How to Use Buckwheat and its extracts?
- Basic Botanical Info.
- Botanical Description.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents.
- Beneficial Nutrients and Phytochemicals.
- Medicinal Action and Uses:Astringent, acrid.
- History of Buckwheat.
- Buckwheat classification.
- Buckweet Commodities.
- Other Species and Buckwheat Family.
- Research Update:Polygonum fagopyrum.
Research Update:Polygonum fagopyrum.:
Lectins in extracts of certain Polygonaceae seed precipitate animal and human serums.:Science. 1968 Jun 28;160(835):1462-3.Hanan EB, Spindler JW.
Seeds of four species of Polygonaceae were tested for lectins that precipitate human and animal serums. Rumex crispus, Polygonum convolvulus, and Polygonum pennsylvanicum developed specific precipitate bands on double diffusion on agar gel plates. These bands were enhanced and increased in number when extracts were tested against serums from patients with certain diseases. When tested against lyophilized serum, no precipitate bands developed. The active substance cannot be dialyzed through cellulose membrane against running tap water for 16 hours, and it is heat stable. Extracts from Fagopyrum esculentum developed no precipitate bands.
Cytotoxic effect of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hull against cancer cells.:J Med Food. 2007 Jun;10(2):232-8.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hull was extracted with 70% ethanol and then further fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and water stepwise. In the in vitro test (SRB assay), hexane and ethyl acetate fractions showed higher inhibition effects against MCF-7 cells than other samples at the 1 mg/mL level: 89% and 93.2%, respectively. They also displayed higher inhibition rates against Hep3B cells of 83.6% and 75.3%, respectively, at 1 mg/mL. The ethyl acetate fraction yielded the highest inhibition rate against A549 cells with the level of 0.25 mg/mL, but it showed a lower inhibition rate than the hexane and chloroform fractions at higher levels of sample, i.e., 0.75 and 1.0 mg/mL. All samples showed higher inhibition effects against AGS human gastric carcinoma than any other cancer cells. The inhibition rates against HeLa cells were 81.2% and 82.0% for the chloroform and butanol fraction with 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. However, all samples yielded an inhibition rate of less than 35% against normal cells, at all treatment levels, except the ethanol extract. All extracts at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg showed decreases of more than 20% and 42%, respectively, in tumor formation in sarcoma-180 implanted mice except for the aqueous fraction. From these results, it is suggested that buckwheat hull possesses anticancer properties against a variety of different cancer cell lines.
Suppressive effects of germinated buckwheat on development of fatty liver in mice fed with high-fat diet.:Phytomedicine. 2007 Aug;14(7-8):563-7. Epub 2007 Jun 29.
Effects of buckwheat germinated for 48 h in suppressing fatty liver were investigated using an animal study. Concentration of rutin was increased more than 10 times, with production of quercitrin and one newly formed flavonoid during 48 h germination. When an ethanol extract of germinated buckwheat was fed daily to C57BL/6 mice at 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt, along with a high-fat diet, oral administration of germinated buckwheat caused significant reductions in TG and TC levels in the liver after 8 weeks. Oral administration of germinated buckwheat also down-regulated mRNA expressions of PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha in hepatocytes, in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that germinated buckwheat has potent anti-fatty liver activities caused partially by suppressing the gene expression of certain adipogenic transcription factors like PPARgamma and C/EBPalpha in hepatocytes.
An anthocyanin compound in buckwheat sprouts and its contribution to antioxidant capacity.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2007 Feb;71(2):579-82. Epub 2007 Feb 7.
The major anthocyanin compound in buckwheat sprouts was determined to be cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside (C3R), based on HPLC data and MS/MS spectra. Investigation of the content of phenolic compounds in commercial buckwheat sprouts indicated that hypocotyls are abundant in C3R and rutin, whereas all of the detected flavonoids are abundant in cotyledons. The superoxide anion radical-scavenging activities (SOD-like activities) of phenolic compounds in buckwheat sprouts and their contents indicated that rutin, isoorientin, and orientin contributed mainly to the SOD-like activity of the extract from buckwheat sprouts. In contrast, the contribution of C3R was substantially lower than that of flavonoids.
Antioxidant and photoprotective properties of an extract from buckwheat herb (Fagopyrum esculentum MOENCH).:Pharmazie. 2006 Mar;61(3):237-40.Hinneburg I, Kempe S, Rüttinger HH, Neubert RH.Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Department of Pharmacy, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.
In recent years, the incidence of skin cancer has risen remarkably. Sun light, especially the included ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, is seen as important trigger for the development of skin cancer. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of UV-protective substances to use them as sun care products. One approach is the topical application of herbal antioxidants. Plant-derived antioxidants are often extracts and therefore contain a complex mixture of constituents, like flavonoids and polyphenols, which contribute to the overall activity of the extract. In the present study an extract from buckwheat herb was compared to rutin, which is the main constituent of the extract, regarding their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Additionally, the photoprotective properties of the extract were compared to those of a commercial UV absorber. The antioxidant activity was quantified regarding the reactivity versus the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH). The photoprotective properties of the extract were examined by the inhibition of the photosensitized lipid peroxidation of linolic acid. In the DPPH assay, the extract had significantly better antioxidant activity than pure rutin. The extract prevented more effectively the UV-induced peroxidation of linolic acid than rutin itself or the commercial UV absorber. The use of the extract from buckwheat herb seems to be more beneficial than the use of pure rutin. This can be referred to the presence of minor phenolic compounds in the extract. The results indicate that it is advisable to use antioxidants rather than only UV absorber to obtain a maximum of photo protection.
Murine model of buckwheat allergy by intragastric sensitization with fresh buckwheat flour extract.:J Korean Med Sci. 2005 Aug;20(4):566-72.
Food allergies affect about 4% of the Korean population, and buckwheat allergy is one of the most severe food allergies in Korea. The purpose of the present study was to develop a murine model of IgE-mediated buckwheat hypersensitivity induced by intragastric sensitization. Young female C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized and challenged intragastricly with fresh buckwheat flour (1, 5, 25 mg/dose of proteins) mixed in cholera toxin, followed by intragastric challenge. Anaphylactic reactions, antigen-specific antibodies, splenocytes proliferation assays and cytokine productions were evaluated. Oral buckwheat challenges of sensitized mice provoked anaphylactic reactions such as severe scratch, perioral/periorbital swellings, or decreased activity. Reactions were associated with elevated levels of buckwheatspecific IgE antibodies. Splenocytes from buckwheat allergic mice exhibited significantly greater proliferative responses to buckwheat than non-allergic mice. Buckwheat-stimulated IL-4, IL-5, and INF-gamma productions were associated with elevated levels of buckwheat-specific IgE in sensitized mice. In this model, 1 mg and 5 mg dose of sensitization produced almost the same degree of Th2-directed immune response, however, a 25 mg dose showed blunted antibody responses. In conclusion, we developed IgE-mediated buckwheat allergy by intragastric sensitization and challenge, and this model could provide a good tool for future studies.
Influence of extraction parameters on the phytochemical characteristics of extracts from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) herb.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 12;53(1):3-7.Hinneburg I, Neubert RH.Institute of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Wolfgang-Langenbeck-Strasse 4, D-06120 Halle, Germany.
In recent years, the interest in herbal medicinal products, especially in the field of dermatology and cosmetics, has risen enormously. Many plant-derived substances show photoprotective properties in terms of absorption of UV radiation and preventing photodamage to molecular structures of human skin. Modern phytopharmaceutics as well as phytocosmetics require standardized, defined extracts from the herbal matrix. Buckwheat herb is rich in flavonoids, which have been identified as potent antioxidants. Up to now, there have been no systematic investigations available concerning the extraction conditions for phenolic substances from buckwheat herb. In this paper, we report the influence of three extraction parameters, ethanol concentration, temperature, and extraction time, on the response variables extractable matter, antioxidant activity, and content of fagopyrin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid. Our results suggest that an extract with good antioxidant activity, a high content of phenolics, and a low content of the phototoxic fagopyrin can be yielded by agitated maceration with 30% ethanol at 60 degrees C for 2 h. Furthermore, there is good correlation between the antioxidant activity and the rutin content, whereas the extractable matter is not an appropriate parameter for extract quality. Huge differences in the content of rutin and chlorogenic acid when using herbal drugs from different suppliers confirm the demand of standardized procedures for the production of herbal drugs.
Identification and determination of flavonoids in buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae) by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and photodiode array ultraviolet detection.:Phytochem Anal. 2002 Sep-Oct;13(5):251-6.Tian Q, Li D, Patil BS.Texas A&M University Kingsville, Citrus Center, 312 N. International Blvd., Weslaco, TX 78596, USA.
An analytical method for flavonoids present in the seed extract of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Polygonaceae), using HPLC and a photodiode array detector and interfaced to an electrospray ionisation mass spectrometer, has been developed. Structural information about the flavonols was obtained from the retention time characteristics, the UV-visible spectra and the mass spectra without the need to isolate the individual compounds. The methanol extract of buckwheat contained principally four flavonol glycosides: rutin, quercetin, kaempferol-3-rutinoside and a trace quantity of a flavonol triglycoside.
Anti-allergic action of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) grain extract.:Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Jan;3(1):129-36.
The anti-allergic action of buckwheat grain extract (BGE) was investigated using rodent experimental models. The oral, intraperitoneal and intradermal administration of BGE significantly inhibited the compound 48/80-induced vascular permeability documented by Evans blue extravasation. In addition, BGE showed potent inhibitory effect on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE when orally administered. In an in vitro study, BGE revealed to possess inhibitory potential on the compound 48/80-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC). Moreover, BGE inhibited the IL-4 and TNF-alpha mRNA induction by PMA and A23187 in human leukemia mast cells, HMC-1. Taken together, these results suggest that anti-allergic action of BGE may be due to the inhibition of histamine release and cytokine gene expression in the mast cells.
Buckwheat extract inhibits progression of renal failure.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 May 22;50(11):3341-5.
Rats subjected to partial resection of the parenchyma showed reduced radical-scavenging activity in the remaining kidney and increased severity of renal tissue lesions. However, in similarly nephrectomized rats given buckwheat extract, the state of oxidative stress improved by restoring the decreased activities of reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. The degree of mesangial proliferation, severity of extratubular lesions such as crescents and adhesions, glomerulosclerosis index, and severity of tubular interstitial lesions also improved. In addition, nephrectomized rats given buckwheat extract showed improvement in renal function, as indicated by decreased serum level of creatinine, with a significant decrease in the level of methylguanidine, a uremic toxin produced from creatinine in the presence of hydroxyl radical.
Identification and quantification of aroma-active components that contribute to the distinct malty flavor of buckwheat honey.:J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Mar 27;50(7):2016-21.Zhou Q, Wintersteen CL, Cadwallader KR.Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA.
Characteristic aroma components of buckwheat honey were studied by combined sensory and instrumental techniques. Relative aroma intensity of individual volatile components was evaluated by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of solvent extracts and by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) of decreasing headspace samples (GCO-H). Results indicated that 3-methylbutanal, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon), and (E)-beta-damascenone were the most potent odorants in buckwheat honey, with 3-methylbutanal being primarily responsible for the distinct malty aroma. Other important aroma-active compounds included methylpropanal, 2,3-butanedione, phenylacetaldehyde, 3-methylbutyric acid, maltol, vanillin, methional, coumarin, and p-cresol.
Cationic inhibitors of serine proteinases from buckwheat seeds.:Biochemistry (Mosc). 2001 Sep;66(9):941-7.Tsybina TA, Dunaevsky YE, Musolyamov AK, Egorov TA, Belozersky MA.Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, 119899 Russia.
Preparations of low molecular weight protein inhibitors of serine proteinases have been obtained from buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) seeds by chromatography of seed extract on trypsin-Sepharose 4B, Mono-Q, and Mono-S ion exchangers (FPLC regime). Their molecular masses, determined by mass spectrometry, were 5203 (BWI-1c), 5347 (BWI-2c), 7760 (BWI-3c), and 6031 daltons (BWI-4c). All of the inhibitors possess high pH- and thermal stability in the pH range 2-12. In addition to trypsin, BWI-3c and BWI-4c inhibited chymotrypsin and subtilisin-like bacterial proteases. The N-terminal sequences of all of the inhibitors were determined: BWI-1c (23 residues), BWI-2c (33 residues), BWI-3c (18 residues), and BWI-4c (20 residues). In their physicochemical properties and N-terminal amino acid sequences, the buckwheat seed trypsin inhibitors BWI-3c and BWI-4c appear to belong to potato proteinase inhibitor I family.
Effects of buckwheat in a renal ischemia-reperfusion model.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Feb;65(2):396-400.
Experiments were done to find whether buckwheat extract ameliorates the renal injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion. In ischemic-reperfused control rats, the activities of antioxidative enzymes in renal tissue and blood and renal parameters deviated from the normal range, indicating dysfunction of the kidneys. In contrast, when buckwheat extract was given orally for 20 consecutive days before ischemia and reperfusion, the activities of the antioxidation enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were higher, while thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels in serum and renal tissue were lower in the treated rats than in the controls. Decreased levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum demonstrated a protective effect against the renal dysfunction caused by ischemia and recirculation. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that buckwheat extract had a protective effect on cultured proximal tubule cells subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation, probably by preventing oxygen free radicals from attacking the cell membranes.
Antioxidant activities of buckwheat hull extract toward various oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2001 Mar;24(3):209-13.
We have undertaken four basic in vitro studies and an animal experiment to obtain information about the antioxidant activities of buckwheat hull extract (BWHE). In the in vitro studies, BWHE scavenged super oxide anion produced in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system (IC50=11.4 microg phenolic compound/ml), and strongly inhibited autoxidation of linoleic acid (IC50=6.2 microg phenolic compound/ml). Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation induced by Cu2+ ion was also protected by BWHE. In the animal experiment, ddY mice were fed a standard diet supplemented with 0.75% BWHE for 14 d. In blood, liver and brain of the mice TBARS and fluorescent substance concentration were significantly decreased compared with those of non-treated mice. SOD like activity in serum also significantly rose by BWHE treatment. BWHE was shown to be effective for protecting biological systems against various oxidative stresses in vitro, and to have antioxidant activity in vivo.
Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) hulls and flour.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Sep;72(1-2):35-42.Quettier-Deleu C, Gressier B, Vasseur J, Dine T, Brunet C, Luyckx M, Cazin M, Cazin JC, Bailleul F, Trotin F.Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire et de Morphogenèse Végétale, U.S.T.L., F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq Cedex, France.
The interest of polyphenolics as therapeutic agents against diseases involving radical damage is growing. The phenolic contents of the hulls and flour from the seeds of Fagopyrum esculentum (French variety 'La Harpe') (total phenols, flavonoids, total flavanols, oligomeric proanthocyanidins) are compared with the antioxidative effects of the extracts against reactive oxygen species: hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, superoxide anion. The higher efficiency of the flour extract can be related to its higher flavanolic content rather than to flavonoids which are predominant in the hull extract.
Muscle hypertrophy in rats fed on a buckwheat protein extract.:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1999 Jul;63(7):1242-5.
Growing rats were examined for the influence of a buckwheat protein diet on muscle weight and protein. In experiment 1, the rats were fed on a diet containing either casein or a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) as the protein source (10%, 20% or 30%) for 5 wk. The relative weights (g per kg of body wt) of the gastrocnemius, plantaris and soleus muscles were higher in the BWPE-fed animals than in the casein-fed ones, but were unaffected by the dietary level of protein. These differences were not associated with growth. In experiment 2, the rats were fed on either a casein or BWPE diet at the 20% protein level for 5 wk. BWPE intake significantly elevated the gastrocnemius muscle weight, carcass protein and water, and reduced carcass fat. These results demonstrate that BWPE consumption causes muscle hypertrophy, elevates carcass protein and water, and reduces body fat.
Buckwheat protein extract suppression of the growth depression in rats induced by feeding amaranth (Food Red No. 2).:Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1996 Sep;60(9):1530-1.
Dietary fiber has an ameliorative effect on the toxicity of amaranth (Food Red No. 2). To test the possibility that a buckwheat protein extract (BWPE) has dietary fiber-like activity by virtue of its low digestibility, we examined the influence of BWPE on amaranth toxicity in rats. The results show that BWPE-containing diet suppressed the growth depression induced by the dietary addition of 5% amaranth.
The effect of purified extract of Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat) on protein kinases involved in signal transduction pathways.:Planta Med. 1996 Apr;62(2):106-10.Samel D, Donnella-Deana A, de Witte P.Laboratorium voor Farmaceutische Biologie, Faculteit Farmaceutische Wetenschappen, Leuven, Belgium.
The effect of a purified extract of the flowering herb of Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat) on various protein kinases involved in signal transduction was examined. We observed that buckwheat contains red fluorescent compounds having photosensitizing properties. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extract has indicated structural similarity to hypericin. Dose- and light-dependent inhibition of various protein kinases was observed. The purified buckwheat extract strongly inhibited two receptor-associated protein tyrosine kinases (EGF-R and Ins-R) and a Ser/Thr kinase (PK-C) at an ng/ml concentration range. Selectivity was exhibited as a decreased sensitivity to cytosolic PTKs and protein kinase CK-2. The protein kinases are important components of the signal transduction pathway. Aberration of signal transduction is a hallmark of several proliferative diseases. Our results indicate that photosensitizing compounds in buckwheat are potential antiproliferative agents.
- 1.How to Use Buckwheat and its extracts?
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