Barley:a legacy from the Stone Age?
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Who is this for? Uses:
For medical use, whole barley seeds -- and cereals and flour made from them -- are being investigated for treating diabetes, high cholesterol, and obesity. Some evidence from separate studies involving laboratory animals and humans suggests that barley seed products in the diet may improve blood sugar levels in individuals with diabetes -- possibly because the fiber in barley seeds delays stomach emptying and slows down the absorption of carbohydrates from foods. Like oatmeal, barley seeds contain fiber that dissolves in water and fiber that does not dissolve. Both types that may help to lower cholesterol. In clinical studies, many participants who ate barley or bakery made with barley showed reductions in their total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, the "bad" cholesterol), or triglyceride levels as compared to participants who ate products made with wheat flour. The positive results from some studies were erratic, however, with some participants showing much different results than others on the same diet. In addition, barley seed fiber may help individuals lose weight by creating a feeling of fullness that persists because the fiber swells and stomach contents stay in the stomach longer. Barley seeds may also protect against colon cancer. Generally, the fiber in barley seeds has been shown to help prevent colon cancer in laboratory animals. Further studies are needed to prove all of these possible uses for barley.
After beer is brewed, the leftover barley (commonly known as brewer's spent grain) may be used for animal feed. It may also be allowed to sprout, producing a product called germinated barley foodstuff (GBF), which contains more protein than unsprouted barley. GBF also has high amounts of insoluble fiber. In several studies of humans, GBF has helped to relieve diarrhea, inflammation, pain, and other symptoms associated with gastrointestinal conditions such as ulcerative colitis.
Usually called barley grass, the leaves and leaf juice of the barley plant also appear to lower blood cholesterol levels. A small study conducted in China showed that taking barley grass decreased LDL in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, chemicals in barley grass may delay or prevent the development of blood vessel damage that can be caused by diabetes. It also contains large amounts of several B vitamins, beta carotene, folic acid, and calcium -- making it a good source of nutrients.
When should I be careful taking it?
Individuals who have celiac disease should avoid barley seeds, cereals, and flour because they contain gluten. Barley grass is not believed to contain gluten, but individuals with any stomach or intestinal disease are advised to use it with caution and to stop taking it if problems develop.
A few cases have been reported of allergic reactions or asthma among individuals who were exposed to dust from processing barley seeds or grass.
Individuals with diabetes should watch their blood sugar levels carefully, if barley is eaten in significant amounts or if it is taken as a dietary supplement. Hypoglycemia (blood sugar that is too low) may occur. Symptoms of low blood sugar include shakiness, sweating, confusion, distorted speech, and loss of muscle control. If not corrected, low blood sugar can lead to unconsciousness and even death.
A Word of Caution:
If you have celiac sprue disease, stay away from barley. Like most grains, barley contains gluten, a mixture of proteins that can damage the lining of your intestines. Beware, too, if you suffer from a gluten food allergy, in which case barley could cause craps, diarrhea, and other problems.
New research also suggests that barley and other foods rich in lectins, a type of plant protein, could increase the risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in people whose genes make them susceptible to this disease. The theory is the lectins spur your immune system to attack your body's own joints, leading to inflammation. If you already suffer from RA, try eliminating cereal grains like barley, oats and wheat from your diet. Your symptoms may improve.
What interactions? In theory, taking fiber of the kind found in barley seed products could block the absorption of other substances that are taken at the same time. If you take barley seed products, do not take foods, drugs, or other dietary supplements within 2 hours.
Interactions with Prescription Drugs: Due to a potential ability to lower blood sugar levels, large amounts of barley seed products may interfere with insulin and oral drugs for diabetes, such as:
glipizide (Glucotrol XL),glyburide (Glynase),Glyset
Barley seeds contain a chemical known as hordenine, which may stimulate parts of the nervous system. If hordenine is taken with prescription drugs that also cause nervous system stimulation, the risk of side effects such as anxiety, dizziness, fast heart beat, headache, insomnia, nausea, and restlessness may increase. Prescription drugs that may interact with hordenine include:
Alpha blockers such as doxazosin and terazosin
Asthma drugs such as albuterol and metaproterenol
Beta blockers such as metoprolol and propranolol
Interactions with Non-prescription Drugs:
Non-prescription cough and cold remedies often contain pseudoephedrine (PSE) or phenylepherine, drugs which may increase the risk of side effects such as anxiety, dizziness, fast heart beat, headache, insomnia, nausea, and restlessness when they are taken with large amounts of barley seed products.
Interactions with Herbal Products:
Because barley seed products may decrease blood sugar levels, taking them with other blood sugar-lowering herbal products may result in hypoglycemia -- blood sugar that is too low. Herbals that may reduce blood sugar include:
Eleuthero,Fenugreek,Ginger (in high amounts),Kudzu,Panax ginseng
No interactions between barley grass and prescription drugs, non-prescription drugs, other herbal products, or foods have been reported. However, not all potential interactions may be known. If you experience unexpected effects while taking barley grass with a drug or another dietary supplement, stop taking the barley grass and discuss the effects with your doctor or pharmacist.
Should I take it?
Both the leaves and the seeds of the barley plant have been used as food and medicine for humans. They are also used widely in animal feeds. For centuries, barley seeds (also called kernels or pearls) have been cooked as a grain similar to oats or rice. A source for the B vitamins, vitamin E, and folic acid, barley seeds are also ground into flour for baking or processed for use as a cereal. A sweetener known as malt sugar may be made from them and another barley derivative -- malt extract -- has been used as a laxative. In western countries, the main current use of barley is for making beer, but in other parts of the world, it is a primary grain for food. In Asia, barley seeds may be fermented and added to soybeans, salt, and seaweed to make one type of miso, a common flavoring agent for foods.
The leaves of barley plants are usually called barley grass because they are long and narrow like grass. During the first part of the 20th century, the juice of barley grass was discovered to be rich in vitamins and minerals. Barley grass is used as a food source in some parts of Asia and it is available for food supplementation as both a juice and a powder that can be added to foods or taken as capsules.
Dosage and Administration
No dosage recommendations are available in scientific literature for barley seeds or barley grass. When used as a food, barley appears to be safe even in large quantities.
Barley is most commonly consumed as a food.For commercial dietary supplements of barley grass,follow package instructions.
Summary: Barley seeds are used for human and animal food. The fiber contained in barley may also have a lowering effect on blood sugar and blood cholesterol levels. While the leaves of the barley plant may also lower cholesterol, they are more often used as a nutritional supplement because they contain a relatively high amount of vitamins.
Risks: Countless millions have consumed barley over the centuries with no apparent ill effect.However,people have difficulty digesting gluten,such as those with celiac disease,should avoid the grain because it does contain low level of this substance.2
Side Effects: No side effects have been attributed to the use of barley seeds or barley grass.No side effects have been reported from eating barley seeds, flour, or cereal or from taking barley grass juice or powder.
Interactions: Due to a possible lowering of blood sugar, taking barley may increase the effects with drugs or herbs that also reduce blood sugar levels. It may increase the chance of anxiety and other nervous system side effects when it is taken with certain drugs for asthma and heart conditions. Because barley fiber may stay in the stomach, it may block the absorption of drugs and nutrients.
1: 1.Barley:a legacy from the Stone Age?
2: see The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines,1st Ed.,under title "Barley",p62,63.
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