacterial, antiviral, choleretic and antiemetic effects. A high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for the preparative separation and purification of the bioactive molecule phillyrin from F. suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. The crude phillyrin was obtained by extraction with 50% ethanol from the dried fruits of F. suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl. under sonication. Preparative HSCCC with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (1:9:1:9, v/v/v/v) was successfully performed, and the components purified and collected were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method yielded 5.6 mg phillyrin at 98.6% purity from 500 mg of the crude extract (1.2% phillyrin) with the recovery of 92% in a one-step separation.
Vasorelaxant effects of forsythiaside from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa.:
The vasorelaxant effects of forsythiaside (compound 1) from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa on isolated rat aortic rings were studied. Compound 1 showed a slow relaxation activity against norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractions of rat aorta with/without endothelium. This compound did not affect contractions induced by a high concentration of potassium (K(+) 60 mM), while it inhibited NE-induced vasocontraction in the presence of nicardipine. These results show that the inhibition by compound 1 of NE-induced vasocontraction is due to a decrease in calcium influx from the extracellular space caused by NE.
The content of lignan glycosides in Forsythia flowers and leaves.:Acta Pol Pharm. 2004 Jul-Aug;61(4):273-8.Tokar M, Klimek B.Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lód?, 1 Muszyńskiego Str., 90-151 Lód?, Poland.
Quantitative determination of lignan glucosides in flowers and leaves of three taxons of Forsythia Vahl was performed using the HPLC method. The main lignan compound in the flowers of F. suspensa appeared to be (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside, whereas in the leaves of this species phillyrin was the predominant lignan. The content of (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside in F. suspensa flowers amounted to 4.3-7% and that of phillyrin did not reach 1%. The inverse ratio of (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside to phillyrin occurred in the leaves of F. suspensa, which contained up to 4.3% of phillyrin and 1.6% and less (+)-pinoresinol beta-D-glucopyranoside. The flowers of F. viridissima and F. x intermedia were rich in arctiin: 5.5-10.2% and up to 11.5%, respectively. The leaves of these two species contained less arctiin: up to 4.3% in F. viridissima and up to 2.3% in F. x intermedia. The flowers showed the highest level of lignans at the phase of buds, it decreased during the blooming time.
A new compound from Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl with antiviral effect on RSV:J Herb Pharmacother. 2002;2(3):35-40.Zhang GG, Song SJ, Ren J, Xu SX.Departmetn of Natural Products Chemistry, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang 110016, P. R. China. firstname.lastname@example.org
A new compound, 2-(1,4-dihydroxy cyclohexanyl )-acetic acid isolated from the seeds of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl, has been assessed for potent antiviral effect on RSV for the first time in vitro by cell morphology methods. Its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence (IR, MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR). We have trivially named it Rengynic acid.
Studies on callus growth and phillyrin accumulation of Forsythia suspensa.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Apr;28(4):321-3. Chinese.Liu YQ, Tang XC, Cai DT.School of Life Science, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, Hubei, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of physical and chemical factors on callus growth and phillyrin contents of F. suspensa. METHOD: The cell growth index and phyllirin yield in different culture condition such as different plant hormones mixed, mediums, light and dark were compared. HPLC was used to examine phillyrin contents. RESULT AND CONCLUSION: Growth cycle of cells is twenty-eight days. During the course of callus growth, the processes of phillyrin biosynthesis were parallel with the cell growth. The optimum medium is MS. The optimum hormones concentrations are 1 mg.L-1 2,4-D, 0.5 mg.L-1 6-BA and 0.5 mg.L-1KT. The cell culture in light is more suitable than that in dark.
Fingerprint analyses of fructus Forsythiae:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 May;27(5):357-60. Chinese.Zhang WT, He A, Chen H.Zhejiang Institute of Drug Control, Hangzhou 310004, Zhejiang, China.
OBJECTIVE: To provide application basis of the Forsythia suspensa by studying the difference of HPLC-FP of F. suspensa fructification (medicinal materials). METHOD: Comparative work was done on F. suspensa produced in different areas, on different parts of Forsythia suspensa, and on the pseudo preducts with methods of HPLC-FP. RESULT: Different FP characteristics were shown respectively by different samples, which were from different producing areas, from different parts, and the pseudo products including the fructification of Syringa reticulata var. and F. viridissimac. CONCLUSION: The FP can be used to distinguish the F. suspensa coming from different producing areas and different sources.
Study on quality evaluation of Forsythia suspensa with grey pattern recognition.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2000 Sep;23(9):536-8. Chinese.Wu Z, Su W, He X.First Military Medical University, Guangzhou 510515.
In this paper, based on the grey relative relation grade, a new pattern recognition model for quality evaluation of traditional Chinese medicine was presented. As an example, the model was used to evaluate the quality of Forsythia suspensa, the results are satisfactory.
Investigation on antibacterial activity of Forsythia suspense Vahl in vitro with Mueller-Hinton agar.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2000 Dec;25(12):742-5. Chinese.Li ZX, Wang XH, Zhao JH, Yang JF, Wang X.Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang 050000, Hebei, China.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Forsythia suspensa in vitro with different media. METHOD: MIC determination of Forsythia suspensa against Staphylococci was performed by the agar dilution method. RESULT: MIC90 of decoction of Forsythia suspensa against Staphylococcus epidermidis in M-H agar was 1:640, but in nutrient agar 1:40, the antibacterial activity with M-H agar being 16 fold higher than nutrient agar. CONCLUSION: The M-H agar should be recommended to replace nutrient agar as medium in the antibacterial experiment of Traditional Chinese medicine, and it is better to use multipoint inoculating device in the sensitivity test.
Studies on chemical constituents of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb) Vahl:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1999 May;24(5):296, 319. Chinese.Chen Y, Xiang J, Xu M, Tao L, Gu W.Jiangsu Provincial Institute of Materia Medica, Nanjing 210009.
OBJECTIVE: To study the chemical constituents of Forsythia suspensa. METHOD: Basedon silicacolumn chromatography, of which six compounds were obtained from the alcohol extract of F. suspensa, three identified by physicochemical and spectroscopic analyses. RESULT: The three compounds were identified as stearic acid, palmitic acid and beta-sitosterol. CONCLUSION: The three compounds were separated from F. suspensa fruits for the first time.
Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts.:Life Sci. 2002 Jan 18;70(9):1023-33.Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Mordujovich de Buschiazzo P, Ríos JL.Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina. email@example.com
The antioxidant properties of twenty medical herbs used in the traditional Mediterranean and Chinese medicine were studied. Extracts from Forsythia suspensa, Helichrysum italicum, Scrophularia auriculata, Inula viscosa, Coptis chinensis, Poria cocos and Scutellaria baicalensis had previously shown anti-inflammatory activity in different experimental models. Using free radical-generating systems H. italicum. I. viscosa and F. suspensa protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in model membranes and also showed scavenging property on the superoxide radical. All extracts were assayed at a concentration of 100 microg/ml. Most of the extracts were weak scavengers of the hydroxyl radical and C. chinensis and P. cocos exhibited the highest scavenging activity. Although S. baicalensis inhibited the lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes and red blood cells, the extract showed inhibitory actions on aminopyrine N-demethylase and xanthine oxidase activities as well as an pro-oxidant effect observed in the Fe3+-EDTA-H2O2 system. The results of the present work suggest that the anti-inflammatory activities of the same extracts could be explained, at least in part, by their antioxidant properties.
Two new caffeyol glycosides from Forsythia suspensa:J Asian Nat Prod Res. 1999;1(4):327-35.Ming DS, Yu DQ, Yu SS.Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing.
Two new caffeoyl glycosides of phenethyl alcohol, suspensaside A (1) and suspensaside B (2), were isolated from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Also obtained in this investigation were two known compounds forsythiaside (3) and suspensaside (4). The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by ID and 2D NMR techniques and chemical methods.
Dammarane derivatives from the dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa.:Phytochemistry. 2001 Apr;56(8):815-8.Rouf AS, Ozaki Y, Rashid MA, Rui J.Department of Pharmacy, University of Dhaka, Bangladesh. firstname.lastname@example.org
Anti-inflammatory activity guided fractionation of the n-hexane soluble fraction of a 70% aqueous methanolic extract of the dried fruits of Forsythia suspensa afforded two new triterpenes. The structures of these compounds were elucidated as 3beta-acetyl-20,25-epoxydammarane-24alpha-ol (1) and 3beta-acetyl-20,25-epoxydammarane-24beta-ol (2) on the basis of spectral data interpretation as well as by comparison with those of structurally similar compounds.
A new furofuran mono-lactone from Forsythia suspensa.:J Asian Nat Prod Res. 1999;1(3):221-6.Ming DS, Yu DQ, Yu SS, Liu J, He CH.Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing.
A new furofuran mono-lactone, named forsythenin, was isolated from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa, together with the known compounds, ocotillone, ocotillol monoacetate, (6'-O-palmitoyl)-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside and palmitic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic means and X-ray crystallography.
Antiinflammatory effect of Forsythia suspensa V(AHL) and its active principle.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2000 Mar;23(3):365-7.
This study was carried out to elucidate the antiinflammatory active principles obtained from 70% methanol extract of the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa V(AHL) (F. suspensa). The methanol extract was then partitioned between n-hexane and water, and then the n-hexane fraction was evaporated to dryness under vacuum. The n-hexane fraction was chromatographed (Frs. I--V), Fr. IV was rechromatographed (Frs. VI--VIII), and then Fr. VII was rechromatographed (Frs. IX--XI) by silica gel column chromatography. The antiinflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in rats. The n-hexane fraction showed an antiinflammatory effect and these activities shifted successively to Fr. IV, Fr. VII and Fr. X. The chemical structure of the active principle obtained from Fr. X was identified as 3beta-acetoxy-20,25-epoxydammarane-24-ol. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory and an analgesic effect of 70% methanol extract of F. suspensa may be the result of the compound that it contains.
Inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by tetrahydrofurofuran lignans from Forsythia suspensa and Magnolia coco.:Planta Med. 1999 Dec;65(8):709-11.Chen CC, Chen HY, Shiao MS, Lin YL, Kuo YH, Ou JC.National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan,China. email@example.com
Based on the inhibition of Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation as marker, the major antioxidants in the fruits of Forsythia suspensa and the stems of Magnolia coco were identified. Of these bioactive tetrahydrofurofuran lignans, pinoresinol, phillygenin, and syringaresinol were more potent than probucol. Sesamin and fargesin, which do not contain phenol groups, were found much less active.
New Quinoid Glycosides from Forsythia suspensa:J Nat Prod. 1998 Mar 27;61(3):377-9.Ming DS, Yu DQ, Yu SS.Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, People's Republic of China.
Three novel compounds, suspenolic acid (1), forsythenside A (2), and forsythenside B (3), have been isolated from the fruits of Forsythia suspensa. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical reactions.
Antiinflammatory effect of Forsythia suspensa Vahl and its active fraction.:Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Aug;20(8):861-4.
This study was carried out to elucidate the antiinflammatory effect of 70% methanol extract obtained from the dried fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl and its active principles. F. suspensa was extracted with 70% methanol and freeze-dried to give a powdered extract. The methanol extract was then dissolved in water and extracted with n-hexane, and the n-hexane fraction was evaporated to dryness under vacuum; the water fraction was freeze-dried to give a powdered extract. The antiinflammatory activity of the extract and fractions was investigated on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and writhing symptoms in mice, as well as on carrageenin-induced edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. The methanol extract and the n-hexane fraction (p.o.) showed the antiinflammatory effect and analgesic effect, but the water fraction did not. These results suggested that the antiinflammatory and analgesic activity induced by the methanol extract shifted to the n-hexane fraction and the active principles may be lipophilic compounds.
HPLC analysis of the active ingredients of Forsythia suspensa.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992;27(8):603-8. Chinese.Cui YY, Feng SY, Zhao G, Wang MZ.Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing.
Forsythia suspensa is a widely used traditional Chinese herb. Because of the need to evaluate its quality, a HPLC method was developed to analyze the active ingredients in its fruits and leaves. One g of powdered plant material was cold macerated over-night with 10 ml of methanol added then supersonic extracted for 20 min. Four ml of the extract were mixed with 1 ml of water, centrifuged (400 x g, 15 min), and then analyzed by HPLC with a Nucleosil C--18 column. The mobile phase for gradient elusion consisted of MeOH(containing 1% tetrahydrofuran) and H2O (containing 0.01 mol/L KH2PO4,pH 3.2) and monitored by UV absorption at 280 nm. The identity and purity of the peaks were checked by photodiode array detector and in comparison with standards. By this procedure, the active constituents caffeic acid, rutin, forsythoside A, forsythin, and forsythigenin were separated successfully, and the quantity of each compound was determined by peak area. Some fruit samples obtained from various sources and the leaf sample made as tea were analyzed by this method.
- 1.What is Forsythia Fruit?
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