Slippery Elm - the funny sounding herb with serious significance.
- Basic Botanical Data of Slippery Elm.
- What Is It? Basic Botanical Data of Slippery Elm Bark.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- Property Uses,Nutrients and Indications.
- Discovery of Slippery Elm.
- Overview and Value of Slippery Elm.
- What Is Slippery Elm Used for Today?Information About This Extract.
- Common Traditional Usage List of slippery Elm.
- Historical Uses and Legend.
- Classical Slippery elm Remedy.
- Health Benefits of Slippery elm Bark.
- Supplemental Uses of Slippery Elm.
- Preparations and Suggestions.
- Modern Research:Slippery Elm (Ulmus fulva) soothing herbal bark.
- Research Updated:Slippery Elm or Ulmus fulva.
Research Updated:Slippery Elm or Ulmus fulva.:
Trial of Essiac to ascertain its effect in women with breast cancer (TEA-BC).:J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Dec;12(10):971-80.Zick SM, Sen A, Feng Y, Green J, Olatunde S, Boon H.Integrative Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104-1555, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and medical expenditures among women in Canada. Essiac (Resperin Canada Limited, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), a blend of at least four herbs (burdock root [Arctium lappa], Indian rhubarb [Rheum palmatum], sheep sorrel [Rumex acetosella], and the inner bark of slippery elm [Ulmus fulva or U. rubra]), has become one of the more popular herbal remedies for breast-cancer treatment, secondary prevention, improving quality of life, and controlling negative side-effects of conventional breast-cancer treatment. OBJECTIVES: Our primary objective was to determine the difference in health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Breast Cancer Version, between women who are new Essiac users (since breast cancer diagnosis) and those who have never used Essiac. Secondary endpoints included differences in depression, anxiety, fatigue, rate of adverse events, and prevalence of complications or benefits associated with Essiac during standard breast-cancer treatment. Additionally, we described the pattern of use of Essiac in this cohort of women. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study in 510 women, randomly chosen from the Ontario Cancer Tumour Registry, with a diagnosis of primary breast cancer in 2003. RESULTS: With the exception changes in a Physical well-being subscale and a relationship with doctor subscale, Essiac did not have a significant effect on HR-QOL or mood states. Even for Physical well-being and relationship with doctor, Essiac seemed to have a negative effect, with Essiac users doing worse than the non-Essiac users. This might be attributed to the fact that the group of users comprised younger women with more advanced stages of breast cancer, and both of these subgroups of patients have been shown to be at a significantly increased risk for negative mood states and/or a decreased sense of well-being. The women were taking low doses (total daily dose 43.6 +/- 30.8 mL) of Essiac that corresponded to the label directions found on most Essiac products. Friends were the most common source of information, and most women were taking Essiac to boost their immune systems or increase their chances of survival. Only 2 women reported minor adverse events, whereas numerous women reported beneficial effects of Essiac. CONCLUSIONS: Essiac does not appear to improve HR-QOL or mood states. Future studies are needed to determine whether other clinical outcomes, such as cancer reoccurrence, are affected by Essiac.
Medical nutrition therapy as a potential complementary treatment for psoriasis--five case reports.:Altern Med Rev. 2004 Sep;9(3):297-307.Brown AC, Hairfield M, Richards DG, McMillin DL, Mein EA, Nelson CD.Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences,University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East West Road, Rm 216, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA. email@example.com
This research evaluated five case studies of patients with psoriasis following a dietary regimen. There is no cure for psoriasis and the multiple treatments currently available only attempt to reduce the severity of symptoms. Treatments range from topical applications, systemic therapies, and phototherapy; while some are effective, many are associated with significant adverse effects. There is a need for effective, affordable therapies with fewer side effects that address the causes of the disorder. Evaluation consisted of a study group of five patients diagnosed with chronic plaque psoriasis (two men and three women, average age 52 years; range 40-68 years) attending a 10-day, live-in program during which a physician assessed psoriasis symptoms and bowel permeability. Subjects were then instructed on continuing the therapy protocol at home for six months. The dietary protocol, based on Edgar Cayce readings, included a diet of fresh fruits and vegetables, small amounts of protein from fish and fowl, fiber supplements, olive oil, and avoidance of red meat, processed foods, and refined carbohydrates. Saffron tea and slippery elm bark water were consumed daily. The five psoriasis cases, ranging from mild to severe at the study onset, improved on all measured outcomes over a six-month period when measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) (average pre- and post-test scores were 18.2 and 8.7, respectively), the Psoriasis Severity Scale (PSS) (average pre- and post-test scores were 14.6 and 5.4, respectively), and the lactulose/mannitol test of intestinal permeability (average pre- and post-test scores were 0.066 to 0.026, respectively). These results suggest a dietary regimen based on Edgar Cayce's readings may be an effective medical nutrition therapy for the complementary treatment of psoriasis; however, further research is warranted to confirm these results.
Peroxynitrite scavenging activity of herb extracts.:Phytother Res. 2002 Jun;16(4):364-7.
Peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) is a cytotoxicant with strong oxidizing properties toward various cellular constituents, including sulphydryls, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides and can cause cell death, lipid peroxidation, carcinogenesis and aging. The aim of this study was to characterize ONOO(-) scavenging constituents from herbs. Twenty-eight herbs were screened for their ONOO(-) scavenging activities with the use of a fluorometric method. The potency of scavenging activity following the addition of authentic ONOO(-) was in the following order: witch hazel bark > rosemary > jasmine tea > sage > slippery elm > black walnut leaf > Queen Anne's lace > Linden flower. The extracts exhibited dose-dependent ONOO(-) scavenging activities. We found that witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana L.) bark showed the strongest effect for scavenging ONOO(-) of the 28 herbs. Hamamelitannin, the major active component of witch hazel bark, was shown to have a strong ability to scavenge ONOO(-). It is suggested that hamamelitannin might be developed as an effective peroxynitrite scavenger for the prevention of ONOO(-) involved diseases.
Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study.:Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2002 Feb;16(2):197-205.Langmead L, Dawson C, Hawkins C, Banna N, Loo S, Rampton DS.Academic Department of Adult and Paediatric Gastroenterology, Barts and the London, Queen Mary's, School of Medicine and Dentistry, London, UK.
BACKGROUND: Herbal remedies used by patients for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease include slippery elm, fenugreek, devil's claw, Mexican yam, tormentil and wei tong ning, a traditional Chinese medicine. Reactive oxygen metabolites produced by inflamed colonic mucosa may be pathogenic. Aminosalicylates (5-ASA) are antioxidant and other such agents could be therapeutic. AIMS: To assess the antioxidant effects of herbal remedies in cell-free oxidant-generating systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. METHODS: Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase cell-free system was used to detect superoxide scavenging by herbs and 5-ASA, and fluorimetry to define peroxyl radical scavenging using a phycoerythrin degradation assay. Chemiluminescence was used to detect herbal effects on generation of oxygen radicals by mucosal biopsies from patients with active ulcerative colitis. RESULTS: Like 5-ASA, all herbs, except fenugreek, scavenged superoxide dose-dependently. All materials tested scavenged peroxyl dose-dependently. Oxygen radical release from biopsies was reduced after incubation in all herbs except Mexican yam, and by 5-ASA. CONCLUSIONS: All six herbal remedies have antioxidant effects. Fenugreek is not a superoxide scavenger, while Mexican yam did not inhibit radical generation by inflamed biopsies. Slippery elm, fenugreek, devil's claw, tormentil and wei tong ning merit formal evaluation as novel therapies in inflammatory bowel disease.
Hybrid protocols plus natural treatments for inflammatory conditions.:Posit Health News. 1998 Fall;(No 17):16-8.
AIDS: Hybrid protocols combine one, two, or three pharmaceutical drugs with several nutritional or immune-based therapies. These protocols are not limited solely to FDA-approved drugs or strictly to alternative therapies. The rationale for using a hybrid protocol is to find an effective antiviral regimen that also restores immune function. The goal is to obtain the benefits of protease inhibitors without viral resistance and side effects which include problems with fat metabolism and cholesterol levels. Natural treatments for inflammatory conditions are also described. Options include licorice root, ginger root, and slippery elm.
Essiac for cancer?.:TreatmentUpdate. 1998 Jul;10(5):4-5. English, French.
AIDS: An analysis of a mixture of herbs in Essiac, an alternative-medicine anti-cancer therapy, has shown it contains a variety of compounds which have antioxidant activity as well as the ability to block cell growth. The Essiac mixture contains burdock root, Indian rhubarb, sheep sorrel, inner bark of slippery elm, watercress, blessed thistle, red clover, and kelp. A review of patients taking Essiac shows that there was no obvious toxicity. Clinical trials are recommended to determine Essiac's efficacy.
Apiose and mono-O-methyl sugars as minor constituents of the leaves of deciduous trees and various other species.:Biochem J. 1971 Sep;124(3):555-62. Bacon JS, Cheshire MV.
1. Leaves of a number of species were hydrolysed with aqueous sulphuric acid and the resulting mixtures of sugars were fractionated by chromatography on activated charcoal. Paper chromatography of the fractions showed the presence in all the hydrolysates of minor constituents with R(F) values similar to or greater than those of the common hexoses and pentoses. 2. Two of these were identified as 2-O-methylxylose and 2-O-methylfucose. Estimates of the amounts present in whole leaves, and in fractions prepared from them, showed that they were associated with the hemicelluloses. 3. A third constituent was identified, by the formation of its di-isopropylidene derivative, as apiose. It also was associated chiefly with the hemicellulose fraction; none could be found in aqueous extracts from leaves of Tilia vulgaris, nor in aqueous extracts of Zostera marina, in which apiose is a major constituent of the water-insoluble polysaccharide. 4. A further constituent, after further purification by preparative paper chromatography, was tentatively identified, by gas-liquid chromatography of derivatives, as 3-O-methylgalactose, and was probably accompanied by small amounts of 4-O-methylgalactose. 5. These observations confirm the widespread occurrence of 2-O-methylxylose, 2-O-methylfucose and apiose, but 3-O-methylgalactose was hitherto known only in slippery-elm mucilage, and 4-O-methylgalactose in soil polysaccharides. Some experiments on the digestion of leaf hemicellulose fractions by snail crop-juice suggested that the mono-O-methyl sugars might confer resistance to enzymic degradation.
- 1.Slippery Elm - the funny sounding herb with serious significance.
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