Dragon's Blood,A resin derived from the fruit of Calamus Draco.
- Botanical Identification of Dragon's Blood.
- Description and Botanical Source.
- Dragon's blood Chemical Composition.
- Uses of Dragon's Blood.
- Dragon's blood History.
- Magickal Uses of Dragon's Blood.
- Religious Use of Dragon's Blood.
- Starwest's nitrogen-flushed double wall silverfoil pack.
- Suggestions and Administrations.
- Research Update:Calamus Draco or Dragon's blood.
Research Update:Calamus Draco or Dragon's blood.:
Effect of dragon's blood on TGF-beta/smads signal transduction molecule mRNA expression in the lung tissue of rats with pulmonary fibrosis.:Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2007 Sep;38(5):802-5. Chinese.Nie L, Zheng BX, Cheng DY, Yang LT, Mu M, Hu XB, Fang X.Department of Respiratory Diseases, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of Dragon's Blood on the expression of TGF-beta signal transduction molecule TGFbetaR II or Smad4 mRNA in the lung tissue of rats with pulmonary fibrosis, and to evaluate the effect and its mechanism of Dragon's Blood on pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: 30 SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: fibrosis model, treatment and normal control groups. In model group and treatment group, the pulmonary fibrous tissues were induced to form with the intratracheal injection of bleomycin (5 mg/kg). In normal control group, saline was given intratracheally. Dragon's Blood was administered intragastricly in treatment group with a dose of 180 mg/kg diluted in 2 mL saline while saline was given intragastricly to other two groups with same volume from day 2 till day 28 after modeling. All rats were sacrificed on the 29th day. The rat lung histopathology was examined with HE staining. In situ hybridization was used to detect the expressions of TGFbetaR II and Smad4 mRNAs in lung tissue, and the expression of collagen fibril I was examined by an immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS: The inflammation cell counting in treatment group (12913.78 +/- 5640.12) was significant lower than that in model group (22243.60 +/- 5011.55, P < 0.01). The expression of pulmonary TGF/betaR II mRNA in treatment group was significant lower than that in model group (P < 0.01). In the Smad4 mRNA expression of lung tissue, there was no significant difference occurring between treatment group and model group (P > 0.05). The expression of collagen fibril I in the lung tissue of rats in treatment group was significant lower than that in model group (P < 0. 01). CONCLUSION: Dragon's Blood can effectively reduce rats' pulmonary fibrosis, of which the mechanisms may be to inhibit the expression of TGFbetaR II mRNA in the lung tissue and thus to have the preventive effect on the excessive deposit of collagen fibril I.
Anti-Helicobacter pylori and Thrombin Inhibitory Components from Chinese Dragon's Blood, Dracaena cochinchinensis.:J Nat Prod. 2007 Oct;70(10):1570-7. Epub 2007 Sep 21.Zhu Y, Zhang P, Yu H, Li J, Wang MW, Zhao W.firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Chemical studies on the constituents of Dracaena cochinchinensis led to the discovery of eight new flavonoid derivatives ( 1- 8) along with 14 known compounds ( 9- 22). The identification and structural elucidation of these isolates were based on spectral analyses. All isolates were tested for antibacterial activities against Helicobacter pylori (ATCC43504) and thrombin inhibitory effects. As a result, new flavonoid derivatives 6 and 7 and (2 S)-4',7-dihydroxy-8-methylflavan ( 11) were found to be most efficacious against H. pylori (ATCC43504) with MIC values of 29.5, 29.5, and 31.3 microM, respectively, and the seven new flavonoid derivatives ( 1- 7) and one known biflavonoid ( 9) were observed to exhibit moderate thrombin inhibitory activity.
Dragon's blood from Croton urucurana (Baill.) attenuates visceral nociception in mice.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Sep 5;113(2):357-60. Epub 2007 Jun 28.Rao VS, Gurgel LA, Lima-Júnior RC, Martins DT, Cechinel-Filho V, Santos FA.Departmento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina,Universidade Federal do Ceará, Caixa Postal-3157, 60430-270 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. email@example.com
Dragon's blood, the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) has a profound history of traditional use in conditions such as inflammation, diarrhoea and gastrointestinal distress. Previous studies established its anti-inflammatory, antidiarrhoeal and analgesic properties and in this study we verified its potential to suppress visceral pain, using capsaicin- and cyclophosphamide-induced models of visceral nociception. Mice that received intra-colonic capsaicin (0.3%, 50 microl/animal) or intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (400 mg/kg) manifested spontaneous nociceptive behaviors or crises, which were significantly suppressed in animal groups treated with red sap (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) or that received N-acetylcysteine (750 mg/kg, i.p.) or morphine (7.5 mg/kg, s.c.), as positive controls. In capsaicin model, the antinociception produced by 200 mg/kg red sap was found to be naloxone-sensitive (2 mg/kg, i.p.), suggesting an opioid mechanism. In tests of open-field and pentobarbital-sleeping time, mice received 200mg/kg red sap showed no significant alterations in either locomotion frequency or on sleeping time, indicating that the observed antinociception is not a consequence of sedation or motor abnormality. These findings highlight the visceral antinociceptive property of Croton urucurana sap and further support its ethno-medical use to alleviate pain associated with gastrointestinal and other related disorders.
Micellar electrokinetic chromatography method for the determination of several natural red dyestuff and lake pigments used in art work.:J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jun 22;1154(1-2):429-36. Epub 2007 Mar 30.Maguregui MI, Alonso RM, Barandiaran M, Jimenez RM, García N.Departamento de Pintura, Facultad de Bellas Artes, Universidad del País Vasco/EHU, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
The identification of organic colorants used in artistic paintings is an important information source for reconstructing the working techniques found in a particular work and for defining a programme for the restoration and conservation of the painting. In this work, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used as a surfactant in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) for separating a broad range of red organic pigments, based on their colouring matters: madder (colouring matters: alizarin, quinizarin and purpurin), cochineal (colouring matter: carminic acid), red sandalwood (colouring matter: santalin), brazilwood (colouring matter: brazilin), lac dye (colouring matter: laccaic acid) and dragon's blood (colouring matter: dracorhodin). The running electrolyte used was 20 mM borax (pH 9), containing 20 mM SDS and 10% acetonitrile as organic modifier. Separation was carried out by applying a +20 kV voltage at the injection end, 25 degrees C and 214 nm/254 nm as detection wavelengths. All colorants were separated within less than 13 min with a good baseline resolution. The method was applied to the analysis of paint samples obtained from the Diocesan Museum of Holy Art of Bilbao.
Loureirin B: An Effective Component in Dragon's Blood Modulating Sodium Currents in TG Neurons.:Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2005;5:4962-5.Liu X, Yin S, Chen S, Ma Q.Department of Biomedical Engineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, Hubei, 430074, China (phone: 86-027-67843892; fax: 86-027-67842854; e-mail: liu. email@example.com).
To test, analyze and express the relationship between the pharmacological effect of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) dragon's blood and that of its component loureirin B, specify an operational definition for effective component from raw drug of TCM. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) and tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons were observed. The results show that both dragon's blood and loureirin B suppressed two types of peak sodium currents in a dose-dependent way. 0.1% dragon's blood and 0.2mmol/L loureirin B affected the activation and inactivation of sodium channels. The results further prove the analgetic mechanism of dragon's blood interfering with the nociceptive transmission. According to the above definition, loureirin B is the effective component in dragon's blood modulating sodium currents in TG neurons.
A computer simulation research for the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on sodium channel in dorsal root ganglion cells.:Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2006 Dec;23(6):1172-6. Chinese.Chen S, Liu X.Department of Biomedical Engineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China.
Using patch clamp technique the effects of dragon's blood and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel currents in dorsal root ganglion cells were observed. The experimental data were simulated with Hodgkin-Huxley model and the corresponding parameters were estimated. In addition, computer-simulated neuron action potentials in the absence and presence of drugs were produced using Hodgkin-Huxley model. The results show that the conductance of tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel was fitted with m3h model well, the half-activated potentials of the sodium channel in the presence of drugs were shifted to the depolarizing direction and the threshold intensity of the cells in the presence of drugs was increased. These results demonstrate that dragon's blood and loureirin B did not resemble the tetrodotoxin which inhibited tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channel currents completely. Perhaps the analgesic effects of dragon's blood were partly caused by loureirin B affecting the activation, blocking the action potential generation and interfering with the transmission of painful signals into the central nervous system.
Identification of 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium in "Dragon's blood": to be or not to be an anthocyanin.:Chemistry. 2007;13(5):1417-22.Melo MJ, Sousa M, Parola AJ, de Melo JS, Catarino F, Mar?alo J, Pina F.REQUIMTE-CQFB, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Sciences and Technology of the New University Lisbon, Campus da Caparica, Portugal. firstname.lastname@example.org
The compound 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium (dracoflavylium) was identified as the major red colorant in samples of the resin "dragon's blood", extracted from the tree Dracaena draco. The complex network of reversible chemical reactions that dracoflavylium undergoes in aqueous solution is fully described; for the first time, all the equilibrium constants that enable a complete characterisation of the system have been obtained (K'(a)=1.6 x 10(-4), K(a1)=1.0 x 10(-4), K(a2)=3.2 x 10(-8), K(Ct1)=1.0 x 10(-7), K(Ct2)=1.3 x 10(-10)). It is concluded that the red colour is due to a stable quinoid base, A, which is the major species at pH 4-7. It is further shown that this compound does not fit the commonly accepted definitions of anthocyanidin nor 3-deoxyanthocyanidin. Similarly to synthetic flavylium salts, the natural compound 7,4'-dihydroxy-5-methoxyflavylium gives rise to several species (multistate system) reversibly interconverted by external stimuli, such as pH.
Study of quality standards on Qianshan Huoxue plaster.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Sep;31(17):1431-3. Chinese.Fu XT, Li Y, Du XW, Zhang XQ, Shi RB.Beijing Municipal Institute for Drug Control, Beijing 100035, China. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To establish the methods of identification and assay in Qianshan Huoxue Gao. METHOD: Using TLC to identify Sanchi, Dragon's Blood and using HPLC to determine the content of ginsenoside Rg1. RESULT: The linear range of ginsenoside Rg1 was from 0.153 9 to 1.026 microg. The average recovery was 97.4%, RSD was 2.1%. CONCLUSION: The methods are simple and have good reproducibility.
Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.:Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2006 Sep;6(5):429-44. Review.Gonzales GF, Valerio LG Jr.Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy and Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru. firstname.lastname@example.org
Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents.
Modulation of dragon's blood on tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion neurons and identification of its material basis for efficacy.:Sci China C Life Sci. 2006 Jun;49(3):274-85.Liu X, Chen S, Zhang Y, Zhang F.Department of Biological & Medical Engineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China. email@example.com
To clarify the modulation of dragon's blood on the tetrodotoxin-resistant (TTX-R) sodium currents in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and explore its corresponding material basis for the efficacy, using whole-cell patch clamp technique, the effects of dragon's blood and the combined effects of three components (cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B) extracted from dragon's blood on the TTX-R sodium currents in acute-isolated DRG neurons of rats were observed. According to the operational definition of material basis for the efficacy of TCM established, the material basis of the modulation on the TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons of dragon's blood was judged from the experimental results. The drug interaction equation of Greco et al. was used to assess the interaction of the three components extracted from dragon's blood. This investigation demonstrated that dragon's blood suppressed the peak TTX-R sodium currents in a dose-dependent way and affected the activations of TTX-R sodium currents. The effects of the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B were in good agreement with those of dragon's blood. Although the three components used alone could modulate TTX-R sodium currents, the concentrations of the three components used alone were respectively higher than those used in combination when the inhibition rates on the TTX-R sodium currents of them used alone and in combination were the same. The combined effects of the three components were synergistic. These results suggested that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of dragon's blood on TTX-R sodium currents in DRG neurons may explain some of the analgesic effect of dragon's blood and the corresponding material basis for the efficacy is the combination of cochinchinenin A, cochinchinenin B, and loureirin B.
Dracaenogenins A and B, new spirostanols from the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis.:Steroids. 2006 Feb;71(2):160-4. Epub 2005 Nov 2.Zheng QA, Li HZ, Zhang YJ, Yang CR.State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resource in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204, PR China.
A 12(13-->14)abeospirostanol dracaenogenin A (1) and a spirostanol dracaenogenin B (2) were isolated from Chinese dragon's blood, the red resin of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Agavaceae). Their structures were established as (14S,25R)12(13-->14)abeospirosta-5,13(18)-diene-1beta,3beta,15alpha-triol (1) and (25R) spirost-5-ene-1beta,3beta,14alpha,15alpha-tetrol (2) by means of spectroscopic analysis, especially by 2D NMR spectra, and X-ray crystallographic analysis. Dracaenogenin A (1) is the first example of a 12(13-->14)abeospirostane spirostanoid found in nature. Its biogenesis from ruscogenin (3) through namogenin (4) and 2 was tentatively proposed.
Complement inhibiting properties of dragon's blood from Croton draco.:Z Naturforsch [C]. 2004 Jul-Aug;59(7-8):528-32.Tsacheva I, Rostan J, Iossifova T, Vogler B, Odjakova M, Navas H, Kostova I, Kojouharova M, Kraus W.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Sofia University, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria.
The latex of Croton draco, its extracts and several latex components have been investigated for their influence on both classical (CP) and alternative (AP) activation pathways of the complement system using a hemolytic assay. The best inhibition was found for the classical pathway. The latex, ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extracts exhibited extremely high inhibition on the CP (94, 90 and 77%, respectively) at a concentration of 1 mg/ml. The flavonoid myricitrin, the alkaloid taspine and the cyclopeptides P1 and P2 showed high inhibition on CP (83, 91, 78 and 63%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.9 mM.
In vitro antifungal activity of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana against dermatophytes.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):409-12. Epub 2005 Jan 16.Gurgel LA, Sidrim JJ, Martins DT, Cechinel Filho V, Rao VS.Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, FM, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Rua Cel Nunes de Melo, 1127, Porangabussu, Caixa Postal-3157, 60430-270 Fortaleza, CE, Brazil.
Based on ethnobotanical approach, the dragon's blood collected from Croton urucurana Baill. bark (Euphorbiaceae) was tested for antifungal activity against five dermatophytes by paper disk diffusion method. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) showing no visible fungal growth was also determined, using tube dilution technique. The test dermatophytes were Tricophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccossum. The dragon's blood (0.175-3.0 mg/ml) exhibited an inhibition zone range of 7.6-26.9 mm against all the tested fungi with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 1.25-2.5 mg/ml.
Mutagenic and antioxidant activities of Croton lechleri sap in biological systems.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):437-45.Lopes MI, Saffi J, cheverrigaray S, Henriques JA, Salvador M.Instituto de Biotecnologia da Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130 Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil.
The sap of Croton lechleri Muell.-Arg (Euphorbiaceae), called Dragon's blood, is used in folk medicine as a cicatrizant, anti-inflammatory and to treat cancer. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Croton lechleri sap was evaluated against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and against maize plantlets treated with the oxidative agents apomorphine and hydrogen peroxide. The mutagenic activity of the sap was also analyzed using the Salmonella/microsome assay (Salmonella typhimurium TA97a, TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535) and in cells of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results showed that Croton lechleri sap possesses significant antioxidant activity against the oxidative damages induced by apomorphine in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under all the conditions studied. However, in the case of hydrogen peroxide, antioxidant activity of the sap was detected only in cells in the stationary phase of growth. The sap was also able to protect cells of the maize plantlets from the toxic effect of apomorphine. This sap showed mutagenic activity for strain TA1535 of Salmonella typhimurium in the presence of metabolic activation and a weak mutagenic activity for strain TA98. These strains detect base pair substitutions and frameshift mutations, respectively. Mutagenicity was also observed in a haploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain XV185-14c for the lys1-1, his1-7 locus-specific reversion and hom3-10 frameshift mutations.
Effects of dragon's blood resin and its component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.:Sci China C Life Sci. 2004 Aug;47(4):340-8.Xiangming L, Su C, Shijin Y, Zhinan M.Department of Biological & Medical Engineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074, China. firstname.lastname@example.org
Using whole-cell patch clamp technique on the membrane of freshly isolated dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, the effects of dragon's blood resin and its important component loureirin B on tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) voltage-gated sodium currents were observed. The results show that both blood resin and loureirin B could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way. The peak current amplitudes and the steady-state activation and inactivation curves are also made to shift by 0.05% blood resin and 0.2 mmol/L loureirin B. These results demonstrate that the effects of blood resin on TTX-S sodium current may contribute to loureirin B in blood resin. Perhaps the analgesic effect of blood resin is caused partly by loureirin B directly interfering with the nociceptive transmission of primary sensory neurons.
Raman spectroscopic analysis of dragon's blood resins-basis for distinguishing between Dracaena(Convallariaceae), Daemonorops(Palmae) and Croton(Euphorbiaceae).:Analyst. 2004 Feb;129(2):134-8. Epub 2003 Dec 17.Edwards HG, de Oliveira LF, Prendergast HD.Chemical and Forensic Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Bradford, Bradford, UKBD7 1DP.
"Dragon[prime or minute]s blood" is the name applied to the deep-red coloured resin obtained from various plants. The original source in Roman times, used by many cultures and esteemed for its depth of colour and mystical association, was the dragon tree Dracaena cinnabari(Convallariaceae), found only on the Indian Ocean island of Socotra, (Yemen). Additional sources emerged later, including another species of Dracaena, D. draco, from the Canary Islands and Madeira, and species in the genera Daemonorops(Palmae) from South East Asia and Croton(Euphorbiaceae) from tropical parts of both the New and Old Worlds. In this study, examples of dragon's blood resins from the Economic Botany Collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, dating from 1851 to 1993, have been analysed non-destructively using Raman spectroscopy. The Raman spectra of well-documented, provenanced specimens have been used to establish the source of specimens of questionable or unknown origin. It has also been possible from the Raman spectra to indicate whether processing of the resins has been undertaken in the preparation of the specimens before their deposition at Kew.
Review of sangre de drago (Croton lechleri)--a South American tree sap in the treatment of diarrhea, inflammation, insect bites, viral infections, and wounds: traditional uses to clinical research.:J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Dec;9(6):877-96. Review.Jones K.Armana Research, Inc., Halfmoon Bay, British Columbia, Canada. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the pharmacologic evidence that may or may not support clinical and ethnomedical uses of the sap of sangre de drago (dragon's blood; Croton lechleri Müll. Arg.). Data sources used were BIOSIS, EMBASE, PubMed, TOXLIT, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, manual searches, papers on file from peer-reviewed journals, textbooks available at Armana Research, Inc., and researchers in the field of South American botanical medicine. CONCLUSIONS: The results of in vitro and in vivo studies largely support the majority of ethnomedical uses of sangre de drago including the treatment of diarrhea, wounds, tumors, stomach ulcers, herpes infection, the itching, pain and swelling of insect bites, and other conditions. Clinical studies of sangre de drago products have reported positive results in the treatment of traveler's and watery diarrhea and the symptoms of insect bites. Because the sap has shown low toxicity and preparations used in clinical studies were well tolerated, further clinical and pharmacologic studies are anticipated. Acknowledgment of the diversity in the chemical makeup of the sap from one geographic area to another and the recent characterization of alkaloid chemotypes of sangre de drago will require that materials developed for clinical use are standardized.
Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri.:Planta Med. 2003 Sep;69(9):785-94.Risco E, Ghia F, Vila R, Iglesias J, Alvarez E, Ca?igueral S.Unitat de Farmacologia i Farmacognòsia, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 643, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
The immunomodulatory activity of the latex from Croton lechleri (sangre de drago) was determined by in vitro assays. Classical (CP) and alternative (AP) complement pathways activities were determined in human serum. Intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and monocytes, and phagocytosis of opsonised fluorescent microspheres were measured by flow cytometry. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Activity on proliferation of murine lymphocytes was also investigated. In addition, anti-inflammatory activity was assayed in vivo by carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test. Some of the activities were compared with those of the isolated alkaloid taspine. Sangre de drago from Croton lechleri showed immunomodulatory activity. It exhibited a potent inhibitory activity on CP and AP of complement system and inhibited the proliferation of activated T-cells. The latex showed free radical scavenging capacity. Depending on the concentration, it showed antioxidant or prooxidant properties, and stimulated or inhibited the phagocytosis. Moreover, the latex has strong anti-inflammatory activity when administered i. p. Taspine cannot be considered the main responsible for these activities, and other constituents, probably proanthocyanidins, should be also involved.
Cochinchinenin--a new chalcone dimer from the Chinese dragon blood.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2001 Mar;36(3):200-4. Chinese.Zhou ZH, Wang JL, Yang CR. Laboratory of Phytochemistry, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650204, China. Zhouzh9@163.net
AIM: To study the active constituents of Dracaena cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen. in the commercial dragon blood. METHODS: Various column chromatographies with Sephadex L-20 gel, MCI gel and silica gel were employed for the isolation and purification. The structures of compounds were elucidated by spectral analysis. RESULTS: Nine chalcones were isolated from the commercial dragon's blood which was made of D. cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen.. By means of spectral data, they were identified as 1-[5-(2,4,4'-trihydroxydihydrochalconyl)]-1- (p-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-propane (1), 2'-methoxysocotrin-5'-ol (2), socotrin-4'-ol (3), 2-methoxy-4, 4'-dihydroxydihydrochalcone (4), 2, 4, 4'-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcone (5), 2, 4, 4'-trihydroxy-6-methoxydihydrochalcone (6), 2', 4', 4-trihydroxychalcone (7), 2-methoxy-4, 4'-dihydroxychalcone (8) and 2'-methoxy-4', 4-dihydroxychalcone (9). CONCLUSION: Compound 1 is a new chalcone dimer and named as cochinchinenin. Compounds 2-9 were isolated from D. cochinchinensis (Lour.) S.C. Chen. for the first time.
Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances.:Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2001 Dec;57(14):2831-42.Edward HG, de Oliveira LF, Quye A.Department of Chemical and Forensic Sciences, University of Bradford, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.
Studies on the antidiarrhoeal effect of dragon's blood from Croton urucurana.:Phytother Res. 2001 Jun;15(4):319-22.Gurgel LA, Silva RM, Santos FA, Martins DT, Mattos PO, Rao VS.Departamento de Fisiologia e Farmacologia, FM, Universidade Federal do Ceará, C.P. 3157, 60430-270, Fortaleza, C.E., Brazil.
The red sap obtained by slashing the bark of Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as dragon's blood, was screened for a possible antidiarrhoeal activity on castor oil-induced diarrhoea in rats, cholera toxin-induced intestinal secretion in mice and on small intestinal transit in mice. Dragon's blood at an oral dose of 600 mg/kg caused in marked inhibition of the diarrhoeal response following castor oil administration as well as the intestinal fluid accumulation promoted by cholera toxin. At a similar dose the red sap significantly inhibited the small intestinal transit which was, however, found to be independent of the opioid mechanism. These results suggest a potential usefulness of the red sap from Croton urucurana Baill. in the control of secretory diarrhoea associated pathologies.
Dragon's blood. A glance into the history of pharmacognosy.:Bull Soc Sci Med Grand Duche Luxemb. 1999;(1):96-101. German.Bruck M.
Dragon's blood, a red resin, which is often used as a dry powdered "herbal" remedy in traditional medicine, has different origins which are briefly discussed. This contribution however focuses on the species of the genus Dracaena Vand ex L., belonging to the Agavaceae and native to the Old World and the Canary Islands. H.J.N. Crantz, a botanist and medical doctor turned pharmacologist (born in 1722 near Luxembourg), had published a brief and very uncommon treatise on this group of plants, which he only knew from botanical gardens. The pharmacognostical and historical background of dragon's blood use is at the core of this contribution--the drug itself being of no major importance in today's medical care.
Dragon's Blood incense: misbranded as a drug of abuse?.:Forensic Sci Int. 2001 Jan 1;115(1-2):1-8.Ford SL, Steiner RR, Thiericke R, Young R, Soine WH. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298-0540, USA.
An unknown red substance was being sold and used with other drugs of abuse in Virginia (often being used in conjunction with marihuana). The red substance was identified as Dragon's Blood incense from Daemonorops draco. In bioassays, Dragon's Blood incense exhibited a low, but measurable cytotoxicity in in vitro cell lines. Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood had no adverse effect on mouse motor performance based on the inclined screen and rotorod tests. delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC) produced a dose-related decline in mouse performance on the rotorod test. The combination of Dragon's Blood incense or Volatilized Dragon's Blood with delta(9)-THC did not contribute further to the impairment of the mice on the rotorod. This data suggests that the abuse potential for Dragon's Blood incense alone or in combination with marihuana is minimal.
Phenolic compounds of Dragon's blood from Dracaena draco.:J Nat Prod. 2000 Sep;63(9):1297-9.González AG, León F, Sánchez-Pinto L, Padrón JI, Bermejo J.Instituto Universitario de Bio-Orgánica "Antonio González", Instituto de Productos Naturales y Agrobiología, CSIC, Avenida Astrofísico F. Sánchez 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain.
Three new compounds, 2,4,4'-trihydroxydihydrochalcone (1), 3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5,7-dimethoxychroman (2), and 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)chromone (3), were isolated from the resin "Dragon's blood" obtained from Dracaena draco along with 18 known compounds. The structures of 1, 2, and 3 were determined using MS and NMR techniques.
Constituents of Dragon's Blood. 5. Dracoflavans B1, B2, C1, C2, D1, and D2, new A-type deoxyproanthocyanidins.:J Nat Prod. 1997 Oct;60(10):971-5.Arnone A, Nasini G, Vajna de Pava O, Merlini L.Dipartimento di Chimica, Politecnico di Milano, Italy.
From Dragon's Blood, a resin produced by plants of the genus Daemonorops (Palmae), six new A-type flavanoid deoxyproanthocyanidins have been isolated. Their structure and stereochemistry, established by chemical degradation and extensive NMR analysis, is consistent with a mechanism of formation common to other constituents of the resin, which involves oxidation of a 6-methylflavan to a quinonemethide, followed by coupling with another flavan moiety.
New biflavonoids from dragon's blood of Dracaena cinnabari.:Planta Med. 1995 Aug;61(4):341-4.Masaoud M, Himmelreich U, Ripperger H, Adam G.Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle/S., Germany.
The new biflavonoids 2'-methoxysocotrin-5'-ol, socotrin-4'-ol, and homoisosocotrin-4'-ol were isolated from dragon's blood of Dracaena cinnabari and their structures elucidated mainly by NMR spectroscopy.
A matter of some sensitivity.:Phytochemistry. 1995 Apr;38(6):1319-43. Review.Phillipson JD.Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of London, U.K.
The development of sensitive chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques for the isolation and structure determination of natural products has greatly facilitated phytochemical investigations. Chemical investigations of herbarium material have resulted in the isolation of indole, quinoline and isoquinoline alkaloids from a wide number of plants. Examples of novel natural products from higher plants are given and include alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics and quinones. Some plants investigated have not yielded the types of constituents which would have been predicted from them. Plant tissue cultures provide alternative sources of biologically active compounds and examples investigated include Cinchona, Ailanthus, Brucea and Artemisia for antiprotozoal compounds and Datura for tropane alkaloids. Biological tests are useful for bioassay-guided fractionation of plant extracts and examples of the isolation of a series of natural products with antiprotozoal and cytotoxic activities are given. Chemical and biological investigations into the traditional medicine Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) from S. America and a Chinese prescription for the treatment of atopic eczema are described. The use of radio-ligand binding assays for the detection of a wide range of biological activities is discussed. Sensitivity of chemical and biological techniques has greatly improved prospects for finding new drug entities from plants and for investigating traditional medicines. Basic phytochemical investigations should continue to be encouraged especially in view of the rapid loss of plant species.
Potential carcinogenicity of homoisoflavanoids and flavonoids from Resina sanguinis draconis (Dracaena cinnabari Balf.).:Neoplasma. 1995;42(6):313-6.Vachálková A, Novotny L, Nejedlíková M, Suchy V.Cancer Research Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia.
Polarographic behavior of three homoisoflavanoids and four flavanoids isolated from the dragon's blood (Resina sanguinis draconis. Dracaena cinnabari Balf.), collected at Sokotra, was investigated in aprotic solution and an index of potential carcinogenicity tg alpha was determined. Generally, homoisoflavanoids and flavanoids were reduced in two two-electron steps, the first being reversible and the second one irreversible. The parameter tg alpha values indicated that the majority of these compounds possesses no or only marginal potential carcinogenic activity. However, it was demonstrated that some structural modifications in basic flavonoid structure lead to changed electrochemical properties and a substantial increase of derivative potential carcinogenicity.
Studies on the anti-tumour, anti-bacterial, and wound-healing properties of dragon's blood.:Planta Med. 1994 Dec;60(6):541-5.Chen ZP, Cai Y, Phillipson JD. Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, University of London, U.K.
Three in-vitro assays have been adopted to examine the cytotoxicity and anti-bacterial activity of the blood-red sap of Croton lechleri from Ecuador, and to examine its effect upon the proliferation of endothelial cells. The sap was found not to be cytotoxic. Several simple phenolic compounds and diterpenes showed a potent anti-bacterial activity. The sap has little effect upon the proliferation of endothelial cells, and no single active ingredient was identified. A mechanism for the wound-healing property of the sap has been proposed.
Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon's blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation.:J Nat Prod. 1993 Jun;56(6):899-906.Pieters L, de Bruyne T, Claeys M, Vlietinck A, Calomme M, vanden Berghe D.University of Antwerp, Belgium.
Dragon's blood is a red viscous latex extracted from the cortex of various Croton spp. (Euphorbiaceae), most commonly Croton lechleri, Croton draconoides (or Croton palanostigma), and Croton erythrochilus. It is used in South American popular medicine for several purposes, including wound healing. Bioassay-guided fractionation of dragon's blood, using an in vitro test system for the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, has resulted in the isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan, 3',4-O-dimethylcedrusin or 4-O-methyldihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol [2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxybenzo furan-5- propan-1-ol]  as the biologically active principle. A related compound, 4-O-methylcedrusin [2-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxybenzo furan-5- propan-1-ol] , and the alkaloid taspine , also isolated from dragon's blood, were not active in the same assay. A cell proliferation assay, measuring the incorporation of tritiated thymidine in endothelial cells, showed that compound 1 did not stimulate cell proliferation, but rather inhibited thymidine incorporation, while protecting cells against degradation in a starvation medium.
Reversed-phase HPLC determination of dracorhodin in Daemonorops draco.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Oct;16(10):615-6, 640. Chinese.Lu J, Liu Y, Wang B.National Institute for the Control of Pharmaceutical and Biological Products, Beijing.
A reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of dracohobin in dragon's Blood is described. The separation was performed on a Nucleosil C18 7 microns (4.0 x 15 cm) column with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-methanol-0.05 mol/L NaH2PO4(30:5:65). Detection was at 270 nm.
Isolation and anticoagulant properties of polysaccharides of Typha Augustata and Daemonorops species.:Thromb Res. 1983 Oct 15;32(2):97-108.Gibbs A, Green C, Doctor VM.
Polysaccharides were isolated from Dragon's Blood (DB), a red resinous secretion from the fruits of Daemonorops species and from pollens of Typha Augustata (TA) by alcohol precipitation followed by deaminoethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose chromatography. The purified polysaccharides of DB and TA gave specific rotations of [alpha]D20 64 and [alpha]D20 of 80 and their molecular weights by membrane osmometry were approximately 25000 and approximately 30000 respectively. The effect of addition of the polysaccharides on coagulation of pooled normal human plasma was investigated. They were found to accelerate the recalcified plasma times at concentrations below 100 micrograms/ml while inhibiting them at higher concentrations. Their procoagulant properties were due to their effects on the activation of Hageman factor (XII) while the anticoagulant effect was mainly directed towards fibrinogen. Studies of the mechanism of the anticoagulant effect showed that addition of TA polysaccharide inhibited the rate of release of fibrinopeptides by thrombin and also the aggregation of fibrin monomers.
- 1.Dragon's Blood,A resin derived from the fruit of Calamus Draco.
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