Hibiscus syriacus and its applications.


Research Update:Hibiscus syriacus.:

Hibiscus syriacus Extract INCI Name Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Extract CAS 223749-10-8 Hibiscus Extract Hibiscus Flower Extract Hibiscus sabdariffa extract Rose Of Sharon extract Hibiscus sabdariffa flower extract photo picture image   Potential tree species for use in the restoration of unsanitary landfills.:Environ Manage. 2005 Jul;36(1):1-14.Kim KD, Lee EJ.Center for Urban Horticulture, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-4115, USA. kdkim@u.washington.edu

 Given that they represent the most economical option for disposing of refuse, waste landfills are widespread in urban areas. However, landfills generate air and water pollution and require restoration for landscape development. A number of unsanitary waste landfills have caused severe environmental problems in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the colonization status of different tree species on waste landfills to assess their potential for restoring unsanitary landfills in South Korea. Plot surveys were conducted using 10 x 10-m quadrats at seven waste landfill sites: Bunsuri, Dugiri, Hasanundong, Gomaeri, Kyongseodong, Mojeonri, and Shindaedong. We determined the height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and number of tree species in the plots, and enumerated all saplings < or =1 m high. Because black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, was the dominant tree species in the waste landfills, we measured the distance from the presumed mother plant (i.e., the tallest black locust in a patch), height, and DBH of all individuals in black locust patches to determine patch structure. Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix koreensis, and Populus sieboldii formed canopy layers in the waste landfills. The basal area of black locust was 1.51 m(2)/ha, and this species had the highest number of saplings among all tree species. The diameter of the black locust patches ranged from 3.71 to 11.29 m. As the patch diameter increased, the number of regenerated saplings also tended to increase, albeit not significantly. Black locust invaded via bud banks and spread clonally in a concentric pattern across the landfills. This species grew well in the dry habitat of the landfills, and its growth rate was very high. Furthermore, black locust has the ability to fix nitrogen symbiotically; it is therefore considered a well-adapted species for waste landfills. Eleven woody species were selected for screening: Acer palmatum, Albizzia julibrissin, Buxus microphylla var. koreana, Ginkgo biloba, Hibiscus syriacus, Koelreuteria paniculata, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Liriodendron tulipifera, Pinus koraiensis, Pinus thunbergii, and Sophora japonica. As a result of a comparison of the total ratio (sum of shoot extension and diameter growth at the landfill relative to a reference site) and mortality, six species (Liriodendron tulipifera, Albizzia julibrissin, Ligustrum obtusifolium, Buxus microphylla var. koreana, Hibiscus syriacus, and Sophora japonica), which had a total ratio >1 and experienced low mortality, are recommended as potentially suitable species for waste landfill remediation. We suggest that mixed plantations of ubiquitous adaptable species and naturally occurring black locust will enhance the landscape through synergistic effects.

  Characterization of Ty3-gypsy-like elements in Hibiscus syriacus.:Mol Cells. 2005 Jun 30;19(3):318-27.Jeung JU, Cho SK, Lee SJ, Shin JS.School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701, Korea.

 Southern blot analysis revealed a ubiquitous distribu-tion and high copy number of Ty3-gypsy-like elements in the genome of Hibiscus syriacus. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of the large subunit of Rubisco and the integrase region of Ty3-gypsy elements in various plant species indicated that the retrotransposon-like sequences have different evolutionary histories and their own unique polymorphism in the H. syriacus population. Sequence-tagged site-restriction fragment length polymorphisms (STS-RFLP) analysis also indicated great variability in the numbers and sequences of Ty3-gypsy-like elements within H. syriacus varieties. Ty3-gypsy-like elements may still be active within H. syriacus, since Northern analysis of wounded leaves of H. syriacus variety Saehan with a probe for the integrase domain gave strong hybridization signals. The sequence heterogeneity and ubiquity of the Ty3-gypsy-like elements in H. syriacus genomes could provide reliable DNA markers for line identification as well for the analysis of genetic diversity in H. syriacus.

  Floral affinity and benefits of dietary mixing with flowers for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.:Oecologia. 2004 Jul;140(2):312-20. Epub 2004 May 14.Held DW, Potter DA.Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Biloxi, MS 39531, USA.

 Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits.

  Antioxidant properties of heat-treated Hibiscus syriacus.:Izv Akad Nauk Ser Biol. 2003 Jan-Feb;(1):20-1.Kwon SW, Hong SS, Kim JI, Ahn IH.College Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

 The antioxidant properties of heat-treated Hibiscus syriacus was investigated using DPPH test. The stems and the roots of Hibiscus syriacus were examined, respectively. As a result, the extracts of heat-treated Hibiscus syriacus at 100 degrees C for 24 h were more effective than those of non-treated Hibiscus syriacus in reducing the stable free radical 1,1-Dipheny 1-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  Diversity and varietal classification of Hibiscus syriacus L. with the heterogeneity within retrotransposon-like elements.:Mol Cells. 2002 Jun 30;13(3):362-8.Lee SJ, Jeung JU, Cho SK, Um BY, Chung WI, Bae JM, Shin JS.Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul.

 Retrotransposons are present in multi-copy numbers that are integrated into plant genomes with considerable heterogeneous sequences within a single plant and between plant species, which allows the use of retrotransposons as additional sources of DNA polymorphism. A primer design for the sequence-tagged specific site and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (STS-CAPs) that are derived from retrotransposon-like sequences was developed for the molecular marker analysis in Hibiscus syriacus. This method was applied for the detection of sequence variations of intact retrotransposons that exist in plant genomes, which resulted in higher polymorphisms than in the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Through STS-CAPs, specific fingerprinting data among H. syriacus varieties can be easily distinguished and generated with reproducible results. It could also be adapted to any species that possess multi-copy retrotransposons for varietal identification as well as the assessment of genetic relationships.

  Coumarins with monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and antioxidative coumarino-lignans from Hibiscus syriacus.:J Nat Prod. 2001 Sep;64(9):1238-40.Yun BS, Lee IK, Ryoo IJ, Yoo ID.Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 115, Yusong, Taejon 305-600, Korea.

 A previously undescribed coumarin and a new coumarino-lignan, together with the known compounds scopoletin and cleomiscosins A, C, and D, have been isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus, and their structures were assigned on the basis of various spectral studies. The coumarin analogue and scopoletin inhibited monoamine oxidase with moderate IC(50) values. The new coumarino-lignan and cleomiscosin C showed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity comparable to vitamin E.

  An antioxidant lignan and other constituents from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.:Planta Med. 1999 Oct;65(7):658-60.Lee SJ, Yun YS, Lee IK, Ryoo IJ, Yun BS, Yoo ID.

 A new lignan named as hibiscuside, (+)-pinoresinol 4-O-[beta-glucopyranosyl (1--->2)-alpha-rhamnoside] (1), and a known lignan, syringaresinol (2) were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus together with two feruloyltyramines (3,4) and three known isoflavonoids (5,6,7). The structures of these compounds have been established on the basis of their NMR, mass UV spectra. Among these phenolic compounds, 6"-O-acetyldaidzin (5), 6"-O-acetylgenistin (6), and 3-hydroxydaidzein (7) with IC(50) values of 8.2, 10.6, and 4.1 microM, respectively, significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. Hibiscuside (1), E- and Z-N-feruloyl tyramines (3,4) exhibited moderate antioxidant activity.

  Two bioactive pentacyclic triterpene esters from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.:J Nat Prod. 1999 May;62(5):764-6.Yun BS, Ryoo IJ, Lee IK, Park KH, Choung DH, Han KH, Yoo ID.Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 115, Yusong, Taejon 305-600, Korea.

 Two new triterpene caffeates have been isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. Their structures were established through various spectral studies as 3beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 23-caffeate (1) and 3beta,23,28-trihydroxy-12-oleanene 3beta-caffeate (2). Compounds 1 and 2 showed lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and significant cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

  Three naphthalenes from root bark of Hibiscus syriacus.:Phytochemistry. 1998 Mar;47(5):799-802.Yoo ID, Yun BS, Lee IK, Ryoo IJ, Choung DH, Han KH.Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, KIST, Yusong, Taejon, Korea.

 Three new naphthalenes, designated as syriacusins A-C, were isolated from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. These compounds were identified as 2,7-dihydroxy-6-methyl-8-methoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 2-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,8-dimethoxy-1-naphthalenecarbaldehyde, 1-carboxy-2,8-dihydroxy-6-methyl-7-methoxynaphthalenecarbolactone (1-->8), respectively, on the basis of various spectral studies. The compounds inhibited lipid peroxidation with IC50s of 0.54, 5.90 and 1.02 micrograms ml-1, respectively. The first compound also showed cytotoxicity against some human cancer cell lines with an ED50 of 1.5-2.4 micrograms ml-1.

  Chemical constituents from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus L.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Jan;18(1):37-8, 63. Chinese.Zhang EJ, Kang QS, Zhang Z.Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical College, Chongqing.

 Seven constituents (I-VII) were isolated from the bark of Hibiscus syriacus and identified as nonanedioic acid (I), suberic acid (II), 1-octarcosanol (III), beta-sitosterol (IV), 1,22-docosanediol (V), betulin (VI) and erythrotriol (VII). VII was obtained from the plant for the first time, I, II, III and VI were isolated from Malvaceae plants for the first time.

  Anti-diabetic activity of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis.:Fitoterapia. 2007 Aug 11.Venkatesh S, Thilagavathi J, Shyam Sundar D.Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, SRM College of Pharmacy, Tamil Nadu, India.

 The ethanol extract of flowers of Hibiscus rosasinensis at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the blood glucose level in both acute (1, 3, 5 h) and sub acute (1, 3, 5, 7 days) treatments.

  Dietary fiber content and associated antioxidant compounds in Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.:J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Sep 19;55(19):7886-90. Epub 2007 Aug 17.Sáyago-Ayerdi SG, Arranz S, Serrano J, Go?i I.Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

 The beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers is widely consumed in Mexico. Polyphenols contained in plant foods are frequently associated with dietary fiber. The aim of this work is to quantify the dietary fiber, associated polyphenols, and antioxidant capacity of the Roselle flower and the beverage traditionally prepared from it and its contribution to the Mexican diet. Roselle flower contained dietary fiber as the largest component (33.9%) and was rich in phenolic compounds (6.13%). Soluble dietary fiber was 0.66 g/L in beverage, and 66% of total extractable polyphenols contained in Roselle flower passed to the beverage and showed an antioxidant capacity of 335 micromoL trolox equivalents/100 mL beverage measured by ABTS. These data suggest that Roselle flower beverage intake in the Mexican diet may contribute around 166 and 165 mg/per serving to the intake of dietary fiber and polyphenols, respectively. The health benefits from consumption of Hibiscus beverage could be of considerable benefit to the whole population.

  Effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) on wound healing activity: a preclinical study in a Sprague Dawley rat.:Int J Low Extrem Wounds. 2007 Jun;6(2):76-81.Shivananda Nayak B, Sivachandra Raju S, Orette FA, Chalapathi Rao AV.Department of Preclinical Sciences, Biochemistry Unit, Faculty of Medical Sciences, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago. shiv25@gmail.com

 Hibiscus rosa sinensis (H rosa sinensis), a plant product, has been used for the treatment of a variety of diseases as well as to promote wound healing. The wound-healing activity of the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis flower was determined in rats, using excision, incision, and dead space wound models and is presented in this report. The animals were randomly divided into 2 groups of 6 each in all the models. Test group animals in each model were treated with the ethanol extract of H rosa sinensis orally by mixing in drinking water (120 mg kg(-1) day(-1)), and the control group animals were maintained with plain drinking water. Healing was assessed by the rate of wound contraction, period of epithelialization, tensile strength (skin breaking strength), granulation tissue weight, and hydroxyproline content. The antimicrobial activity of the flower extract against selected microorganisms that infect the wounds was also assessed. Animals treated with the extract exhibited an 86% reduction in the wound area compared with controls, who exhibited a 75% reduction. The extract-treated animals were found to epithelize their wounds significantly faster than controls (P < .002) and have shown significantly higher skin-breaking strength than controls (P < .002). The dry and wet weight of granulation tissue and hydroxyproline content were also increased significantly when compared with controls. The reported observations suggest H rosa sinensis aids wound healing in the rat model.

  Antihypertensive effect of an aqueous extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa.:Fitoterapia. 2007 Jun;78(4):292-7. Epub 2007 Apr 11.Mojiminiyi FB, Dikko M, Muhammad BY, Ojobor PD, Ajagbonna OP, Okolo RU, Igbokwe UV, Mojiminiyi UE, Fagbemi MA, Bello SO, Anga TJ.Department of Physiology, Usman Danfodio University, Sokoto, Nigeria. mojiminiyi@yahoo.co.uk

 The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of an aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) in two forms of experimental hypertension: salt-induced and L-NAME (N(omega)-L-arginine methyl ester)-induced and in normotensive controls. The blood pressure and heart rate fell dose-dependently in both the hypertensive and normotensive rats after intravenous injection of 1-125 mg/kg of HS, suggesting that HS possesses anti-hypertensive, hypotensive and negative chronotropic effects. The fall in mean arterial pressure was significantly pronounced in the hypertensive rats (salt-induced: 94.4+/-8.6 mm Hg; L-NAME-induced: 136.5+/-10.3 mm Hg) than in the normotensive controls (50.2+/-5.1 mm Hg; P<0.05).

  Influence of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. petal on cadmium toxicity in rats.:Biol Trace Elem Res. 2007 Jan;115(1):47-57.Asagba SO, Adaikpoh MA, Kadiri H, Obi FO.Department of Biochemistry, Delta State University, P.M.B. 1, Abraka, Delta State, Nigeria.

 The effects of chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) on some selected biochemical parameters, as well as the possible protective role of aqueous extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L petal were studied in 12-wk-old male Wistar albino rats. Exposure to Cd caused a significant increase in plasma Lalanine aminotransferases (ALT) only but with a corresponding decrease in liver L-alanine and L-aspartate aminotransferases (L-ALT, L-AST) when compared to the Cd-free control. Total superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in the liver, testis, and prostate of Cd-exposed rats, whereas malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations were increased relative to the Cd-free control. The metal significantly increased prostatic acid phosphatase activity in the prostate, but decreased the body weight gain of the rats and organ/body weight ratio for prostate and testis compared to the Cd-free control. Pretreatment of rats with aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa resulted in significantly less hepatotoxicity than with Cd alone as measured by plasma ALT and liver ALT and AST activities. The extract also protected the rats against Cd-induced liver, prostate, and testis lipoperoxidation as evidenced by significantly reduced MDA values in these organs, as well as reduced prostatic acid phosphatase activity in the prostate, when compared to the Cd-only exposed rats. Also, when compared to the organ/body weight ratios obtained from rats exposed to Cd alone the prostate and testis were protected by the extract as shown by enhanced prostate/body weight and testis/body weight ratios of Cd- and extract-treated rats. These data suggest that H. sabdarrifa L might be protective in Cd toxicity.

  Q-mode curve resolution of UV-vis spectra for structural transformation studies of anthocyanins in acidic solutions.:Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Jan 30;583(1):138-46. Epub 2006 Oct 4.Mar?o PH, Scarminio IS.Laboratório de Quimiometria em Ciências Naturais, Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Caixa Postal 6001, CEP 86051-970 Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.

 Chemometric analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra for pH values 1.0, 3.3, 5.3, and 6.9 was used to investigate the kinetics and the structural transformations of anthocyanins in extracts of calyces of hibiscus flowers of the Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Finicius for the first time. Six different species were detected: the quinoidal base (A), the flavylium cation (AH+), the pseudobase or carbinol pseudobase (B), cis-chalcone (C(C)), trans-chalcone (C(t)), and ionized cis-chalcone (C(C)-). Four equilibrium constant values were calculated using relative concentrations, hydration, pK(h) = 2.60 +/- 0.01, tautomeric, K(T) = 0.14 +/- 0.01, acid-base, pK(a) = 4.24 +/- 0.04, and ionization of the cis-chalcone, pK(C(C)) = 8.74 +/- 1.5 x 10(-2). The calculated protonation rate of the tautomers is K(H+) = 0.08 +/- 7.6 x 10(-3). These constants are in excellent agreement with those measured previously in salt form. From a kinetic viewpoint, the situation encountered is interesting since the reported investigation is limited to visible light absorption in acid medium. These models have not been reported in the literature.

  Effects of water extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Linn (Malvaceae) 'Roselle' on excretion of a diclofenac formulation.:Phytother Res. 2007 Jan;21(1):96-8.Fakeye TO, Adegoke AO, Omoyeni OC, Famakinde AA.Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Administration, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. titifakeye@yahoo.com

 The effect of beverages prepared from the dried calyx of the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the excretion of diclofenac was investigated using a controlled study in healthy human volunteers. A high pressure liquid chromatographic method was used to analyse the 8 h urine samples collected after the administration of diclofenac with 300 mL (equivalent to 8.18 mg anthocyanins) of the beverage administered daily for 3 days. An unpaired two-tailed t-test was used to analyse for significant difference observed in the amount of diclofenac excreted before and after administration of the beverage. There was a reduction in the amount of diclofenac excreted and the wide variability observed in the control with the water beverage of Hibiscus sabdariffa (p < 0.05). There is an increasing need to counsel patients against the use of plant beverages with drugs.

  Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat.:BMC Complement Altern Med. 2006 Sep 20;6:32.Gauthaman KK, Saleem MT, Thanislas PT, Prabhu VV, Krishnamoorthy KK, Devaraj NS, Somasundaram JS.Department of Pharmacology, K.M. College of Pharmacy, Madurai-107, India. gauthamank@gmail.com

 BACKGROUND: The present study investigates the cardioprotective effects of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, particularly in terms of its antioxidant effects. METHODS: The medicinal values of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (Chinese rose) have been mentioned in ancient literature as useful in disorders of the heart. Dried pulverized flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis was administered orally to Wistar albino rats (150-200 gms) in three different doses [125, 250 and 500 mg/kg in 2% carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)], 6 days per week for 4 weeks. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed; either for the determination of baseline changes in cardiac endogenous antioxidants [superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase] or the hearts were subjected to isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis. RESULTS: There was significant increase in the baseline contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) [a measure of lipid per oxidation] with both doses of Hibiscus Rosa sinensis. In the 250 mg/kg treated group, there was significant increase in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels but not in the 125 and 500 mg/kg treated groups. Significant rise in myocardial thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and loss of superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione (suggestive of increased oxidative stress) occurred in the vehicle treated hearts subjected to in vivo myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury. CONCLUSION: It may be concluded that flower of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (250 mg/kg) augments endogenous antioxidant compounds of rat heart and also prevents the myocardium from isoproterenol induced myocardial injury.

  Antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. methanolic extract.:J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7324-30.Rosa RM, Melecchi MI, da Costa Halmenschlager R, Abad FC, Simoni CR, Caram?o EB, Henriques JA, Saffi J, de Paula Ramos AL.Departamento de Biofísica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.

 The genus Hibiscus thrives in a variety of climates and produces a diversity of natural compounds with bioactive properties. We have studied the chemical composition and the in vivo antioxidant properties of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. methanolic flower extract, as well as its mutagenic/antimutagenic effects. Vitamin E and some stigmasterol derivatives that might confer an antioxidant effect to the extract were present. Treatment with this extract protected several Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains defective in antioxidant defenses against H2O2 and t-BOOH cytotoxicities, showing a clear antioxidant activity. The effect is the same for all strains used, independent of the antioxidant defense disrupted, suggesting that protection may be due to molecules that act as versatile and wide spectrum nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as vitamins or phytosterols. The extract was not mutagenic in either Salmonella typhimurium or S. cerevisiae and showed a significant antimutagenic action against oxidative mutagens in S. cerevisiae.

  Study of microwave-assisted extraction on total flavones content in Hibiscus manihot L. flower.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Apr;29(4):387-90. Chinese.Yan Q. College of Biological Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Science and Technology, Shijiazhuang 050018, China.)

 OBJECTIVE: To study the extraction process of the total flavones content in Hibiscus manihot L. flower. METHODS: it was investigated that effect of ethanol concentration, extracting time, power of microwave oven and Solid/Liquid ratio (g/mL) on total flavones content using the orthogonal design. RESULTS: The optimum microwave-assisted extraction conditions included: ethanol concentration of 70%, extraction time of 30s, the power of microwave oven of 360w, solid/liquid ratio of 1 : 50 (g/ml) and granularity < or = 80 pore. CONCLUSION: There are broad possibilities for the extraction of the total flavones content from Hibiscus manihot L flower using Microwave-assisted technigue.

  The efficacy of roselle (Hibicus sabdariffa Linn.) flower tea as oral negative contrast agent for MRCP study.:J Med Assoc Thai. 2005 Jun;88 Suppl 1:S35-41.Varavithya V, Phongkitkarun S, Jatchavala J, Ngeonthom S, Sumetchotimaytha W, Leelasithorn V.Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University, Nakhon-Nayok 26120, Thailand.

 OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of roselle flower tea (RFT) administration as oral negative contrast agent for MRCP study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Roselle flower tea was prepared by packing 4,000 mg of dry ground roselle flower in a tea bag and soaked with 480 ml of hot distilled water RFT was tested in phantom, volunteer subjects and was studied in patients for MRCP study. Quanlitative analysis was made by evaluation of the conspicuity of biliary system after RFT administration. Quantitative comparison was performed by comparing the contrast-to-noise ratio between each part of the biliary system with stomach and duodenum. RESULTS: Roselle flower tea can effectively reduce signal intensity of the stomach and duodenum. There was statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement in conspicuity of the common bile duct. There was slight improvement of conspicuity of common hepatic duct, ampulla and main pancreatic duct. Contrast-to-noise ratios were all statistically significantly improved. RFT contains 0.6 mg of iron and 1.28 mg of manganese content. CONCLUSION: Roselle flower tea is a very efficient oral negative contrast agent. It is natural, safe, inexpensive and palatable for oral administration.

  Identification and genetic variation among Hibiscus species (Malvaceae) using RAPD markers.:Z Naturforsch [C]. 2006 Jan-Feb;61(1-2):123-8. Barik S, Senapati SK, Aparajita S, Mohapatra A, Rout GR.Plant Biotechnology Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Bhubaneswar-751015, Orissa, India.

 Germplasm identification and characterization is an important link between the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources. Traditionally, species or cultivars identification has relied on morphological characters like growth habit or floral morphology like flower colour and other characteristics of the plant. Studies were undertaken for identification and determination of genetic variation within the two species of Hibiscus and 16 varieties of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. through random amplified polymorphic (RAPD) markers. Primer screening was made by using the DNA of variety "Prolific". Genetic analysis was made by using ten selected decamer primers. A total of 79 distinct DNA fragments ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 kb were amplified by using ten selected random decamer primers. The genetic similarity was evaluated on the basis of presence or absence of bands. The cluster analysis indicated that the 16 varieties and two species formed one cluster. The first major cluster consisted of three varieties and a second major cluster consisted of two species and 13 varieties. The genetic distance was very close within the varieties and also among the species. Thus, these RAPD markers have the potential for identification of species/varieties and characterization of genetic variation within the varieties. This is also helpful in Hibiscus breeding programs and provides a major input into conservation biology.

  In vitro antibacterial activity of roselle calyx and protocatechuic acid.:Phytother Res. 2005 Nov;19(11):942-5.Liu KS, Tsao SM, Yin MC.Department of Infection, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC

 The in vitro inhibitory effect of roselle calyx and protocatechuic acid, a compound derived from roselle calyx, on the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii was studied. The data from inhibition zone and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values showed that both roselle calyx extract and protocatechuic acid inhibited effectively the growth of all test bacterial pathogens, the antibacterial activity of protocatechuic acid being significantly greater than roselle calyx (p < 0.05). Furthermore, heat treatment did not affect the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx and protocatechuic acid against all test pathogens. The time-kill data from protocatechuic acid showed this agent provided concentration dependent antibacterial activities in broth and human plasma (p < 0.05); however, protocatechuic acid showed less inhibitory activity in human plasma than in broth (p < 0.05). These agents based on their lower MIC values, heat tolerance and concentration dependent antibacterial activity may be useful in clinical infection prevention or therapy.

  Free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic activities of natural phenolic compounds in dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L:Mol Nutr Food Res. 2005 Dec;49(12):1120-8.Farombi EO, Fakoya A.Drug Metabolism and Toxicology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. olatunde_farombi@yahoo.com

 The antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects of two fractions of the ethanolic extract (HSCF, chloroform soluble fraction and HSEA, ethyl acetate soluble fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L were investigated. The total antioxidant activity of the extracts was estimated to be 4.6 and 8.6 mM of vitamin C for HSCF and HSEA, respectively. Both HSCF and HSEA scavenged hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (79-94%) at the dose of 500 microg. Similarly, the extracts showed inhibitory (70-80%) effects on superoxide anions radicals (O(2) (- *)) at a dose of 1000 microg. The concentrations required for a 50% scavenging of hydroxyl radical (OH) (IC(50)) were 380 and 200 microg for HSCF and HSEA, respectively. HSEA and HSCF were better scavengers of O(2) (- *), *OH and H(2)O(2) as compared to BHA, quercetin and alpha-tocopherol. At a concentration of 25 microg/mL HSCF and HSEA exhibited 32 and 38% inhibition on CCl(4)-NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation, respectively, while both extracts exhibited 80 and 89% inhibitory effects at 100 microg/mL. Pretreatment with H. sabdariffa extracts orally with 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg simultaneously with intraperitoneal injection FeCl(2)-ascorbic acid-ADP mixture reduced (p < 0.01) the formation of malondialdehyde content. Treatment of rats with HSCF, HSEA and vitamin C (standard antioxidant) significantly inhibited the induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes by sodium arsenite (2.5 mg/kg) (p < 0.001) after 24 h by 60, 70 and 50%, respectively. The results indicate that extracts of H. sabdariffa showed strong antimutagenic activity and free radical scavenging effects on active oxygen species.

  The protective effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa extract on CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats:Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Mar;44(3):336-43. Epub 2005 Sep 19.Liu JY, Chen CC, Wang WH, Hsu JD, Yang MY, Wang CJ.Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

 Dried flower Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HSE) extracts, a local soft drink material and medicinal herb, were studied for their protective effects against liver fibrosis induced using carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) in rats. Male Wistar rats were administered CCl(4) by intraperitoneal injection for 7weeks and received a normal diet or normal diet with various HSE doses (1-5%) for 9weeks. HSE significantly reduced the liver damage including steatosis and fibrosis in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, HSE significantly decreased the elevation in plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). It also restored the decrease in glutathione content and inhibited the formation of lipid peroxidative products during CCl(4) treatment. In the primary culture, HSE also significantly inhibited the activation of the hepatic stellate cells. These results suggested that HSE may protect the liver against CCl(4)-induced fibrosis. This protective effect appears due to HSEs antioxidant properties.

  Optimization of the sonication extraction method of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers.:Ultrason Sonochem. 2006 Apr;13(3):242-50. Epub 2005 Jul 1.Melecchi MI, Péres VF, Dariva C, Zini CA, Abad FC, Martinez MM, Caram?o EB.Chemistry Institute, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS, av. Bento Gon?alves, 9500, CEP 91501-960, RS, Brazil.

 The influence of several experimental parameters on the ultrasonic extraction of Hibiscus tiliaceus L. flowers were investigated: extraction time, solvent polarity, sample amount, solvent volume and sample particle size. It was concluded that the most influential variables were extraction time and solvent polarity. The optimized procedure employed 5 g of ground flowers, 150 mL of methanol and 140 min of extraction. The extracts were fractionated using preparative silica columns and the resulting fractions were analyzed by GC/MS. Some saturated hydrocarbons, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, phytosterols, and vitamin E were identified in the plant extracts.

  Hibiscus anthocyanins rich extract-induced apoptotic cell death in human promyelocytic leukemia cells.:Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005 Jun 15;205(3):201-12. Epub 2004 Dec 7.Chang YC, Huang HP, Hsu JD, Yang SF, Wang CJ.Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, No. 110, Sec. 1, Chien Kuo N. Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

 Hibiscus sabdariffa Linne (Malvaceae), an attractive plant believed to be native to Africa, is cultivated in the Sudan and Eastern Taiwan. Anthocyanins exist widely in many vegetables and fruits. Some reports demonstrated that anthocyanins extracted from H. sabdariffa L., Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments existing in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa L.) exhibited antioxidant activity and liver protection. Therefore, in this study, we explored the effect of HAs on human cancer cells. The result showed that HAs could cause cancer cell apoptosis, especially in HL-60 cells. Using flow cytometry, we found that HAs treatment (0-4 mg/ml) markedly induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The result also revealed increased phosphorylation in p38 and c-Jun, cytochrome c release, and expression of tBid, Fas, and FasL in the HAs-treated HL-60 cells. We further used SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), and wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PI-3K inhibitor) to evaluate their effect on the HAs-induced HL-60 death. The data showed that only SB203580 had strong potential in inhibiting HL-60 cell apoptosis and related protein expression and phosphorylation. Therefore, we suggested that HAs mediated HL-60 apoptosis via the p38-FasL and Bid pathway. According to these results, HAs could be developed as chemopreventive agents. However, further investigations into the specificity and mechanism(s) of HAs are needed.

  Analysis and separation of organic and inorganic speciations of soluble zinc in edible flowers.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2005 Feb;25(2):296-8. Chinese.Peng SS, Huang GQ.Department of Food Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005, China.

 Considering the medicinal effects of the edible flowers, the authors studied the separation of trace element zinc's soluble organic and inorganic speciations in water decoction of three edible flowers: Chrysanthemum, Cottonrose hibiscus and Honeysucker by using the 0.45 microm membrane filter and amberlite XAD-2 macroreticular resins. And trace element zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimal conditions for separation had been established. This study verifies the economic value of developing edible flowers, and provides theoretical basis for developing edible flowers as the third functional food materials.

  Population structure and host-plant specialization in two Scaptodrosophila flower-breeding species.:Heredity. 2005 Jan;94(1):129-38.Barker JS.School of Rural Science and Agriculture, University of New England, Armidale NSW 2351, Australia. sbarker@pobox.une.edu.au

 In contrast to phytophagous insect species, little attention has been paid to the possibility of host races in the Drosophilidae, although flower-breeding species, where courtship and mating take place on the flowers, are likely candidates. Two species of Scaptodrosophila, S. hibisci and S. aclinata, are restricted to flowers of Hibiscus species (section Furcaria), and the Furcaria specialization likely predated the separation of S. hibisci and S. aclinata. In all, 20 microsatellite loci were analysed in nine populations of S. hibisci and five of S. aclinata. For two pairs of S. hibisci populations in close proximity, but breeding on different Hibiscus species, differentiation between the populations of each of these pairs was similar to that between the populations that were from the same Hibiscus species, but geographically distant, suggesting the early stages of host-race formation. Genetic variability was significantly less in S. aclinata than in S. hibisci, suggesting greater drift effects in the former. However, of 253 alleles detected, 82 were present in both species, 160 in S. hibisci only and 11 in S. aclinata only, indicating that S. aclinata was derived from S. hibisci, following a strong bottleneck at the time of separation--possibly 40,000 years BP. Analyses and interpretation of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and F statistics needed to account for null alleles known to be present at eight loci in S. hibisci, and possibly present at other loci. The results emphasize

  Floral affinity and benefits of dietary mixing with flowers for a polyphagous scarab, Popillia japonica Newman.:Oecologia. 2004 Jul;140(2):312-20. Epub 2004 May 14.Held DW, Potter DA.Coastal Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, Biloxi, MS 39531, USA.

 Many generalist herbivores, especially adult beetles, are facultative florivores, feeding on leaves but readily accepting floral tissues when available. We speculated that day-flying beetles with high energetic requirements would benefit from dietary mixing with nutrient-rich flower tissues and favor them during foraging. We tested that "Floral Affinity Hypothesis" with Popillia japonica, a day-active ruteline scarab that feeds intermittently throughout its adult life on multiple plant species. In field tests with six species of flowering hosts, far more landings occurred on flowers than on foliage for all plants except Hibiscus syriacus which bears flowers along the main stem rather than terminally. Trials with elevated plants showed that height of the floral display contributes to beetles' landing on flowers. Flower petals generally were preferred over leaves in laboratory choice tests. Nitrogen and water content were comparable or higher in foliage than in petals, but plant sugars were much higher in petals. Longevity and fecundity of beetles provided single-plant diets of Hibiscus, Rosa x hybrida, or Trifolium flowers for 3 weeks were as high, or higher, than for beetles fed foliage of Tilia cordata, a highly suitable resource. As expected, rotating flowers or Tilia foliage with marginally suitable Quercus palustris foliage enhanced those parameters relative to a diet of Quercus alone, but beetles provided high-quality Tilia foliage also benefitted from dietary mixing with flowers. Nearly all past dietary mixing studies concerned immature insects, for which growth rate is paramount. Opportunistic florivory by adult beetles represents a type of dietary mixing wherein the premium may be calorie-rich food for fueling flight muscles, with ensuing reproductive benefits.

  Effect of sugar on anthocyanin degradation and water mobility in a roselle anthocyanin model system using 17O NMR.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19;52(10):3097-9.Tsai PJ, Hsieh YY, Huang TC.Department of Food Science, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1 Hsueh Fu Road, Nei Pu Hsiang, 91207 Pingtung, Taiwan, Republic of China. pijen@mail.npust.edu.tw

 The purpose of this study was to try to elucidate the relationship between anthocyanin degradation and water mobility using (17)O NMR. A model system containing anthocyanin from roselles with different sugar concentrations (20, 40, 60%) was used to compare the effect of sugar (sucrose and honey) on the kinetics of anthocyanin degradation and water mobility after heating. Data on the anthocyanin degradation index (DI), half-life of anthocyanin, and activation energy of anthocyanin degradation showed that sucrose was a good anthocyanin protector, especially at high concentration. However, honey led to a severe anthocyanin degradation after its concentration reached 40% or it was heated to temperatures >50 degrees C. Spin-spin relaxation rates (R(2)) of water using (17)O NMR were further used to monitor the water mobility in two sugar systems to explain the differences in browning under the same concentration and water activity. R(2) in sucrose was significantly higher than that in honey after the concentration reached 40%. Apparently, increasing the ability to bind with water molecules favored the stability of anthocyanin in sucrose solution.

  Phytosterol composition of hybrid Hibiscus seed oils.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 5;52(9):2546-8.Holser RA, Bost G, Van Boven M.USDA-ARS-NCAUR, 1815 N. University St., Peoria, Illinois, 61604, USA. holserra@ncaur.usda.gov

 The seed oils from fifteen hybrid Hibiscus varieties were analyzed for desmethyl sterol content to identify bioactive compounds that could promote the use of these oils for edible applications. Hibiscusis being developed as a new crop with edible and nutraceutical applications for the component tissues and tissue extracts. Previously, hybrid varieties were developed for ornamental purposes on the basis of flower morphology and color. Currently, the effects of selective breeding on seed oil components are of interest as these represent potential natural products with bioactive properties. In the present study, sterol structures were identified as the corresponding trimethyl silyl ether derivatives obtained from the unsaponifiable fraction of the seed oils. This material contained an average of 32 wt % sterols and exhibited a relative composition of sitosterol, 76.3%; campesterol, 10.3%; stigmasterol, 7.3%; 5-avenasterol, 4.4%; and cholesterol, 0.6%. The content of 5-avenasterol showed statistically significant variation among the hybrid varieties with a range of 1.2-5.8%

  Polysaccharides from Hibiscus sabdariffa flowers stimulate proliferation and differentiation of human keratinocytes.:Planta Med. 2004 Apr;70(4):370-3.Brunold C, Deters A, Knoepfel-Sidler F, Hafner J, Müller B, Hensel A.University of Applied Science W?denswil, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, W?denswil, Switzerland.

 Raw polysaccharides, previously described in detail, were isolated from the flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and fractionated by ion exchange chromatography into one neutral and three acidic subfractions. Raw polysaccharides and all acidic subfractions caused a strong induction of proliferation of human keratinocytes (HaCaT) of up to 40 %, while the neutral polymers were ineffective. While mitochondrial activity was not influenced, raw polysaccharides induced early differentiation of primary natural human keratinocytes, as determined by involucrin formation.

  Testicular effects of sub-chronic administration of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx aqueous extract in rats.:Reprod Toxicol. 2004 Mar-Apr;18(2):295-8.Orisakwe OE, Husaini DC, Afonne OJ.Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi Campus, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria. eorish@aol.com

 The sub-chronic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) calyx aqueous extract on the rat testes was investigated with a view to evaluate the pharmacological basis for the use of HS calyx extract as an aphrodisiac. Three test groups received different doses of 1.15, 2.30, and 4.60 g/kg based on the LD(50). The extracts were dissolved in the drinking water. The control group was given equivalent volume of water only. The animals were allowed free access to drinking solution during the 12-week period of exposure. At the expiration of the treatment period, animals were sacrificed, testes excised and weighed, and epididymal sperm number recorded. The testes were processed for histological examination. Results did not show any significant (P>0.05) change in the absolute and relative testicular weights. There was, however, a significant (P<0.05) decrease in the epididymal sperm counts in the 4.6 g/kg group, compared to the control. The 1.15 g/kg dose group showed distortion of tubules and a disruption of normal epithelial organization, while the 2.3 g/kg dose showed hyperplasia of testis with thickening of the basement membrane. The 4.6 g/kg dose group, on the other hand, showed disintegration of sperm cells. The results indicate that aqueous HS calyx extract induces testicular toxicity in rats.

  Protective effect of gossypitrin on carbon tetrachloride-induced in vivo hepatotoxicity.:Redox Rep. 2003;8(4):215-21.Pérez-Trueba G, Ramos-Guanche C, Martínez-Sánchez B, Márquez-Hernández I, Giuliani A, Martínez-Sánchez G.Center for Biomedical Research, ICBP Victory of Girooon, Havana, Cuba. carlos.perez@sita.int

 Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a known environmental biohazard, which induces lipid peroxidation (LPO) and oxidative damage in rat liver. In this study, the hepatoprotective effect of Gossypitrin, a flavonoid extracted from Hibiscus elatus S.W, was investigated against the CCl4-induced in vivo hepatotoxicity. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed as an index of LPO and the levels of catalase (CAT) activity as a biomarker of oxidative damage. Leakage of aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), liver weight/body weight ratio as well as morphological parameters were used as signs of hepatotoxicity. CCl4 (1 ml/kg), intraperitoneally injected into rats, caused increased MDA production and CAT activity, and also a significant ALT and LDH leakage as compared to levels of these constituents in the control group. Changes in morphology, including steatosis, cells forming balloon cells and necrosis were evaluated in the hepatotoxin-induced damage. Treatment of rats with Gossypitrin (3.98, 5.97 and 8.95 mg/kg) 2 h before and 2 h after CCl4 injection, protected hepatocytes against cell injury induced by CCl4 and its efficacy as an antioxidant was similar to vitamin E (used as a reference antioxidant). These results are consistent with the conclusion that the toxicity of CCl4 is due to LPO and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and that Gossypitrin's protective effects relate to its direct radical scavenging ability and other antioxidative processes induced by its structure.

  Toxicological investigation of aqueous-methanolic extract of the calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov;89(1):161-4.Akindahunsi AA, Olaleye MT.Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. aakin@ictp.trieste.it

 The aqueous fraction of an aqueous-alcoholic extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces was given to Wistar albino rats (150-200g) orally as drugs to study the toxicity of the extract. The rats, which were fed with commercial diet and water ad libitum, were divided into six groups of four rats each. Treatments 1 through 6 received 0, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 doses of 250 mg/kg each, respectively; the control group received physiological saline (0.9% NaCl). Results of the studies showed that the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in all the treatments compared with the control group. However, the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were not significantly (P>0.05) affected. Only the group with 15 doses had their serum level of albumin significantly (P<0.05) increased. However, the results of histopathological studies showed that both the livers and hearts gave no pathological features for all the treatments. The results showed that prolong usage of this extract at 15-dose level could cause liver injury while the effect was mild at small dose levels (1-10). Though the average consumption of 150-180 mg/kg per day appears safe, the extract should be taken with caution bearing in mind that higher doses could affect the liver.

  Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Nov;89(1):61-6.Sachdewa A, Khemani LD.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra 282-005, India.

 Blood glucose and total lipid levels were determined in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats after oral administration of an ethanol flower extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. A comparable hypoglycemic effect was evidenced from the data obtained after 7 and 21 days of oral administration of the extract and glibenclamide. Maximal diminution in blood glucose (41-46%) and insulin level (14%) was noticed after 21 days. The extract lowered the total cholesterol and serum triglycerides by 22 and 30%, respectively. The increase in HDL-cholesterol was much higher (12%) under the influence of the extract as compared to that of glibenclamide (1%). The hypoglycemic activity of this extract is comparable to that of glibenclamide but is not mediated through insulin release. Other possible mechanisms are discussed.

  In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Oct;88(2-3):235-9.Adhirajan N, Ravi Kumar T, Shanmugasundaram N, Babu M.Biomaterials Division, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India.

 Petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was evaluated for its potential on hair growth by in vivo and in vitro methods. In vivo, 1% extract of leaves and flowers in liquid paraffin was applied topically over the shaved skin of albino rats and monitored and assessed for 30 days. The length of hair and the different cyclic phases of hair follicles, like anagen and telogen phases, were determined at different time periods. In vitro, the hair follicles from albino rat neonates were isolated and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 0.01 mg/ml petroleum ether extract of leaves and flowers. From the study it is concluded that the leaf extract, when compared to flower extract, exhibits more potency on hair growth.

  Primary speciation analysis of iron in edible flowers.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2003 Feb;23(1):75-7. Chinese.Peng SS, Huang GQ.Department of Food Engineering, Shaoguan University, Shaoguan 512005, China.

 In this paper seven primary speciations of iron in three edible flowers, i.e. chrysanthemum, cottonrose hibiscus and honeysucker have been studied by atomic absorption spectrometry. Speciation parameters of iron such as extractive rate, residue rate, immerse-residue ratio in the samples were calculated. It was found that the first extractive rates of Fe were higher than the second ones in all three edible flowers, and the immerse-residue ratios of Fe were similar to the extractive rates. But the extraction of iron in all three edible flowers were no more than fifty percent. It is showed that the iron isn't easy to extract by water in the three edible flowers. The recovery was in the range of 96.5%-103.2% and RSD was in the range of 1.2%-3.1%. The results were satisfactory.

  Purification, crystallization and X-ray analysis of Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus.:Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Aug;59(Pt 8):1481-3. Epub 2003 Jul 23.Lee KC, Lim D, Wong SM, Dokland T.Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 30 Medical Drive, Singapore 117609, Singapore.

 Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV), a Carmovirus, occurs worldwide and induces chlorotic ringspots on leaves, stunting and flower distortion in Hibiscus species, including kenaf. The HCRSV capsid has T = 3 icosahedral symmetry and contains 180 copies of the coat protein. A virus yield of 48-70 mg per 100 g of infected kenaf leaves was achieved with an improved purification scheme involving sucrose-cushion and sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. The virus was crystallized using PEG 8000 and 2,3-butanediol as co-precipitants. The crystals belonged to the cubic space group P23, with unit-cell parameter a = 392 A, and diffracted X-rays to at least 4.5 A resolution.

  Biogeography of the yeasts of ephemeral flowers and their insects.:FEMS Yeast Res. 2001 Apr;1(1):1-8. Review.Lachance MA, Starmer WT, Rosa CA, Bowles JM, Barker JS, Janzen DH.Department of Plant Sciences, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada. lachance@julian.uwo.ca

 We studied specific yeast communities vectored by beetles, drosophilids, and bees that visit ephemeral flowers, mostly in the genus Hibiscus and in the families Convolvulaceae and Cactaceae, in the Neotropical, Nearctic, and Australian biogeographic regions. The communities consist mostly of yeasts in four clades centered around the genera Metschnikowia, Kodamaea, Wickerhamiella, and Starmerella. The largest geographic discontinuity occurs as a function of the nitidulid beetle species that dominate the non-pollinator insect visitors of the flowers. This partitions the New World, where the dominant beetle is in the genus Conotelus, from the Australian biogeographic region, dominated by species of Aethina. Distinct but sympatric insects may also carry radically different yeast communities.

  The effect of a water extract and anthocyanins of hibiscus sabdariffa L on paracetamol-induced hepatoxicity in rats.:Phytother Res. 2003 Jan;17(1):56-9. Ali BH, Mousa HM, El-Mougy S.Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, King Saud University, Buraydah, Al-Gaseem, Saudi Arabia. alibadreldin@hotmail.com

 We investigated the effect of the water extract of the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and Hibiscus anthocyanins (HAs) (which are a group of natural pigments occurring in the dried calyx of H. sabdariffa) on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The water extract was given in lieu of drinking water for 2, 3 or 4 consecutive weeks, and the HAs were given orally at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/Kg for five consecutive days. Paracetamol was given orally at a dose of 700 mg/Kg to induce hepatotoxicity at the end of the water extract and Has treatments. Six hours thereafter the rats were killed and their liver function evaluated biochemically and histologically. Given for 4 weeks (but not for 2 or 3 weeks) the extract significantly improved some of the liver function tests evaluated, but did not alter the histology of the paracetamol-treated rats or the pentobarbitone-induced sleeping time. At a dose of 200 mg/Kg, the hepatic histology and the biochemical indices of liver damage were restored to normal. Lower does were ineffective. Pending more evaluation for safety and efficacy, the HAs can potentially be used in mitigating paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity.

  Induction of apoptosis by hibiscus protocatechuic acid in human leukemia cells via reduction of retinoblastoma (RB) phosphorylation and Bcl-2 expression.:Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Aug 1;60(3):307-15.Tseng TH, Kao TW, Chu CY, Chou FP, Lin WL, Wang CJ.Department and Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical and Dental College, Taichung, Taiwan.

 Hibiscus protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenolic compound isolated from the dried flower of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae), demonstrated antioxidant and antitumor promotion effects in our previous study. In the present study, Hibiscus PCA was found to inhibit the survival of human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The study revealed that HL-60 cells underwent internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis after a 9-hr treatment with Hibiscus PCA (2 mM). Flow cytometric analysis of the DNA content of cells treated with PCA for 12 hr showed that the cells were distributed mainly in the hypodiploid phase (apoptotic peak, 46.7%), less in the G(1) (34.2%) and S phase (14.0%), and few in the G(2)/M phase (5.1%). Moreover, PCA treatment caused an increase in the level of hypophosphorylated retinoblastoma (RB; 180% of control at the 6-hr time point) and, on the contrary, a decline in hyperphosphorylated RB. A rapid loss of RB was observed when the treatment period was extended. Further studies showed that Hibiscus PCA application reduced Bcl-2 protein expression to 47%, and increased Bax protein expression to 181% after 1.5 hr as compared with time 0. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in HL-60 cells delayed the occurrence of Hibiscus PCA-induced apoptosis. These data suggest that Hibiscus PCA is an apoptosis inducer in human leukemia cells, and that RB phosphorylation and Bcl-2 protein may play a crucial role in the early stage.

  Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes.:Food Chem Toxicol. 1997 Dec;35(12):1159-64.Tseng TH, Kao ES, Chu CY, Chou FP, Lin Wu HW, Wang CJ.Institute of Biochemistry, Chung Shan Medical and Dental College, Taiwan, ROC.

 Dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., a local soft drink material and medical herb, was found to possess antioxidant activity in the present study. In the preliminary studies, antioxidant potential of three fractions of the ethanol crude extract (HS-C: chloroform-soluble fraction; HS-E: ethyl acetate soluble fraction; HS-R: residual fraction) obtained from the dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. were evaluated by their capacity of quenching 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and inhibiting xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. HS-E showed the greatest capacity of scavenging free radical (EC50=0.017mg/ml), and HS-C showed the strongest inhibitory effect on XO activity (EC5o=0.742 mg/ml). Furthermore, antioxidant bioactivities of these crude extracts were investigated using a model of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative damage in rat primary hepatocytes. All fractions were found to inhibit significantly the unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) induced by t-BHP at a concentration of 0.20 mg/ml. HS-C and HS-E also decreased the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the formation of malondialdehyde (MDA) induced by t-BHP (1.5 mM) considerably at a concentration of 0.10 and 0.20 mg/ml in the rat primary hepatocyte cultures. These results indicated that the dried flower extracts (HS-C and HS-E) of H. sabdariffa L. protect rat hepatocytes from t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity by different mechanisms.

  Effect of benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on the estrous cycle and ovarian activity in albino mice.:Biol Pharm Bull. 1997 Jul;20(7):756-8.Murthy DR, Reddy CM, Patil SB.Department of Studies in Zoology, Gulbarga University, India.

 The benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers was administered intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult mice and resulted in an irregular estrous cycle with prolonged estrus and metestrus. An increase in the atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea indicate the antiovulatory effect of the extract. The extract also showed estrogenic activity in immature mice by early opening of the vagina, premature cornification of the vaginal epithelium and an increase in uterine weight. Therefore the antiovulatory effect may be due to an imbalance in the hormonal environment, as there may be an increase in the endogenous secretion of estrogen by atretic follicles, and also to the estrogenicity of the flower extract.

  The Biochemical Response of Electrical Signaling in the Reproductive System of Hibiscus Plants.:Plant Physiol. 1995 Oct;109(2):375-384.Fromm J, Hajirezaei M, Wilke I.Forstbotanisches Institut, Universitat Gottingen, Busgenweg 2, 37077 Gottingen, Germany (J.F.).

 Stimulation of the stigma of Hibiscus flowers by pollen, wounding (heat), or cold shock (4[deg]C) evokes electrical potential changes in the style, which propagate toward the ovary with a speed of 1.3 to 3.5 cm s-1. Potential changes were measured intracellularly by microelectrodes inserted in the style. The resting potential ranged from -90 to -112 mV (n = 20) in cells of the vascular tissue and from -184 to -220 mV (n = 22) in cells of the pollen-transmitting tissue. The amplitude of the potential changes was between 40 and 150 mV, depending on the kind of stimulus. Self- as well as cross-pollination hyperpolarized the resting potential after 50 to 100 s, followed by a series of 10 to 15 action potentials. In contrast, cooling of the stigma caused a single action potential with a different shape and duration, whereas wounding generated a strong depolarization of the membrane potential with an irregular form and a lower transmission rate. To determine the physiological function of the different signals measured in the style, the gas exchange and metabolite concentrations were measured in the ovary before and 10 min after stimulation of the stigma. Self- and cross-pollination caused a transient increase of the ovarian respiration rate by 12%, which was measured 3 to 5 min after the stigma was stimulated. Simultaneously, the levels of ATP, ADP, and starch increased significantly. In contrast, both cold shock and wounding of the stigma caused a spontaneous decrease of the CO2 content in the measuring chamber, as well as reduced metabolite concentrations in the ovary. Since the transport of labeled auxin from the top to the base of the style lasts at least 45 min, the influence of a chemical substance transmitted within 10 min is unlikely. Thus, our results strongly support the view that different, stimulus-dependent electrical signals cause specific responses of the ovarian metabolism.

  The quest for a herbal contraceptive.:Natl Med J India. 1993 Sep-Oct;6(5):199-201.Chaudhury RR.

 PIP: An oral herbal contraceptive would allow couples control their fertility without consulting a health worker, which in turn would likely markedly increase the number of couples practicing family planning. Other advantages of such a contraceptive would include the familiarity rural people have with herbal medicines, the fewer side effects associated with herbal preparations, their ready availability from local sources, and protection of privacy. There are many references to plants in India with antifertility properties. Since 1966, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) has been conducting research to identify a herbal contraceptive, as have other organizations. Plants that have exhibited antifertility activity in clinical trials include Hibiscus rosasinensis (benzene extract of the flower petals suppresses implantation); Rudrapushpaka (extract of the flower petals prevents pregnancy); Embelia ribes (pregnancy prevention); Davcus carota, Butea monosperma, and Sapindus trifoliatis (seeds have an anti-implantation effect); and Mentha arvensis (leaves have anti-implantation effect). The Central Drug Research Institute in Lucknow, India, in collaboration with the US National Institutes of Health, the World Health Organization, and the ICMR confirm anti-implantation activity in Ferula jaeschkeana, Bupleurum marginatum, Lepidium capitatum, Caesalpinia sepiaria, Lonicera japonica, Juniperus communis, Lotus corniculatus, Lamium allum, and Acacia farnesiana. In China, scientists have evaluated the cotton-seed extract gossypol as a male contraceptive. They are now studying the possible antifertility effect on men of the plant Tripterygium wilfordii. From all the aforementioned plants as well as others under investigation, three possible types of contraceptives could be developed: an anti-ovulatory contraceptive; a postcoital contraceptive; and a male contraceptive. Some obstacles to their development include difficulties in obtaining adequate quantities of the herbs, a shortage of clinical pharmacologists and clinicians interested in conducting clinical trials, and lack of long-term financial support.

  Chemical structure and biological activity of polysaccharides from Hibiscus sabdariffa.:Planta Med. 1992 Feb;58(1):60-7.Müller BM, Franz G.Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Regensburg, Federal Republic of Germany.

 Three water-soluble polysaccharides have been isolated from flower buds of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HIB 1,2,3). The neutral polysaccharides (HIB 1 and 2) are composed of arabinans and arabinogalactans of low relative molecular mass. The major fraction was investigated by methylation analysis, pectinase-treatment, mild acid hydrolysis and NMR studies, and it was shown to be a pectin-like molecule (Mr = 10(5)d). The main chain is composed of alpha-1,4-linked GalA (24% methyl-esterified) and alpha-1,2-linked Rha. Side chains are built of Gal and Ara and are connected to the main chain via C-4 of every third Rha. Its structure seems to be different from polysaccharide structures described in other species of the Hibiscus genus and the Malvaceae family. All fractions were assayed for possible immune-modulating effects. All fractions showed some activity, but the main acidic fraction was contaminated with lipopolysaccharide, and therefore its shown activity has to be discussed carefully.

  Role of Ethylene in the Senescence of Isolated Hibiscus Petals.:Plant Physiol. 1985 Nov;79(3):679-683.Woodson WR, Hanchey SH, Chisholm DN.Department of Horticulture, Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803.

 Senescence of petals isolated from flowers of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (cv Pink Versicolor) was associated with increased ethylene production. Exposure to ethylene (10 microliters per liter) accelerated the onset of senescence, as indicated by petal in-rolling, and stimulated ethylene production. Senescence was also hastened by basal application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). Aminooxyacetic acid, an inhibitor of ethylene biosynthesis, effectively inhibited ethylene production by petals and delayed petal in-rolling. In marked contrast to these results with mature petals, immature petals isolated from flowers the day before flower opening did not respond to ethylene in terms of an increase in ethylene production or petal in-rolling. Furthermore, treatment with silver thiosulfate the day before flower opening effectively prevented petal senescence, while silver thiosulfate treatment on the morning of flower opening was ineffective. Application of ACC to both immature and mature petals greatly stimulated ethylene production indicating the presence of an active ethylene-forming enzyme in both tissues. Immature petals contained less free ACC than mature, presenescent petals and appeared to possess a more active system for converting ACC into its conjugated form. Thus, while the nature of the lack of responsiveness of immature petals to ethylene is unknown, ethylene production in hibiscus petals appears to be regulated by the control over ACC availability.

  Endogenous Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Relative to Phytogerontology.:Plant Physiol. 1975 Feb;55(2):370-376.Swanson BT, Wilkins HF, Weiser CF, Klein I.Department of Horticultural Science, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101.

 Endogenous production of ethylene and endogenous levels of abscisic acid were measured from Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. abscission zone explants at six stages of development: tight bud, open flower, closed flower, petal abscission, calyx abscission, and peduncle abscission.Explants acropetal and basipetal to the abscission zone produced less ethylene than the abscission zone explants. Ethylene production increased with time both prior to and during abscission, reaching a peak in the later stages of senescence after abscission was complete.Bound abscisic acid was greatest in segments acropetal to the abscission zone at the closed flower stage. Free abscisic acid was double that of bound abscisic acid in the tight bud stage with the basipetal level exceeding that of the acropetal level until flower closure. Acropetal-free abscisic acid began to rise at petal abscission increasing sharply to a peak at calyx abscission. Both free and bound abscisic acid were greatly reduced at peduncle abscission. A relationship of ethylene and abscisic acid to abscission and senescence appears to exist.


  • 1.Hibiscus syriacus and its applications.

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  • Name:Hibiscus Syriacus Extract
  • Serie No:P049
  • Specifications:10:1TLC.
  • CAS:223749-10-8
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Extract is an extract of the flowers and leaves of the Chinese hibiscus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis,Malvaceae
  • Other Names:Hibiscus Syriacus Flower,Flos Hibisci,Shrubalthea Flower,Shrub-althea,Hibiscus syriacus L,white wibiscus flower,big bowl flower,mu jin,zhu jin,chi jin,lthaea frutex - Hort. ex Mill.,Rose Of Sharon,Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.,Chinese hibiscus,Shoe-flower,Karkade,Mu Jin.

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Hibiscus syriacus Extract INCI Name Hibiscus Rosa-sinensis Extract CAS 223749-10-8 Hibiscus Extract Hibiscus Flower Extract Hibiscus sabdariffa extract Rose Of Sharon extract Hibiscus sabdariffa flower extract

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