Botanical Description of Boswellia.
- Botanical Information and Identification of Frankincense.
- Botanical Description of Boswellia.
- Botanical Source and History of the Frankincense,Olibanum.
- Chemical Composition of Frankincense.
- Frankincense and Boswellia Family.
- Frankincense Medicinal Action and Uses.
- Administrations and Suggestions of Frankincense.
- General Recipes uses of Frankincense.
- The Botany and Ancient History of Frankincense.
- Research Update:Boswellia and Frankincense.
Botanical Description of Boswellia.
Obtained from the leafy forest tree Boswellia Thurifera, with leaves deciduous, alternate towards the tops of branches, unequally pinnated; leaflets in about ten pairs with an odd one opposite, oblong, obtuse, serrated, pubescent, sometimes alternate; petioles short. Flowers, white or pale rose on short pedicels in single axillary racemes shorter than the leaves. Calyx, small five-toothed, persistent; corolla with five obovate-oblong, very patent petals, acute at the base, inserted under the margin of the disk, acstivation slightly imbricative. Stamens, ten, inserted under the disk, alternately shorter; filaments subulate, persistent. Anthers, caducous, oblong. Torus a cup-shaped disk, fleshy, larger than calyx, crenulated margin. Ovary, oblong, sessile. Style, one caducous, the length of the stamens; stigma capitate, three-lobed. Fruit capsular, three-angled three-celled, three-valved, septicidal, valves hard. Seeds, solitary in each cell surrounded by a broad membranaceous wing. Cotyledons intricately folded multifid.
The trees on the Somali coast grow, without soil, out of polished marble rocks, to which they are attached by a thick oval mass of substances resembling a mixture of lime and mortar. The young trees furnish the most valuable gum, the older yielding merely a clear, glutinous fluid, resembling copal varnish.
To obtain the Frankincense, a deep, longitudinal incision is made in the trunk of the tree and below it a narrow strip of bark 5 inches in length is peeled off. When the milk-like juice which exudes has hardened by exposure to the air, the incision is deepened. In about three months the resin has attained the required degree of consistency, hardening into yellowish 'tears.' The large, clear globules are scraped off into baskets and the inferior quality that has run down the tree is collected separately. The season for gathering lasts from May till the middle of September, when the first shower of rain puts a close to the gathering for that year.
The coast of Southern Arabia is yearly visited by parties of Somalis, who pay the Arabs for the privilege of collecting Frankincense, and in the interior of the country, about the plain of Dhofar, during the southwest Monsoon, Frankincense and other gums are gathered by the Bedouins.
As with all essential oils, do not use undiluted. Do not take internally unless working with a qualified and expert practitioner. Keep away from children. Not for those with epilepsy or subject to seizures. Always conduct a skin patch test before using any oil on your skin.
Disclaimer: This information is for educational purposes only, it is not intended to treat, cure, prevent or, diagnose any disease or condition. Nor is it intended to prescribe in any way. This information is not complete, nor may its data be accurate.
A dry gum:resin obtained from Boswellia Carterii, Birdwood, with its varieties, and several other species of Boswellia.
Related Species of Boswellia.
General: The family Burseraceae with 17 genera is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical countries. Boswellia has about 20 species in the dry regions of tropical Africa, Arabia and India. The resin obtained from Boswellia species is known in common parlance as frankincense or olibanum and is used as incense. The recent botanical report on the Burseraceae of Ethiopia has revealed the occurrence in Ethiopia of six Boswellia species namely Boswellia papyrifera, B. pirottae, B. rivae, B. ogadensis, B. neglecta and B. microphylla (Vollesen, 1989). The resin of Boswellia papyrifera, commercially known as 'Tigray type olibanum', is the most popular incense of north Ethiopia and the Sudan. It is obtained by incision of the bark at frequent intervals.
Another gum-resin is obtained from an unidentified tree inhabiting the neighborhood of the Red Sea; it grows upon the bare rocks, without any other support than the very round, thick substance, of a nature between bark and wood, which is thrown out from the base of the trunk, and which adheres very firmly to the rocks. Kempthorne (1843) alludes to this species as being the tree furnishing olibanum. Boswellia serrata, Roxburgh (more), is the Boswellia thurifera, Colebrooke, a leafy forest tree of the Coromandel coasts and other parts of India. Though formerly thought to furnish olibanum, this tree is not the source of that drug, but yields a soft odorous resin which slowly hardens within a period of a year, and is used only by the natives as incense. Boswellia papyrifera, Richard (more), yields a transparent resin, probably destitute of gum, though thought to contain a volatile oil. It grows in western Abyssinia. Boswellia Frereana, Birdwood (more), the Yegaar of the Somalis, yields a fragrant resin of a lemon odor. It contains no gum, and is employed in the East as a masticatory.
Trade and Business.
Ethiopia and Sudan are the biggest exporters of B. papyrifera resin. According to information obtained from the Ethiopian Natural Gums Processing and Marketing Enterprise (NGPME), in the period 1996-2000 on the average 540 tons of frankincense and 70 tons of myrrh per year were exported from Ethiopia by the Enterprise. This resulted in an average annual earning of US$ 675,000 and $ 237,000 from frankincense and myrrh, respectively. These figures do not represent the total export value from Ethiopia as private companies are also engaged in the business. In general, the supply of these products far exceeds the demand, indicating the high potential of these products for the economic development of Ethiopia.
- 1.Frankincense,fraunk-encens,the Oleo-gum-resin and the magical sun luck carrier.Frankincense Olibanum Extract.
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