Lotus Seed,Semen Nelumbus and traditional remedy!

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Research Update:Lotus Seed or Semen Nelumbinis.:

Lotus Seed Nelumbo Nucifera  Semen Nelumbus  Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn lian zi   Metabolic profiling of flavonoids in Lotus japonicus using liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.:Phytochemistry. 2007 Jul 31;

 Flavonoids detected from a model legume plant, Lotus japonicus accessions Miyakojima MG-20 and Gifu B-129, were profiled using liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (LC-FTICR/MS). Five flavonols and two anthocyanidins were detected as aglycones. LC-FTICR/MS facilitated simultaneous detection of 61 flavonoids including compounds that have not been reported previously. Chemical information of the peaks such as retention time, lambda(max), m/z value of the quasi-molecular ion, m/z value of MS/MS fragment ions, and relative intensity of MS/MS fragments was obtained, along with the molecular formulas and conjugate structures. Fourteen were completely identified by comparison with authentic compounds. The high accuracy of m/z values, being 0.081ppm between observed and theoretical values, allowed prediction of molecular formulas of unknown compounds with the help of isotope peak information for determination of chemical composition. Based on a predicted elemental composition, the presence of a novel nitrogen-containing flavonoid was proposed. A comparison of flavonoid profiles in flowers, stems, and leaves demonstrated that the flowers yielded the most complex profile, containing 30 flower-specific flavonoids including gossypetin glycosides and isorhamnetin glycosides. A comparison of flavonoid profiles between MG-20 and B-129 grown under the same conditions revealed that the accumulation of anthocyanins was higher in B-129 than MG-20, particularly in the stem. Developmental changes in the flavonoid profiles demonstrated that kaempferol glycosides increased promptly after germination. In contrast, quercetin glycosides, predominant flavonoids in the seeds, were not detectable in growing leaves.

  NUCLEOPORIN85 is required for calcium spiking, fungal and bacterial symbioses, and seed production in Lotus japonicus.:Plant Cell. 2007 Feb;19(2):610-24. Epub 2007 Feb 16.

 In Lotus japonicus, seven genetic loci have been identified thus far as components of a common symbiosis (Sym) pathway shared by rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We characterized the nup85 mutants (nup85-1, -2, and -3) required for both symbioses and cloned the corresponding gene. When inoculated with Glomus intraradices, the hyphae managed to enter between epidermal cells, but they were unable to penetrate the cortical cell layer. The nup85-2 mutation conferred a weak and temperature-sensitive symbiotic phenotype, which resulted in low arbuscule formation at 22 degrees C but allowed significantly higher arbuscule formation in plant cortical cells at 18 degrees C. On the other hand, the nup85 mutants either did not form nodules or formed few nodules. When treated with Nod factor of Mesorhizobium loti, nup85 roots showed a high degree of root hair branching but failed to induce calcium spiking. In seedlings grown under uninoculated conditions supplied with nitrate, nup85 did not arrest plant growth but significantly reduced seed production. NUP85 encodes a putative nucleoporin with extensive similarity to vertebrate NUP85. Together with symbiotic nucleoporin NUP133, L. japonicus NUP85 might be part of a specific nuclear pore subcomplex that is crucial for fungal and rhizobial colonization and seed production.
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  Effects of Nelumbinis Semen on contractile dysfunction in ischemic and reperfused rat heart.:Arch Pharm Res. 2006 Sep;29(9):777-85.

 Nelumbinis Semen (NS), or lotus seed, is one of the most well-known traditional herbal medicines and is frequently used to treat cardiovascular symptoms in Korea. The anti-ischemic effects of NS on ischemia-induced isolated rat heart were investigated through analyses of changes in blood pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output. The subjects in this study were divided into two groups: a control, untreated ischemia-induced group, and an ischemia-induced group treated with NS. There were no significant differences in perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow and cardiac output between the groups before ischemia was induced. The supply of oxygen and buffer was stopped for ten minutes to induce ischemia in isolated rat hearts, and NS was administered during ischemia induction. NS treatment significantly prevented decreases in perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow and cardiac output under ischemic conditions (p < 0.01). In addition, the mechanism of the anti-ischemic effects of NS was also examined through quantitation of intracellular calcium content in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. NS significantly prevented intracellular calcium increases induced by isoproterenol (p < 0.01). These results suggest that NS has distinct anti-ischemic effects through calcium antagonism.

  Antioxidant activity of Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus) seeds.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 6;104(3):322-7. Epub 2005 Oct 18.

 Antioxidant activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Nelumbo nucifera seeds (HANN) was studied using in vitro and in vivo models. Total phenolic content in HANN was found to be 7.61 +/- 0.04% (w/w). Characteristic HPTLC fingerprints of HANN were also made using different solvent systems. The HANN exhibited strong free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by the low IC(50) values in both DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) (6.12 +/- 0.41 microg/ml) and nitric oxide (84.86 +/- 3.56 microg/ml) methods. The values were found to be less than those of rutin, the standard used. Acute toxicity of HANN was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice, no signs of toxicity were observed up to the oral dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. Administration of HANN to Wistar rats at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 4 days prior to carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) treatment caused a significant dose dependent increase (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase and a significant decrease (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) in the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), when compared to CCl(4) treated control in both liver and kidney. These changes observed at 100 mg/kg body weight treatment were comparable to those observed for standard Vitamin E at 50 mg/kg treatment. Nelumbo nucifera seeds contain alkaloids, saponins, phenolics and carbohydrates. The results support significant antioxidant nature of HANN.

  Isolation, characterization, and determination of antioxidative activity of oligomeric procyanidins from the seedpod of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2441-5.Ling ZQ, Xie BJ, Yang EL.Natural Product Laboratory, Department of Food Science and Technology, Hua Zhong Agriculture University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China. zhqling323@hotmail.com

 The procyanidins of nonedible parts of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) were determined for the first time. The procyanidins of lotus seedpod were extracted with Me(2)CO/H(2)O and purified by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, with a purity of >98%. ESI-MS analysis showed that the main molecular weight distribution of procyanidins ranged from 291 to 1155, with M + H peak values of 291.1, 579.2, 731.2, 867.2, 1019.4, and 1155.3, respectively. This indicates that the extract contains monomers, dimers, and tetramers of procyanidins, in which the amounts of dimers are greatest, and catechin and epicatechin are the base units. (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra confirmed that two to four monomers are linked through C(4)-C(8) (or C(6)) bonds. The effects of the procyanidins on lipid autoxidation, lipoxygenase activities, and free radical scavenging were also studied. The results showed that 0.1% procyanidins have a strong antioxidant activity in a soybean oil system, better than BHT at the same concentration; inhibited lipoxygenase activity by >90% at a concentration of 62.5 mug/mL, with an IC(50) value of 21.6 mug/mL; and had IC(50) inhibitory values rate to (*)OH of 10.5 mg/L and a scavenging effect on O(2)(*)(-) of 17.6 mg/L.

  Water-soluble galactomannan from the seeds of Lotus corniculatus L.: structure and properties.:Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2003 Sep-Oct;39(5):577-80. Russian.Egorov AV, Mestechkina NM, Plennik RIa, Shcherbukhin VD.Bach Institute of Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow, 117071 Russia.

 Galactomannan, a water-soluble heteropolysaccharide, was isolated from the seed of Far-Eastern population of ground honeysuckle Lotus corniculatus L. (yield, 1.65%). Analysis of this galactomannan showed that is consists of D-mannose and D-galactose residues (molar ratio, 1.22:1). Its aqueous solutions were characterized by specific rotation [alpha]D = +84.10 and characteristic viscosity [eta] = 559 ml/g. Analysis of this heteropolysaccharide using chemical and enzymatic procedures, as well as IR- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy, showed that its main chain comprises 1,4-beta-D-mannopyranose residues, 95.5% of which are substituted at C-6 with single residues of alpha-D-galactopyranose.
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