Spinach:Spinacia oleracea Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- Basic Botanical Info of Spinach.
- Translations for: Spinach.
- Spinach Physical Characteristics and Botanical Description.
- Historical Uses of Spinach.
- Spinach Nutrition and Edible Use.
- Medicinal Uses Disclaimer of Spinach.
- Spinacia oleracea Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- How to Handle Spinach.
- Research Update:Spinacia oleracea or Spinach.
Research Update:Spinacia oleracea or Spinach.:
Influence of a cyanobacterial crude extract containing microcystin-LR on the physiology and antioxidative defence systems of different spinach variants.:New Phytol. 2007;175(3):482-9.Pflugmacher S, Aulhorn M, Grimm B.Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Müggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany. pflugmacher@IGB-Berlin.de
Plants can be contaminated with cyanobacterial toxins during spray irrigation of lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria. Here, long-term effects of cyanobacterial crude extract (containing microcystin-LR) on the growth and physiology of different spinach (Spinacia oleracea) variants under semifield conditions were investigated. Changes in antioxidative enzyme activities, and in glutathione, ascorbate and tocopherol contents were investigated to assess the reaction of the antioxidative defence systems in spinach to toxin exposure. In addition to severe morphological effects, such as growth inhibition and chlorosis, the generation of oxidative stress was observed at the cellular level. In response to the negative effects of oxidative stress, plants stimulated an antioxidative system consisting of an enzyme network with superoxide dismutases, peroxidases, catalases, glutathione S-transferases and glutathione reductases, as well as a set of low-molecular-weight antioxidants, including glutathione, ascorbate and tocopherols. Exposure of spinach to cyanobacterial crude extract affected germination, growth and morphology, as well as antioxidative response parameters. Different variants of the same plant reacted in different ways to certain toxicants.
Application of high-speed counter-current chromatography for the isolation of 9'-cis-neoxanthin from fresh spinach.:J Chromatogr A. 2007 Jun 1;1151(1-2):183-6. Epub 2007 Feb 24.Baldermann S, Reinhard A, K?hler N, Fleischmann P.Institute of Food Chemistry, Technical University of Braunschweig, Schleinitzstrasse 20, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Preparative HSCCC (high-speed counter-current chromatography) could be applied for the isolation of 9'-cis-neoxanthin from a crude carotenoid extract of fresh spinach leaves. The separation was performed on a Pharma-Tech Research Corp. CCC 1000 with a solvent system composed of hexane:ethanol:water at a volume ratio of 5:5:4.5 at a flow rate of 3 mL/min and at 850 rpm, using the lower phase as mobile phase. 9'-cis-neoxanthin with a purity of up to 94% could be obtained with a single HSCCC purification step of the crude carotenoid extract.
Phosphorylation of the spinach chloroplast 24 kDa RNA-binding protein (24RNP) increases its binding to petD and psbA 3' untranslated regions.:Biochimie. 2006 Sep;88(9):1217-28. Epub 2006 Apr 19.Loza-Tavera H, Vargas-Suárez M, Díaz-Mireles E, Torres-Márquez ME, González de la Vara LE, Moreno-Sánchez R, Gruissem W.Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular de Plantas, Facultad de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Mexico, D.F. Mexico. email@example.com
The chloroplast 24 kDa RNA binding protein (24RNP) from Spinacea oleracea is a nuclear encoded protein that binds the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of some chloroplast mRNAs and seems to be involved in some processes of mRNA metabolism, such as 3'UTR processing, maturation and stabilization. The 24RNP is similar to the 28RNP which is involved in the correct maturation of petD and psbA 3'UTRs, and when phosphorylated, decreases its binding affinity for RNA. In the present work, we determined that the recombinant 24RNP was phosphorylated in vitro either by an animal protein kinase C, a plant Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase, or a chloroplastic kinase activity present in a protein extract with 3'-end processing activity in which the 24RNP is also present. Phosphorylation of 24RNP increased the binding capacity (B(max)) 0.25 time for petD 3'UTR, and three times for psbA 3'UTR; the affinity for P-24RNP only increased when the interaction with petD was tested. Competition experiments suggested that B(max), not K(d), might be a more important factor in the P-24RNP-3'UTR interaction. The data suggested that the 24RNP role in chloroplast mRNA metabolism may be regulated in vivo by changes in its phosphorylation status carried out by a chloroplastic kinase.
Determination of low levels of perchlorate in lettuce and spinach using ion chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IC-ESI-MS).:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2012-7.Seyfferth AL, Parker DR.Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, California 92521, USA.
A sample preparation method was developed to quantify environmentally relevant (low micrograms per liter) concentrations of perchlorate (ClO4(-)) in leafy vegetables using IC-ESI-MS. Lettuce and spinach were macerated, centrifuged, and filtered, and the aqueous extracts were rendered water-clear using a one-step solid-phase extraction method. Total time for extraction and sample preparation was 6 h. Ion suppression was demonstrated and was likely due to unknown organics still present in the extract solution after cleanup. However, this interference was readily eliminated using a Cl(18)O4(-) internal standard at 1 microg/L in all standards and samples. Hydroponically grown perchlorate-free butterhead lettuce was spiked to either 10.3 or 37.7 microg/kg of fresh weight (FW), and recoveries were between 91 and 98% and between 93 and 101%, respectively. Five types of lettuce and spinach from a local grocery store were then analyzed; they contained from 0.6 to 6.4 microg/kg of FW. Spike recoveries using the store-bought samples ranged from 89 to 100%. The method detection limit for perchlorate in plant extracts is 40 ng/L, and the corresponding minimum reporting limit is 200 ng/L or 0.8 microg/kg of FW.
Inhibitory effect of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, extracted from spinach using supercritical CO2, on mammalian DNA polymerase activity.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1627-32.
We investigated the effective extraction of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) from dried spinach (Spinacia oleracea) using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) with a modifier/entrainer. The yield of MGDG in the SC-CO(2) extract was not influenced by increasing temperature at a constant pressure, although the total extract yield was decreased. The total extract yield and MGDG yield in the extract from commercially purchased spinach (unknown subspecies), were greatly influenced by lower pressure. In a modifier (i.e., ethanol) concentration range of 2.5-20%, both the extract and MGDG yield increased as the ethanol concentration rose. The highest total extract yield (69.5 mg/g of spinach) and a good MGDG yield (16.3 mg/g of spinach) were obtained at 80 degrees C, 25 MPa, and 20% ethanol. The highest MGDG concentration (76.0% in the extract) was obtained at 80 degrees C, 25 MPa, and 2.5% ethanol, although the total extract yield under these conditions was low (5.2 mg/g of spinach). The optimal conditions for the extraction of MGDG were 80 degrees C, 20 MPa, and 10% ethanol. Of the 11 subspecies of spinach tested under these conditions, "Ujyou" had the highest concentration of MGDG. The total extract yield and MGDG concentration of Ujyou were 20.4 mg of the extract/g of spinach and 70.5%, respectively. The concentration of MGDG was higher in the SC-CO(2) extract than in the extract obtained using solvents such as methanol and n-hexane. The extract of Ujyou, which was the optimal subspecies for the extraction of MGDG, inhibited the activity of calf DNA polymerase alpha with IC(50) values of 145 microg/mL but was not effective against DNA polymerase beta.
Spinacia oleracea L. protects against gamma radiations: a study on glutathione and lipid peroxidation in mouse liver.:Phytomedicine. 2004 Nov;11(7-8):607-15.Bhatia AL, Jain M.Department of Zoology, Radiation Biology Laboratory, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur, India. firstname.lastname@example.org
The present study deals with the protective effect of Spinacia oleracea L. against radiation-induced oxidative stress, which is evaluated in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) product and tissue levels of glutathione. Swiss albino male mice aged 6-8 weeks, weighing 22+/-3 g, each were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and a second group (extract of S. oleracea L. (SE) treated un-irradiated) were administered methanolic (50%) SE at a dose of 1100mg/kg body wt./day dissolved in distilled water. A third group (untreated-irradiated) was administered distilled water orally, which served as control. A fourth group (SE pre-treated irradiated) was administered methanolic (50%) SE at a dose of 1100 mg/kg body wt./day dissolved in distilled water. Two groups, one untreated-irradiated and another S. oleracea pre-treated irradiated were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at a rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source-to-surface distance of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days post-exposure. LPO increased after irradiation up to day 15 in the untreated-irradiated group and up to day 7 in SE pre-treated irradiated mice. LPO values were significantly lower in the SE pre-treated irradiated group as compared to their respective untreated-irradiated group at all intervals, which reached normal values from day 7 onward. The percentage of protection observed in the SE pre-treated irradiated group was, 22.22%, 24.8%, 33.25%, 42.84% and 26.36% at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 days post-exposure, respectively. Radiation-induced glutathione depletion was checked after 7 days' exposure in SE pre-treated irradiated as compared to untreated-irradiated in which recovery started after day 15. Values were significantly higher in the SE pre-treated irradiated group from their respective untreated-irradiated group at all intervals. The percentage of protection observed in the SE pre-treated irradiated group was, 29.41%, 42.68%, 43.55%, 53.81%, 39.28% at 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 days post-exposure, respectively. It is found that radiation-induced augmentation in malondialdehyde contents and depletion in glutathione changes in liver can be altered by S. oleracea L. The protection may be attributed to the combined effects of its constituents rather than to any single factor as the leaves are rich in carotenoid content (beta-carotene, lutein, Zeaxanthine), ascorbic acid, flavonoids and p-coumaric acid. Thus Spinacia, showing protection in liver, may prove promising as a rich source of antioxidants because its use is cost-effective, especially for peoples in adverse and hazardous circumstances who are living in poverty.
Potential anticancer effect of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus) extract.:Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2004;13(4):396-400.Sani HA, Rahmat A, Ismail M, Rosli R, Endrini S.Department of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra, Malaysia 43400, Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
The objective of this study was to determine the anti cancer effects of red spinach (Amaranthus gangeticus Linn) in vitro and in vivo. For in vitro study, microtitration cytotoxic assay was done using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenil tetrazolium bromide (MTT) kit assay. Results showed that aqueous extract of A gangeticus inhibited the proliferation of liver cancer cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). The IC(50) values were 93.8 mu g/ml and 98.8 mu g/ml for HepG2 and MCF-7, respectively. The inhibitory effect was also observed in colon cancer cell line (Caco-2), but a lower percentage compared to HepG2 and MCF-7. For normal cell line (Chang Liver), there was no inhibitory effect. In the in vivo study, hepatocarcinogenesis was monitored in rats according to Solt and Farber (1976) without partial hepatectomy. Assay of tumour marker enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uridyl diphosphoglucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were carried out to determine the severity of hepatocarcinogenesis. The result found that supplementation of 5%, 7.5% and 10% of A. gangeticus aqueous extract to normal rats did not show any significant difference towards normal control (P <0.05). The exposure of the rats to chemical carcinogens diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) showed a significant increase in specific enzyme activity of GGT, GST, UDPGT and ALP compared to normal control (P <0.05). However, it was found that the supplementation of A. gangeticus aqueous extract in 5%, 7.5% and 10% to cancer-induced rats could inhibit the activity of all tumour marker enzymes especially at 10% (P <0.05). Supplementation of anti cancer drug glycyrrhizin at suggested dose (0.005%) did not show any suppressive effect towards cancer control (P <0.05). In conclusion, A. gangeticus showed anticancer potential in in vitro and in vivo studies.
Kinetic properties of bifunctional 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase from spinach leaves..:Eur J Biochem. 2002 Feb;269(4):1267-77.Markham JE, Kruger NJ.Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3RB, UK.
A cDNA encoding 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase was isolated from a Spinacia oleracea leaf library and used to express a recombinant enzyme in Escherichia coli and Spodoptera frugiperda cells. The insoluble protein expressed in E. coli was purified and used to raise antibodies. Western blot analysis of a protein extract from spinach leaf showed a single band of 90.8 kDa. Soluble protein was purified to homogeneity from S. frugiperda cells infected with recombinant baculovirus harboring the isolated cDNA. The soluble protein had a molecular mass of 320 kDa, estimated by gel filtration chromatography, and a subunit size of 90.8 kDa. The purified protein had activity of both 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase specific activity 10.4-15.9 nmol min(-1) x mg protein (-1) and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (specific activity 1.65-1.75 nmol x mol(-1) mg protein(-1). The 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase activity was activated by inorganic phosphate, and inhibited by 3-carbon phosphorylated metabolites and pyrophosphate. In the presence of phosphate, 3-phosphoglycerate was a mixed inhibitor with respect to both fructose 6-phosphate and ATP. Fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activity was sensitive to product inhibition; inhibition by inorganic phosphate was uncompetitive, whereas inhibition by fructose 6-phosphate was mixed. These kinetic properties support the view that the level of fructose 2,6-bisphosphate in leaves is determined by the relative concentrations of hexose phosphates, three-carbon phosphate esters and inorganic phosphate in the cytosol through reciprocal modulation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase and fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase activities of the bifunctional enzyme.
The antioxidant activity of aqueous spinach extract: chemical identification of active fractions.:Phytochemistry. 2001 Sep;58(1):143-52.Bergman M, Varshavsky L, Gottlieb HE, Grossman S.Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel.
In previous studies we have elucidated the presence of powerful, natural antioxidants (NAO) in water extracts of spinach leaves and demonstrated their biological activity in both in vitro and in vivo systems. In the present study, the chemical identity of several of these antioxidant components is presented. Spinach leaves were extracted with water and the 20,000 g supernatant which contained the antioxidant activity was extracted with a water:acetone (1:9) solution. The 20,000 g supernatant obtained was further purified on reverse phase HPLC using C-8 semi-preparative column. Elution with 0.1% TFA resulted in five hydrophilic peaks. Elution with acetonitrile in TFA resulted in seven additional hydrophobic peaks. All the peaks were detected at 250 nm. All the fractions obtained showed antioxidant activity when tested using three different assays. Based on 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy four of the hydrophobic fractions were identified as glucuronic acid derivatives of flavonoids and three additional fractions as trans and cis isomers of p-coumaric acid and others as meso-tartarate derivatives of p-coumaric acid. The present study demonstrates for the first time the presence of both flavonoids and p-coumaric acid derivatives as antioxidant components of the aqueous extract of spinach leaves.
Isolation and characterization of structurally novel antimutagenic flavonoids from spinach (Spinacia oleracea).:J Agric Food Chem. 2001 Jun;49(6):2767-73.Edenharder R, Keller G, Platt KL, Unger KK.Department of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, University of Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Strasse 67, D-55131 Mainz, Germany. email@example.com
Thirteen compounds, isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), acted as antimutagens against the dietary carcinogen 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98. The antimutagens were purified by preparative and micropreparative HPLC from a methanol/water (70:30, v/v) extract of dry spinach (commercial product) after removal of lipophilic compounds such as chlorophylls and carotenoids by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Pure active compounds were identified by instrumental analysis including FT-IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, UV-vis spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All of these compounds were flavonoids and related compounds that could be attributed to five groups: (A, methylenedioxyflavonol glucuronides) 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 1), 5,2',3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 2), 5-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 3); (B, flavonol glucuronides) 5,6,3'-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 4), 5,6-dihydroxy-7,3',4'-trimethoxyflavonol 3-O-beta-glucuronide (compound 5); (C, flavonol disaccharides) 5,6,4'-trihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavonol 3-O-disaccharide (compound 6), 5,6,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-7-methoxyflavonol 3-O-disaccharide (compounds 7 and 8); (D, flavanones) 5,8,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (compound 9), 7,8,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (compound 10); (E, flavonoid-related compounds) compounds 11, 12, and 13 with incompletely elucidated structures. The yield of compound 1 was 0.3%, related to dry weight, whereas the yields of compounds 2-13 ranged between 0.017 and 0.069%. IC(50) values (antimutagenic potencies) of the flavonol glucuronides ranged between 24.2 and 58.2 microM, whereas the flavonol disaccharides (compounds 7 and 8), the flavanones (compounds 9 and 10), and the flavonoid-related glycosidic compounds 11-13 were only weakly active. The aglycons of compounds 7 and 8, however, were potent antimutagens (IC(50) = 10.4 and 13.0 microM, respectively).
Oxygen radical absorbance capacity of the phenolic compounds in plant extracts fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography..:Anal Biochem. 2001 Jun 15;293(2):232-8.Caldwell CR.Phytonutrients Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Building 307, Barc-East, Beltsville, Maryland 20705, USA.
The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay has been used to quantify the antioxidative properties of phytonutrients in fruit and vegetable extracts. Using aqueous methanol extracts of tea and spinach as a model systems, separation of the components in the extracts by HPLC followed by semiautomatic ORAC analysis of the column fractions permitted the determination of peroxyl-radical-scavenging profiles, demonstrating the relative abilities of the individual extract components to scavenge peroxyl radicals. ORAC values for up to 80 HPLC fractions were measured, confirming the major contribution of epigallocatechin gallate in the peroxyl radical scavenging of green tea extracts. Although the flavonoids in spinach extracts provided resistance to peroxyl radicals, components that did not bind to the HPLC column and simple phenolic compounds may also be important contributors to the total ORAC activity of spinach leaf extracts. Application of these procedures to plants believed to provide certain human health benefits by reducing free radicals may allow the identification and characterization of the specific components responsible for the free-radical-scavenging activities.
Purification and cloning of chloroplast 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from spinach. Cyanobacterial genes for chloroplast and cytosolic isoenzymes encoded in eukaryotic chromosomes.:Eur J Biochem. 2001 May;268(9):2678-86.Krepinsky K, Plaumann M, Martin W, Schnarrenberger C.Institute of Biology, Free University of Berlin, Germany; Institute of Botany III, University of Düsseldorf, Germany.
Previous attempts to purify chloroplast 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (cp6PGDH), a key enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, have been unsuccessful due to rapid activity loss. An efficient purification protocol was developed and the enzyme from spinach leaves was purified 1000-fold to apparent homogeneity with a specific activity of 60 U.mg-1. The enzyme is a homodimer with subunits of 50 kDa. Antibodies raised against the purified cp6PGDH detected a 53-kDa protein from a crude extract, indicating alterations during purification. Purified cp6PGDH was microsequenced and the corresponding spinach cDNA was cloned using PCR techniques and degenerate primers. The cDNA for cytosolic 6PGDH from spinach was cloned for comparison. Phylogenetic analysis in the context of available homologues from eukaryotes and eubacteria revealed that animal and fungal cytosolic 6PGDH sequences are more similar to their homologues from gamma-proteobacteria, whereas plant 6PGDH is more similar to its cyanobacterial homologues. The ancestral gene for higher plant 6PGDH was acquired from the antecedent of plastids through endosymbiosis and gene transfer to the nucleus. A subsequent gene duplication gave rise to higher plant cytosolic 6PGDH, which assumed the function of its pre-existing cytosolic homologue through endosymbiotic gene replacement. The protein phylogeny of both 6PGDH and of the first enzyme of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, indicate a surprisingly close relationship between the plant and Trypanosoma brucei lineages, suggesting that T. brucei (a relative of Euglena gracilis) may be secondarily nonphotosynthetic.
Nitrate reductases from leaves of Ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) have different regulatory properties.:J Exp Bot. 2000 Jun;51(347):1099-105.Kandlbinder A, Weiner H, Kaiser WM.Universit?t Würzburg, Lehrstuhl für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie und Biophysik, Julius-von-Sachs-Platz 2, D-97082 Würzburg, Germany.
The activity of nitrate reductase (+Mg(2+), NR(act)) in illuminated leaves from spinach, barley and pea was 50-80% of the maximum activity (+EDTA, NR(max)). However, NR from leaves of Ricinus communis L. had a 10-fold lower NR(act), while NR(max) was similar to that in spinach leaves. The low NR(act) of Ricinus was independent of day-time and nitrate nutrition, and varied only slightly with leaf age. Possible factors in Ricinus extracts inhibiting NR were not found. NR(act) from Ricinus, unlike the spinach enzyme, was very low at pH 7.6, but much higher at more acidic pH with a distinct maximum at pH 6.5. NR(max) had a broad pH response profile that was similar for the spinach and the Ricinus enzyme. Accordingly, the Mg(2+)-sensitivity of NR from Ricinus was strongly pH-dependent (increasing sensitivity with increasing pH), and as a result, the apparent activation state of NR from a Ricinus extract varied dramatically with pH and Mg(2+)concentration. Following a light-dark transition, NR(act) from Ricinus decreased within 1 h by 40%, but this decrease was paralleled by NR(max). In contrast to the spinach enzyme, Ricinus-NR was hardly inactivated by incubating leaf extracts with ATP plus okadaic acid. A competition analysis with antibodies against the potential 14-3-3 binding site around ser 543 of the spinach enzyme revealed that Ricinus-NR contains the same site. Removal of 14-3-3 proteins from Ricinus-NR by anion exchange chromatography, activated spinach-NR but caused little if any activation of Ricinus-NR. It is suggested that Mg(2+)-inhibition of Ricinus-NR does not require 14-3-3 proteins. The rather slow changes in Ricinus-NR activity upon a light/dark transient may be mainly due to NR synthesis or degradation.
Effects of spinach powder fat-soluble extract on proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.:Biomed Environ Sci. 1999 Dec;12(4):247-52.He T, Huang CY, Chen H, Hou YH.Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, West China University of Medical Sciences (WCUMS), Chengdu, China.
Four kinds of assays were used to study the effect of a fat-soluble extract of spinach powder (SPFE) on the proliferation of human gastric adenocarcinoma cell line (SGC-7901) in vitro. These studies included: (i) cell growth assay, (ii) colony forming assay, (iii) MTT colorimetric assay, and (iv) 3H-TdR incorporation assay. The concentrations of SPFE expressed as the level of beta-carotene in the medium were 2 x 10(-8), 2 x 10(-7) and 2 x 10(-6) mol/L beta-carotene in assay (i)-(iii), but 4 x 10(-8), 4 x 10(-7) and 4 x 10(-6) mol/L beta-carotene in assay (iv) respectively. The results indicated that SPFE inhibited the proliferation and colony forming ability of SGC-7901 cells. And in MTT assay, SPFE inhibited the viability of SGC-7901 cells, but no inhibitory effect of SPFE was observed on the viability of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of healthy people. Finally, in the 3H-TdR incorporation test, both SPFE and beta-carotene showed significant inhibitory effects on DNA synthesis in SGC-7901 cells, but SPFE was more effective than beta-carotene.
Long-term dietary strawberry, spinach, or vitamin E supplementation retards the onset of age-related neuronal signal-transduction and cognitive behavioral deficits.:J Neurosci. 1998 Oct 1;18(19):8047-55.Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, Prior RL, Cao G, Martin A, Taglialatela G, Bickford PC.United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts, Boston, Massachusetts 02111, USA.
Recent research has indicated that increased vulnerability to oxidative stress may be the major factor involved in CNS functional declines in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and that antioxidants, e.g., vitamin E, may ameliorate or prevent these declines. Present studies examined whether long-term feeding of Fischer 344 rats, beginning when the rats were 6 months of age and continuing for 8 months, with diets supplemented with a fruit or vegetable extract identified as being high in antioxidant activity, could prevent the age-related induction of receptor-mediated signal transduction deficits that might have a behavioral component. Thus, the following parameters were examined: (1) oxotremorine-enhanced striatal dopamine release (OX-K+-ERDA), (2) cerebellar beta receptor augmentation of GABA responding, (3) striatal synaptosomal 45Ca2+ clearance, (4) carbachol-stimulated GTPase activity, and (5) Morris water maze performance. The rats were given control diets or those supplemented with strawberry extracts (SE), 9.5 gm/kg dried aqueous extract (DAE), spinach (SPN 6.4 gm/kg DAE), or vitamin E (500 IU/kg). Results indicated that SPN-fed rats demonstrated the greatest retardation of age-effects on all parameters except GTPase activity, on which SE had the greatest effect, whereas SE and vitamin E showed significant but equal protection against these age-induced deficits on the other parameters. For example, OX-K+-ERDA enhancement was four times greater in the SPN group than in controls. Thus, phytochemicals present in antioxidant-rich foods such as spinach may be beneficial in retarding functional age-related CNS and cognitive behavioral deficits and, perhaps, may have some benefit in neurodegenerative disease.
A simple procedure for purifying the major chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase from spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and characterization of its stimulation by sub-femtomolar mercuric ions..:Arch Biochem Biophys. 1998 Sep 15;357(2):207-24.Ashton AR.Lehrstuhl fur Pflanzenphysiologie, Universit?t Bayreuth, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
A rapid procedure for the purification of the redox-regulated chloroplast fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase [EC 22.214.171.124] from spinach leaf extract to homogeneity is described. No thiol-reducing agents were present during the purification and the enzyme is > 99% in the oxidized form. A rapid procedure to reduce and activate the Fru-1,6-P2ase by dithiothreitol in the absence of thioredoxin is described. Reduction activates the enzyme up to several hundred-fold when assayed at pH 8.0 with 2 mM Mg2+. The activity of the purified oxidized enzyme is unusually sensitive to changes in Mg2+ and H+ concentration. Tenfold changes in Mg2+ or H+ concentration lead to > 100-fold increases in activity. The recoveries of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity as determined by the activity of the oxidized enzyme at pH 8.0/20 mM Mg2+; pH 9.0/2 mM Mg2+; pH 8/2 mM Mg2+ plus 0.1 mM Hg(II) or of the reduced enzyme at pH 8.0/2 mM Mg2+ are similar (approximately 40%) indicating that the major proportion of these activities in a leaf extract is catalyzed by the same enzyme. Moreover, antibodies raised against the purified enzyme inhibit all of the above activities in crude leaf extracts. The kinetic properties of the purified enzyme suggest that the oxidized Mg(2+)-dependent enzyme can play no significant role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation. A survey of some kinetic properties of Fru-1,6-P2ase activity in extracts of various photosynthetic organisms reveals that all 11 species examined possess a redox- and pH/Mg(2+)-stimulated Fru-1,6-P2ase, whereas Fru-1,6-P2ase in extracts of Taxus baccata (a gymnosperm), Chlorella vulgaris (a green alga), and the cyanobacterium Nostoc muscorum were not activated by Hg(II). The heat stability that proved useful in the purification of the spinach enzyme was conserved in both angiosperms and gymnosperms. The oxidized enzyme (which normally has no thiol groups accessible to 5,5'-dithio-bis[2-nitrobenzoic acid]) but not the reduced enzyme can be stimulated many hundred-fold by addition of extraordinarily low concentrations of Hg(II) to a complete assay mixture. With the aid of EDTA as a Hg(II) buffer, half-maximal stimulation was achieved at 2 x 10(-16) M free Hg(II). Methylmercury also stimulates the enzyme many hundred-fold at very low concentrations. The concentration for half-maximal stimulation by methylmercury was determined with a cyanide buffer to be approximately 10(-16) M. This, together with the high affinity of the enzyme for Hg(II), suggests that Hg(II) stimulates the enzyme by binding to an enzyme thiol group that be comes exposed in the catalytically active enzyme, thereby stabilizing the oxidized enzyme in an active conformation. By contrast, in the absence of Fru-1,6-P2 and either Mg2+ or Ca2+, Hg(II) (even at 2 x 10(-16) M) rapidly inactivates the oxidized Fru-1,6-P2ase. This inactivation is similar to the inactivation of Fru-1,6-P2ase that occurred at high pH (> 9) and which is also prevented by Fru-1,6-P2 and either Mg2+ or Ca2+. Although the Hg(II)- and high pH-inactivated oxidized enzyme has no activity, both forms of the enzyme can be activated by reduction. The usefulness of buffers to maintain low, defined Hg(II) and organic mercurial concentrations is discussed.
Spinach powder-induced exogenous allergic alveolitis:Pneumologie. 1998 Jan;52(1):61-5. German.Schreiber J, Müller E, Becker WM, Zabel P, Schlaak M, Amthor M.Forschungszentrum Borstel, Medizinische Klinik.
A 51-year old woman developed hypersensitivity pneumonitis to spinach powder, which is used as a food dye. The diagnosis was confirmed by demonstration of IgG2-antibodies in the patient's serum to distinct bands of spinach extract by Western blotting. Furthermore an exposure test with the natural allergen was positive. Severe disease with fever, chills and dyspnoea developed after inhalation of native spinach powder. Arterial pO2 dropped significantly and pulmonary function tests showed severe restrictive impairment and reduction of diffusion capacity. Leucocyte count and the serum concentrations of the cytokines TNF alpha and IL6 and of the soluble IL2-receptor rose significantly in peripheral blood, whereas the concentration of neopterine did not change. 24 hours after exposure bronchoalveolar lavage showed an increase of neutrophils. In lung parenchyma mononuclear interstitial infiltrates and an epitheloid cell granuloma were seen.
Clastogenic activity of pure chlorophyll and anticlastogenic effects of equivalent amounts of crude extract of Indian spinach leaf and chlorophyllin following dietary supplementation to mice.:Environ Mol Mutagen. 1996;28(2):121-6.Sarkar D, Sharma A, Talukder G.Department of Botany, University of Calcutta, India.
Dietary consumption of green vegetables has been associated with protection against mutagenic and clastogenic activity of genotoxicants. Chlorophyll, being present in all green plants, had earlier been suggested to be the principal factor involved. Mice were administered (i) crude aqueous extract of leaf of Indian spinach, Beta vulgaris L. var.benghalensis Hort., and equivalent amounts of (ii) chlorophyll extracted from the leaf; (iii) purified chlorophyll, (iv) chlorophyllin, a sodium-copper derivative of chlorophyll; daily for 7 days. On day 7, one set of mice from each treatment was administered potassium dichromate-a known metallic clastogen. The mice were sacrificed after 24 hours. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow following the usual colchicine-air dry-Giemsa schedule. The cytogenetic endpoints scored were chromosomal aberrations and damaged cells. Crude leaf extract and chlorophyllin were nonclastogenic and reduced the clastogenic effects of potassium dichromate to the control distilled water level. Chlorophyll alone, whether extracted from the leaf or obtained in commercially purified form, was clastogenic and could reduce the effects of the chromium salt only to its own level. The protective action of the crude leaf extract may be attributed to the total effect of the interaction between the different components within the leaf extract, in which the clastogenicity of chlorophyll had been neutralized.
Protein histidine phosphatase activity in rat liver and spinach leaves.:FEBS Lett. 1995 May 1;364(1):51-4.Matthews HR, MacKintosh C.Biochemistry Department, The University, Dundee, UK.
Whole cell extracts from rat liver or spinach leaves contain divalent ion-independent protein histidine phosphatase activity due to phosphatases of the PP1/PP2A family. In the rat liver extract, almost all the activity was found in the PP1, PP2A1 and PP2A2 peaks. In the spinach leaf extract, four phosphorylase phosphatase activity peaks were resolved--three containing PP1 and one containing PP2A--and all showed histidine phosphatase activity. Thus, protein histidine phosphatase activity is expressed in the cytosolic forms of protein phosphatases of the PP1/PP2A family in mammalian and plant cells.
Purification and Properties of Spinach Leaf Debranching Enzyme.:Plant Physiol. 1984 Apr;74(4):856-861.Ludwig I, Ziegler P, Beck E.Lehrstuhl Pflanzenphysiologie, Universit?t Bayreuth, D-8580 Bayreuth, West Germany.
Starch debranching enzyme was purified from intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Vital) chloroplasts and from a spinach leaf extract using affinity chromatography on Sepharose 6B-bound cycloheptaamylose (Schardinger beta-dextrin). The enzyme from both sources was homogeneous upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Spinach leaf debranching enzyme appears to consist of a single polypeptide chain, since the molecular weight of the native protein (110,000 daltons) was not changed by treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Only one spinach leaf debranching enzyme band could be detected after electrophoresis of a leaf extract on amylopectin-containing polyacrylamide gel, the retardation factor of which coincided with that of the single band seen with the chloroplast enzyme. The purified enzyme exhibited strong pullulanase activity, the specific activity being 69 units per milligram protein with pullulan and 22 units per milligram protein with amylopectin. Cycloheptaamylose is a potent competitive inhibitor of spinach leaf debranching enzyme. The pH optimum of the enzyme was found to be 5.5. The purified enzyme is rather unstable at both 20 degrees and 0 degrees C. Part of the activity lost under storage or at a suboptimal pH could immediately be restored by the addition of thiols. The reactivatable protein, being of the same molecular weight as the native enzyme, exhibited a somewhat altered electrophoretic mobility resulting in one or two minor bands on a zymogram.
ATP-Dependent Proteolytic Activity from Spinach Leaves.:Plant Physiol. 1983 Dec;73(4):902-905.Hammond JB, Preiss J.Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, Davis, California 95616.
Spinach (Spinacia oleracea CV Bloomsdale Long Standing) leaf cytoplasmic starch phosphorylase and rabbit muscle phosphorylase a were inactivated by incubation with partially purified leaf extract in the presence of ATP and Mg(2+). The inactivating factor(s) were heat stable and susceptible to protease attack. Phosphorylase inactivation was prevented by incubation in the presence of p-aminobenzamidine and phenylboronic acid, or prolonged treatment with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride or leupeptin for the ATP-stimulated inhibitory activity. Mg(2+) -dependent inactivation was prevented by incubation with leupeptin, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, p-aminobenzamidine, or 5'-adenylate. ATP-mediated inactivation of phosphorylase was stimulated by Mg(2+) with a reduction in the apparent K(m) for ATP. Casein-degrading activities with the same properties of ATP and/or Mg(2+) stimulation, heat stability, and susceptibility to proteinase inhibitors were detected suggesting that phorphorylase inactivation was due to proteolysis. The activity was greatest at about the time of flowering and also appeared to depend on the light regime.
Fatty Acid Synthetase of Spinacia oleracea Leaves.:Plant Physiol. 1982 Jun;69(6):1257-1262.Shimakata T, Stumpf PK.Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California, Davis, California 95616.
The molecular organization of fatty acid synthetase system in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. var. Viroflay) leaves was examined by a procedure similar to that employed for the safflower system (Carthamus tinctorius var. UC-1). The crude extract contained all the component activities (acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, malonyl-CoA:ACP transacylase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthetase, beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase, and enoyl-ACP reductase [I]) involved in the synthesis of fatty acids, but enoyl-ACP reductase (II) present in safflower seeds extract could not be detected spectrophotometrically. By polyethylene glycol fractionation followed by several chromatographic procedures, i.e. Sephadex G-200, hydroxyapatite, and blue-agarose, the component enzymes were clearly separated from one another. Properties of beta-ketoacyl-ACP reductase, beta-hydroxyacyl-ACP dehydrase, and enoyl-ACP reductase (I) from spinach were compared with the same enzymes in safflower seeds and Escherichia coli.From these results, it was concluded that the fatty acid synthetase system of spinach leaves, as well as that of safflower seeds, was nonassociated and similar to the Escherichia coli system.
Protein synthesis in chloroplasts. VIII. Differential synthesis of chloroplast proteins during spinach leaf development.:Biochim Biophys Acta. 1980 Apr 30;607(2):319-30.Silverthorne J, Ellis RJ.
Excised primary leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) incorporate [35S]-methionine into a number of chloroplast polypeptides. The ratio of incorporation of isotope into the large subunit of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase relative to a thylakoid polypeptide (peak D) decreases during leaf development in whole leaves; this changing pattern of incorporation is also observed in isolated chloroplasts where these two polypeptides are the major products of protein synthesis. Chloroplast RNA prepared from developing leaves was translated in a reticulocyte lysate extract to yield full-length carboxylase large subunit and peak D polypeptides. The fidelity of translation of these two polypeptides was checked by partial protease digestion. Changes in the synthesis of the large subunit of the carboxylase and peak D in developing leaves are reflected in changes in the amount of translatable mRNA for these two polypeptides.
Organelle-specific Isozymes of Aspartate-alpha-Ketoglutarate Transaminase in Spinach Leaves.:Plant Physiol. 1976 Jul;58(1):110-113.Huang AH, Liu KD, Youle RJ.Department of Biology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 29208.
Four distinct isozymes of aspartate-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase in a spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf extract were separated by starch gel electrophoresis. Of the total aspartate-alpha-ketoglutarate transaminase activity, approximately 45% was represented by the chloroplast isozyme, 26% by the cytosol isozyme, 19% by the mitochondrial isozyme, and 3 to 10% by the peroxisomal isozyme. The aspartate-alpha-ketoglutarate transamination activity in the four subcellular compartments behaved similarly. It was freely reversible and alpha-ketoglutarate was preferred to pyruvate or glyoxylate as the amino group acceptor. With glutamate as the amino group donor, oxaloacetate was superior to pyruvate or glyoxylate as the acceptor in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and cytosol, while pyruvate or glyoxylate was preferred to oxaloacetate as the acceptor in peroxisomes.
Isocitrate Lyase in Green Leaves.:Plant Physiol. 1973 May;51(5):863-867.Godavari HR, Badour SS, Waygood ER.Department of Botany, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba. R3T 2N2, Canada.
Isocitrate lyase (EC 126.96.36.199) has been demonstrated in crude dialyzed extracts of healthy spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves from commercial sources and wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays) leaves stored in darkness in the cold room for 1 week. The products of the reaction were identified as glyoxylate and succinate, the former by its phenylhydrazone, and the latter traced by isotopic labeling and cochromatography. Fresh spinach extracts contain a mixture of at least two endogenous inhibitors of isocitrate lyase activity and one of them is proteinaceous. The endogenous inhibitor(s) is thermostable and retains 50% of its inhibitory effect even after boiling for 10 minutes. Dark starvation of the leaves removes the inhibition, due possibly to autolysis of the inhibitor(s). The inhibitor(s) can also be removed by filtration through Sephadex gels. The crude extract from spinach shows double pH optima in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. The apparent Km at pH 7.4 was 0.1 mm. Oxaloacetate, dl-malate, succinate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and glycolate at 10 mm concentration inhibited, but ribulose 1,5-diphosphate activated enzymic activity.
- 1.Spinach:Spinacia oleracea Phytochemicals and Constituents.
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