What is Myrrh Gum,Middle Eastern Meetiga or Arabian Myrrh,how to use this resin?
- Myrrh (mo yao,Mo Yao ) Myrrha.
- Botanical Description and Legend of Commiphora Myrrha.
- Commiphora Myrrha Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- Indications and Applications:Commiphora Myrrha.
- Commiphora Myrrha Common Action and Uses.
- Combinations and Suggestions:Commiphora Myrrha.
- Commiphora Myrrha Other Species.
- Research Update:Myrrh,Commiphora Myrrha.
Botanical Description and Legend of Commiphora Myrrha.:
Propagation methods:Propagation is by seed.
Tree Management:The stem is cut, gum-resin gathered and then carbonized.
Myrrh is a red-brown resinous material, the dried sap of the Commiphora myrrha tree, indigenous to Somalia. A number of other Commiphora or Balsamodendron saps are also known as myrrh, including that from Commiphora erythraea (sometimes called East Indian myrrh), Commiphora opobalsamum, and Balsamodendron kua. Myrrh is a constituent of perfumes and incense, and was highly prized in ancient times. Its name is derived from the Hebrew murr or maror, meaning "bitter."
The bushes yielding the resin do not grow more than 9 feet in height, but they are of sturdy build, with knotted branches, and branchlets that stand out at right-angles, ending in a sharp spine. The trifoliate leaves are scanty, small and very unequal, oval and entire. It was first recognized about 1822 at Ghizan on the Red Sea coast, a district so bare and dry that it is called 'Tehama,' meaning 'hell.'
Botanically, there is still uncertainty about the origin and identity of the various species. Commiphora myrrha is a sturdy, spiny, glabrous shrub or small tree, usually with a distinct short trunk up to 4 m tall. Outer bark silvery, whitish or bluish grey, peeling in large or small papery flakes from the greener under-bark; exudate hardly scented, viscid, producing a hard translucent yellowish gum-resin. All branches are spine tipped and knotted. Leaves trifoliate, chartaceous, greyish green or glaucous, very variable in shape and size; petiole 1-10 mm long; a few lateral leaflets, sometimes very minute may be found on both short and long and short shoot leaves, the leaves may be elliptic, spathulate or lanceolate, attenuate, cuneate, rounded or truncate at the base, rounded or acute apically, 6-44 mm long, 3-20 mm wide, with 3-4 rather weak main veins, margin entire or 6-toothed on each side. Male flowers usually precocious, 2-4 in dichasial cymes 3-4 mm long which are often sparsely glandular; bracteoles pale brown. 0.5-0.7 mm long and wide, often lightly attached at the base and forming a fragile detachable collar; receptacle beaker-shaped, petals oblong, tapering pointed and recurved at the tip, 4.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide; filaments 1.4 and 1.2, anthers 1.2 and 1.0 mm long. Fruits 1-2 on jointed stalks, ovoid, flattened and beaked 2-4 mm long. Seed smooth with gentle swellings. C. myrrha is a very variable species, both in its leaves and in its pseudaril. The different forms seem to merge so impercetibly that the recognition of infraspecific taxa is often difficult. Forms in which the lateral leaflets are half as large as the terminal leaflet seem to occur only in the northern part of the area of the species and have not been seen in Kenya. The generic epithet is derived from Greek ommis?and hora?meaning gum bearer.
There are ducts in the bark, and the tissue between them breaks down, forming large cavities, which, with the remaining ducts, becomes filled with a granular secretion which is freely discharged when the bark is wounded, or from natural fissures. It flows as a pale yellow liquid, but hardens to a reddish-brown mass, being found in commerce in tears of many sizes, the average being that of a walnut. The surface is rough and powdered, and the pieces are brittle, with a granular fracture, semi-transparent, oily, and often show whitish marks. The odour and taste are aromatic, the latter also acrid and bitter. It is inflammable, but burns feebly.
Several species are recognized in commerce. It is usually imported in chests weighing 1 or 2 cwts., and wherever produced comes chiefly from the East Indies. Adulterations are not easily detected in the powder, so that it is better purchased in mass, when small stones, senegal gum, chestnuts, pieces of bdellium, or of a brownish resin called 'false myrrh,' may be sorted out with little difficulty.
It has been used from remote ages as an ingredient in incense, perfumes, etc., in the holy oil of the Jews and the Kyphi of the Egyptians for embalming and fumigations.
Little appears to be definitely known about the collection of myrrh. It seems probable that the best drug comes from Somaliland, is bought at the fairs of Berbera by the Banians of India, shipped to Bombay, and there sorted, the best coming to Europe and the worst being sent to China. The true myrrh is known in the markets as karam, formerly called Turkey myrrh, and the opaque bdellium as meena harma.
The gum makes a good mucilage and the insoluble residue from the tincture can be used in this way.
Commiphora is a shrub or small tree indigenous to desert areas of North Africa and the Red Sea shores of Saudi Arabia. It grows up to 3m in height and has tough, knotted branches and spine-tipped twigs sparsely covered with small, trifoliate, irregular leaves. The oleo-gum resin exudes from fissures or incisions in the bark and is collected as irregular masses.
Myrrh preparations are made from the gummy stem resin of this Middle Eastern plant. Traditionally, this herb has been used as a topical skin soother. It's also used as a dietary supplement for improved throat and bronchial health, and supports the natural defense system. Applied topically or as a mouthwash, Myrrh is popular for gum irritations.
Myrrh Gum is also known by the names Mu Yao, Bola, Myrrh Tree, and Balasmodendron Myrrha. Myrrh is a large shrub (or small tree) indigenous to Northeast Africa, and collected in Southern Arabia and Iran. The part of this plant used medicinally is the resin. Myrrh is referred to in the Bible. Myrrh was used as a wine preservative in the ancient world. It was used by Egyptians in embalming mixtures. It was also used as an aromatic for perfumes, funerals, and insect repellents. Ancient Greek and Roman physicians used the herb to treat wounds, and prescribed it internally as a digestive aid and menstruation promoter. It was also used as a remedy for numerous infections, including leprosy and syphilis. Myrrh was an important trade item in ancient times. It is used today as an aid to repel tooth decay and gum disease. The word Myrrh is derived from a Hebrew and Arabic word "mur", meaning "bitter".
The genus name Commiphora is from the Greek "kommi", meaning "gum", and "phoros", meaning "carrier".
Volume of Trade from Ethiopian:
According to information obtained from the Ethiopian Natural Gums Processing and Marketing Enterprise (NGPME), in the period 1996-2000 on the average 540 tons of frankincense and 70 tons of myrrh per year were exported from Ethiopia by the Enterprise. This resulted in an average annual earning of US$ 675,000 and $ 237,000 from frankincense and myrrh, respectively. These figures do not represent the total export value from Ethiopia as private companies are also engaged in the business. In general, the supply of these products far exceed the demand, indicating the high potential of these products for the economic development of Ethiopia.
It is a thorny tree which has hairless toothed leaves with a large terminal leaflet and two tiny lateral leaflets. Male flowers are about 5 mm long and come out just before the rains; fruits are about 1.2 cm long including the pronounced beak. The bark has a silvery sheen and peels in small pieces; myrrh resin oozes from natural cracks. The pale brown resin is strongly aromatic.
Myrrh is an element of perfumes and incense, was highly prized in early times, and was often worth more than its weight in gold. Myrrh was priced at 5 times as much as frankincense; High quality myrrh can be recognized through the darkness and clarity of the resin. However, the best method of judging the resin's quality is by feeling the stickiness of freshly broken fragments to directly decide the fragrant-oil content of the myrrh resin. The scent of raw myrrh resin and its essential oil is sharp, pleasant, and somewhat bitter and can be roughly described as being stereotypically resinous. Darker the myrrh is more last its fragrance. As myrrh have long lasting fragrance and in modern time that is now a days it is use in toilets, toothpastes.
- 1.What is Myrrh Gum,Middle Eastern Meetiga or Arabian Myrrh,how to use this resin?
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