What is Myrrh Gum,Middle Eastern Meetiga or Arabian Myrrh,how to use this resin?
- Myrrh (mo yao,Mo Yao ) Myrrha.
- Botanical Description and Legend of Commiphora Myrrha.
- Commiphora Myrrha Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- Indications and Applications:Commiphora Myrrha.
- Commiphora Myrrha Common Action and Uses.
- Combinations and Suggestions:Commiphora Myrrha.
- Commiphora Myrrha Other Species.
- Research Update:Myrrh,Commiphora Myrrha.
Commiphora Myrrha Phytochemicals and Constituents.:
Constituents: up to 17% volatile oil (including m-cresol, eugenol, formic acid, acetic acid and heerabolone); up to 40% resin (including commiphoric acids); up to 60% gums and bitter principle.the primary chemical constituents of Myrrh include the gum, resin and essential oil (limonene, eugenol, furanosesquiterpenes, pinene).
Volatile oil, resin (myrrhin), gum, ash, salts, sulphates, benzoates, malates, and acetates of potassa.
It is partially soluble in water, alcohol, and ether. It may be tested by a characteristic violet reaction if nitric acid diluted with an equal volume of water is brought into contact with the residue resulting from the boiling of 0.1 gramme of coarsely powdered myrrh with 2 c.c. of 90 per cent alcohol, evaporated in a porcelain dish so as to leave a thin film.
The oil is thick, pale yellow, and contains myrrholic acid and heerabolene, a sesquiterpenene.
Since the dawn of civilization, the southernmost countries on the Arabian peninsula, today Yemen and Oman, have exported myrrh (and olibanum) for incense ceremonies in the temples and principalities of the Orient. Myrrh is the dried gum-resin from a number of closely related, small, thorny trees of the genus Commiphora, probably originating in the highlands of Yemen (Wadi Hadramaut). Myrrh contains around 8 % essential oil with a refined, sweet-woody odour, especially noticeable when the gum-resin is heated in an incense burner. From this originates the Latin name 'perfumare' and the French 'parfum', meaning 'heavily smoking' or 'through the smoke'. Myrrh has antibacterial properties, it is affordable as a tincture in most pharmacies, and it was used for embalming in ancient Egypt.
The odour impact compounds in myrrh are a number of furanosesquiterpenoids, lindestrene being representative. The three shown compounds amount to 19 % of the essential oil.
Myrrh oil, obtained by steam distillation of the gum-resin, is used for 'Oriental' nuances in luxury perfumes, e.g. Burberrys for Men
Chemical constituents including known chemo-types:
While the Indian plant Commiphora wightii Engl. (Burseraceae) is the source of gum guggul, a resin widely used in Ayurvedic and other systems of Indian medicine, in Africa the most well known species is C. myrrha (Nees) Engl. which yields the medicinal and aromatic resin known as myrrh. Over fifty other Commiphora species are known to occur in Africa, with the largest concentration of species being found in N.E. Africa, in particular in Ethiopia, Somalia and Kenya. C. guidotti Chiov., is the source of opopanax, the commercially important resin also known as sweet myrrh, Bissabol or Habak Hadi.
Strictly speaking good quality myrrh resin, with the typical aroma and characteristic chemical composition, is derived only from C. myrrha. However, in commerce it is not uncommon to have resins of other Commiphora species present as adulterants in myrrh, thus leading to reports in the literature of a large number of compounds that are not present in true myrrh. This is because most previous chemical studies reported on myrrh were based on resins from commerce rather than on materials obtained from properly identified trees. This prompted us to undertake a study aimed at comparing the composition of true myrrh, derived from C. myrrha, with that of its common adulterants: C. sphaerocarpa Chiov., C. holtziana Engl., and C. kataf (Forssk.) Engl.
Although previously reported as constituents of myrrh, we have shown1 that the C-6 oxygenated furanosesquiterpenoids 1-4 originate from adulterant resins such as C. sphaerocarpa, C. holtziana, C. kataf etc. The six principal characteristic compounds of myrrh1,2 have been identified by our group to be furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (5), lindestrene (6), furanodiene (7), 2-methoxyfuranodiene (8), and 2-acetoxyfuranodiene (9) and isofuranogermacrene (synonym: curzerene) (10). Dolara et al. showed that the significant analgesic properties of myrrh are due to compounds 5 and 10 [REFERENCE].
The gas chromatographic analysis of the essential oil of myrrh reveals the presence of several sesquiterpenes including the above compounds 5-10.
Gas chromatographic analysis of the essential oil of myrrh
General: Commiphora species are found in abundance in the Horn of Africa. There are nearly 50 species in Ethiopia. These plants are sources of economically important resins such as myrrh from Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl. and opopanax from Commiphora guidottii, which are used as incense and for embalming the dead since ancient times. The extracts and essential oils of myrrh and opopanax are employed in formulations of perfumes, mouthwashes and tooth pastes (Brieskorn and Noble, 1980 and 1983).
Constituents: Furanoeudesma-1,3-diene, furanodiene, isofuranogermacrene and lindestrene are the major constituents of the essential oil of Commiphora myrrha(Baser, et al. In press).
Present Work: The analysis in this oil coincides with the above sited paper.
Plant Source: Gode, Ethiopia Serial Number: HP GC, 0573
Components Identified: 1) beta-pinene (0.4%); 2) gamma-Elemene (3.7%); 3) beta-Bourbonene (2.0%); 4) beta-Elemene (10.5%); 5) Germacrene D (2.6%); 6) furanodiene (8.8%); 7) isofuranogermacrene (6.1%); 8) germacrene B (6.6%); 9) furanoeudesma-1,4-diene (3.0%); 10) furanoeudesma-1,3-diene (41.0%); 11)lindestrene (10.7%) 12: 2-methoxy furanodiene (1.5%)
GC Chromatogram: as above
Structure of Major Compounds:as left
Other Data: Yield: 2% (w/w).
- 1.What is Myrrh Gum,Middle Eastern Meetiga or Arabian Myrrh,how to use this resin?
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