Frankincense and Boswellia Family.
- Botanical Information and Identification of Frankincense.
- Botanical Description of Boswellia.
- Botanical Source and History of the Frankincense,Olibanum.
- Chemical Composition of Frankincense.
- Frankincense and Boswellia Family.
- Frankincense Medicinal Action and Uses.
- Administrations and Suggestions of Frankincense.
- General Recipes uses of Frankincense.
- The Botany and Ancient History of Frankincense.
- Research Update:Boswellia and Frankincense.
Frankincense and Boswellia Family.
Frankincense is the first thing that comes to mind in the minds of most Westerners when you mention incense. There is still confusion about varieties and species of Frankincense.
The major fragrance use is for burning as incense in religious ceremonies. Small amounts of resin are distilled to yield volatile oils and these have their own characteristic, balsamic odors, which find use in perfumery. Solvent extracts are also prepared and both resinoids and absolutes are used as fixatives in perfumes.
The resins are sorted and graded according to size, color and state of cleanliness before being bagged for export. In Somalia, there are up to seven grades of maidi, (olibanum from Boswellia frereana) and three grades of beyo (olibanum from B. sacra). The larger, paler lumps used for chewing are more highly valued than the smaller and darker colored pieces and the powder and siftings.
THULIN and WARFA (1987), however, have concluded that B. carteri is simply a variable form of B. sacra and should not be afforded separate species status. B. frereana is a distinct and fairly uniform species, easily distinguished from B. sacra.
Boswellia careri(species), Burseraceae (family) also known as Olibanum, gum thus.:
A milky-white liquid oozes from incisions in the bark of this small tree (or shrub) and solidifies into tear-shaped amber to orange-brown lumps between a pea to walnut size.natural oleo gum resin. This tree with many pinnate leaves and white or pale pink flowers grows wild throughout north east Africa, being native to the Red Sea area. The gum is mainly produced in Somalia, Ethiopia, China and south Arabia.
Boswellia sacra Fluckiger (syn. B. carteri Birdw.): Saudi frankincense from Boswellia sacra
B. sacra is a small tree, occasionally up to 8 m tall, branching from the base. It occurs in South Yemen, Oman and northern Somalia. (Those who regard B. sacra and B. carteri as distinct species identify the former as growing in Arabia and the latter in Somalia.)
B. frereana Birdw.:
B. frereana grows to a similar height as B. sacra but is restricted to northern Somalia. ,African elemi, elemi frankincense from Boswellia frereana
Indian Frankincense:salai guggul, gugal
B. serrata Roxb. (Indian Frankincense),Indian frankincense, Indian olibanum from Boswellia serrata,B. serrata grows in the drier climates of Northern India. This is the Frankincense that is primarily used in making Asian varieties of incense. It is also the Frankincense used in Ayurvedic medicine.
B.bhau-dajiana:Frankincense from Boswellia bhau-dajiana
B.papyrifera:Sudanese frankincense from Boswellia papyrifera
Is frankincense the same as olibanum?
Whilst there are many similarities between frankincense and olibanum, they are usually differentiated by aroma, which in high-quality Hougari frankincense is lemony (verging on lime) as opposed to olibanum's distinct orange odour.
What we commonly know as frankincense is actually the resin exudate from trees of the genus boswellia in the burseraceae family. Most sources on the subject use the terms olibanum and frankincense interchangeably, but olibanum actually refers to a different species: biblical research indicates that the olibanum of the Old Testament is likely to be boswellia serrata, a close relative of frankincense (and which mainly derives from India).
The smell of b. serrata resins are distinct from the other boswellias: they have a distinct orange-citrus smell. Most frankincense resins have a lemon or sometimes lemon/lime aroma.
Also, 'olibanum', in Africa, often means incense, in a very generic sense.
- 1.Frankincense,fraunk-encens,the Oleo-gum-resin and the magical sun luck carrier.Frankincense Olibanum Extract.
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