Cyperus scariosus or Cyperus rotundus,an old famous Sedge from ancient Egypt and China.

Contents

Research update:Cyperus scariosus and Cyperus rotundus.

Cyperus scariosus Cyperus Rotundus root   Cyperus rotundus suppresses AGE formation and protein oxidation in a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation.:Int J Biol Macromol. 2007 Dec 1;41(5):572-8. Epub 2007 Jul 27. Ardestani A, Yazdanparast R.Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, P.O. Box 13145-1384, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

 Non-enzymatic glycation, as the chain reaction between reducing sugars and the free amino groups of proteins, has been shown to correlate with severity of diabetes and its complications. Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae) is used both as a food to promote health and as a drug to treat certain diseases. In this study, considering the antioxidative effects of C. rotundus, we examined whether C. rotundus also protects against protein oxidation and glycoxidation. The protein glycation inhibitory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of C. rotundus was evaluated in vitro using a model of fructose-mediated protein glycoxidation. The C. rotundus extract with glycation inhibitory activity also demonstrated antioxidant activity when a ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays as well as metal chelating activity were applied. Fructose (100mM) increased fluorescence intensity of glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) in terms of total AGEs during 14 days of exposure. Moreover, fructose caused more protein carbonyl (PCO) formation and also oxidized thiol groups more in glycated than in native BSA. The extract of C. rotundus at different concentrations (25-250microg/ml) has significantly decreased the formation of AGEs in term of the fluorescence intensity of glycated BSA. Furthermore, we demonstrated the significant effect of C. rotundus extract on preventing oxidative protein damages including effect on PCO formation and thiol oxidation which are believed to form under the glycoxidation process. Our results highlight the protein glycation inhibitory and antioxidant activity of C. rotundus. These results might lead to the possibility of using the plant extract or its purified active components for targeting diabetic complications.

  Anticariogenic properties of the extract of Cyperus rotundus.:Am J Chin Med. 2007;35(3):497-505.Yu HH, Lee DH, Seo SJ, You YO.Department of Food and Nutrition, Kunsan National University, Kunsan, South Korea.

 Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is known as the causative bacteria in the formation of dental plaque and dental caries. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the effects of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) tuber extract on the growth, acid production, adhesion, and water-insoluble glucan synthesis of S. mutans. The growth and acid production were reduced by the extract of C. rotundus in a dose dependent manner. The extract of C. rotundus markedly inhibited the adherence of S. mutans to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite beads (HAs). The adherence was repressed by more than 50% at the concentration of 0.5 mg/ml of the extract and complete inhibition was observed at the concentration of 4 mg/ml of the extract. On the activity of glucosyltransferase (GTFase) which synthesizes water-insoluble glucan from sucrose, the extract of C. rotundus showed more than 10% inhibition at a concentration of 2 mg/ml. These results suggest that C. rotundus may inhibit cariogenic properties of S. mutans. Further studies are necessary to clarify the active constituents of C. rotundus responsible for such biomolecular activities.

  A new steroid glycoside and furochromones from Cyperus rotundus L.:Nat Prod Res. 2007 Apr;21(4):343-50.Sayed HM, Mohamed MH, Farag SF, Mohamed GA, Proksch P.Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmacognosy Department, Assiut University. Assiut 71526. Egypt.

 Further phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of Cyperus rotundus L. afforded a new steroid glycoside named sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside (4) in addition to three furochromones, khellin (2), visnagin (3) and ammiol (9). Furthermore, benzo-alpha-pyrone (coumarin) (1), salicylic acid (5), caffeic acid (6), protocatechuic acid (7), p-coumaric acid (8), tricin (10) and isorhamnetin (11) were isolated. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The isolated furochromones were tested for insect antifeedant activity against larvae Spodoptera littoralis when incorporated in artificial diet and offered to larvae in a chronic feeding bioassay. Also, visnagin, khellin and sitosteryl (6'-hentriacontanoyl)-beta-D-galactopyranoside showed strong cytotoxic activity against L5178y mouse lymphoma cells and were also active in the brine shrimp lethality test.

  Administration of Cyperus rotundus tubers extract prevents weight gain in obese Zucker rats.:Phytother Res. 2007 Aug;21(8):724-30.Lemaure B, Touché A, Zbinden I, Moulin J, Courtois D, Macé K, Darimont C.Nestlé Research Center, 101 Avenue Gustave Eiffel, BP 49716, 37390 Tours cedex 2, France.

 Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae; C. rotundus) is an Indian medicinal plant demonstrated to exert multiple health benefits. The purpose of the present study was to test the biological efficacy of C. rotundus tubers extract on weight control in obese Zucker rats. It was demonstrated that administration of 45 or 220 mg/kg/day of C. rotundus tubers hexane extract for 60 days in Zucker rats induced a significant reduction in weight gain without affecting food consumption or inducing toxicity. In vitro, 250 microg/mL of this extract was able to stimulate lipolysis in 3T3-F442 adipocytes suggesting that this medicinal plant contains activators of beta-adrenoreceptors (AR). The binding assay performed on the rat beta3-AR isoform, known to induce thermogenesis, demonstrated that C. rotundus tubers extract can consistently and effectively bind to this receptor. These data suggest that the effect on weight gain exerted by C. rotundus tubers extract may be mediated, at least partially, through the activation of the beta3-AR. In conclusion, C. rotundus tubers extract prove to be a new herbal supplement for controlling body weight preferentially in beta3-AR sensitive species.

  Trade-off between root porosity and mechanical strength in species with different types of aerenchyma.:Plant Cell Environ. 2007 May;30(5):580-9.Striker GG, Insausti P, Grimoldi AA, Vega AS.IFEVA-CONICET, Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Avenida San Martín 4453. CPA 1417 DSE Buenos Aires, Argentina. striker@ifeva.edu.ar

 The objective of this work was to study the existence of a trade-off between aerenchyma formation and root mechanical strength. To this end, relationships among root anatomical traits and mechanical properties were analysed in plant species with contrasting root structural types: Paspalidium geminatum (graminaceous type), Cyperus eragrostis (cyperaceous type), Rumex crispus (Rumex type) and Plantago lanceolata (Apium type). Variations in anatomical traits and mechanical strength were assessed as a function of root diameter by exposing plants to 0, 7, 15 and 30 d of control and flooded conditions. For each species, the proportion of root cortex was positively associated with the increment of root diameter, contributing to the increase in root porosity under both control and flooded conditions. Moreover, cell lysis produced an additional increase in root porosity in most species under flooded conditions (except R. crispus). Both structural types that presented a uniseriate layer (epidermis) to cope with compression (Rumex and Apium types) were progressively weakened as root porosity increased. This effect was significant even when the increment of root porosity was solely because of increased root diameter (R. crispus), as when both processes (root diameter and cell lysis) added porosity to the roots (P. lanceolata). Conversely, structural types that presented a multiseriate ring of cells in the outer cortex (graminaceous and cyperaceous types) maintained mechanical strength over the whole range of porosity, in spite of lysogenic processes registered in the inner cortex. In conclusion, our study demonstrates a strong trade-off between aerenchyma formation and mechanical strength in root structural types that lacked a multiseriate ring of tissue for mechanical protection in the outer cortex. The results suggest that this ring of tissue plays a significant role in maintaining the mechanical strength of roots when flooding induces the generation of additional aerenchyma tissue in the root cortex.
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  Cyperus rotundus extract inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity from animal and plants as well as inhibits germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato.:Life Sci. 2007 May 30;80(24-25):2389-92. Epub 2007 Feb 17.Sharma R, Gupta R.Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi-110007, India.

 Cyperus rotundus (nutgrass) is the world's worst invasive weed through tubers. Its success in dominating natural habitats depends on its ability to prevent herbivory, and to kill or suppress other plants growing in its vicinity. The present study was done to investigate whether chemicals in nutgrass target neuronal and non-neuronal acetylcholinesterases to affect surrounding animals and plants respectively. Methanolic extract of tubers of nutgrass strongly inhibited activity of AChE from electric eel, wheat and tomato. It also inhibited seed germination and seedling growth in wheat and tomato. Our results suggest that inhibitor of AChE in nutgrass possibly acts as agent of plant's war against (a) herbivore animals, and (b) other plants trying to grow in the same habitat. An antiAChE from nutgrass has been purified by employing chromatography and crystallization. The structural determination of the purified inhibitor is in progress.

  Interference of allelopathic rice Huakangcao 78 on weeds under different ecological conditions:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2006 Sep;17(9):1645-8. Chinese.Wu J, Li Y, Chen Z, Wang Y.Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing, China. wujl4390228@163.com

 A pot culture experiment was conducted to examine the interference effectiveness of allelopathic rice Huakangcao 78 on weeds Echinochloa crusgalli L., Cyperus difformis L., and Eclipta prostrata L. as affected by rice leaf age during transplanting, plant density, and soil surface water depth and its retaining days. The results showed that Huakangcao 78 could significantly reduce the dry weight of weeds compared with non-allelopathic rice Lemont. The control effectiveness of Huakangcao 78 on E. crusgalli L. was better when the weed was at 0-1.5 leaf age than at 1.5-2.4 leaf age, and that on C. difformis L. was better when the weed was at 0-0.3 leaf age than at 0.8-2.0 leaf age. The interactive effectiveness between rice leaf age during transplanting and plant density on weed control was better than that between the leaf age and soil surface water depth and its retaining days. To increase the rice leaf age during transplanting and plant density could significantly promote the control effectiveness of Huakangcao 78 on weeds.

  Optimization and comparison of three methods for extraction of volatile compounds from Cyperus rotundus evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2007 Jun 28;44(2):444-9. Epub 2006 Nov 28.Tam CU, Yang FQ, Zhang QW, Guan J, Li SP.Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Taipa, Macau SAR, China.

 The essential oil of Cyperus rotundus has multiple pharmacological activities. Therefore, the extraction with high yield and quality is very important for preparation of essential oil of C. rotundus. In this paper, three methods, namely hydrodistillation (HD), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), for extraction of volatile compounds from C. rotundus were optimized and compared by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Among eight identified compounds in C. rotundus, five components including alpha-copaene, cyperene, beta-selinene, beta-cyperone and alpha-cyperone were quantitatively determined or estimated using alpha-cyperone as standard, which showed that PLE had the highest extraction efficiency, while SFE had the best selectivity for extraction of beta-cyperone and alpha-cyperone. The contents of ingredients from C. rotundus extracted with HD, PLE and SFE are significantly different, which suggest that comparison of chemical components and pharmacological activities of different extracts is helpful to elucidate the active components in C. rotundus and control its quality.

  Low growth temperatures modify the efficiency of light use by photosystem II for CO2 assimilation in leaves of two chilling-tolerant C4 species, Cyperus longus L. and Miscanthus x giganteus.:Plant Cell Environ. 2006 Apr;29(4):720-8.Farage PK, Blowers D, Long SP, Baker NR.Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Colchester, CO4 3SQ, Essex, UK.

 Two C4 plants, Miscanthus x giganteus and Cyperus longus L., were grown at suboptimal growth temperatures and the relationships between the quantum efficiencies of photosynthetic electron transport through photosystem II (PSII) (PSII operating efficiency; Fq'/Fm') and CO2 assimilation (phiCO2) in leaves were examined. When M. x giganteus was grown at 10 degrees C, the ratio of the PSII operating efficiency to phiCO2 increased relative to that found in leaves grown at 14 and 25 degrees C. Similar increases in the Fq'/Fm': phiCO2 occurred in the leaves of two C. longus ecotypes when the plants were grown at 17 degrees C, compared to 25 degrees C. These elevations of Fq'/Fm': phiCO2 at low growth temperatures were not attributable to the development of anthocyanins, as has been suggested for maize, and were indicative of the operation of an alternative sink to CO2 assimilation for photosynthetic reducing equivalents, possibly oxygen reduction via a Mehler reaction, which would act as a mechanism for protection of PSII from photoinactivation and damage. Furthermore, in M. x giganteus grown at 10 degrees C, further protection of PSII was effected by a 20-fold increase in zeaxanthin content in dark-adapted leaves, which was associated with much higher levels of non-photochemical quenching of excitation energy, compared to that observed in leaves grown at 14 and 25 degrees C. These differences may explain the long growing season and remarkable productivity of this C4 plant in cool climates, even in comparison to other C4 species such as C. longus, which occur naturally in such climates.

  Antidiabetic activity of hydro-ethanolic extract of Cyperus rotundus in alloxan induced diabetes in rats.:Fitoterapia. 2006 Dec;77(7-8):585-8. Epub 2006 Sep 23.Raut NA, Gaikwad NJ.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, R. T. M. Nagpur University Campus, Amravati Road, Nagpur-440 033, India. rnishi@sify.com

 In light of the traditional claim of Cyperus rotundus in the treatment of diabetes, investigations were carried out to evaluate its effect on alloxan induced hyperglycemia in rats. Oral daily administration of 500 mg/kg of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) significantly lowered the blood glucose levels. This antihyperglycemic activity can be attributed to its antioxidant activity as it showed the strong DPPH radical scavenging action in vitro.
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  Inhibitory effects of selected Thai medicinal plants on Na+,K+-ATPase.:Fitoterapia. 2006 Sep;77(6):481-3. Epub 2006 Jul 6.Ngamrojanavanich N, Manakit S, Pornpakakul S, Petsom A.Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. nnattaya@chula.ac.th

 Extracts of ten Thai indigenous medicinal plants having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were tested for their Na(+),K(+)-ATPase inhibitory activity. The hexane extracts of Cyperus rotundus and Orthosiphon aristatus showed high potent inhibitory activity on crude enzyme Na(+),K(+)-ATPase from rat brain.

  Amino acid, mineral and fatty acid content of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita spp) and Cyperus esculentus nuts in the Republic of Niger.:Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2006 Jun;61(2):51-6.Glew RH, Glew RS, Chuang LT, Huang YS, Millson M, Constans D, Vanderjagt DJ.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of New Mexico School of Medicine Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.

 Dried seeds and nuts are widely consumed by indigenous populations of the western Sahel, especially those who inhabit rural areas. In light of the need for quantitative information regarding the content of particular nutrients in these plant foods, we collected dried pumpkin (Cucurbita spp) seeds and nuts of Cyperus esculentus in the Republic of Niger and analyzed them for their content of essential amino acids, minerals and trace elements, and fatty acids.On a dry weight basis, pumpkin seed contained 58.8% protein and 29.8% fat. However, the lysine score of the protein was only 65% relative to the FAO/WHO protein standard. The pumpkin seed contained useful amounts of linoleic (92 microg/g dry weight) and the following elements (on a microg per g dry weight basis): potassium (5,790), magnesium (5,690), manganese (49.3), zinc (113), selenium (1.29), copper (15.4), chromium (2.84), and molybdenum (0.81), but low amounts of calcium and iron. Except for potassium (5,573 microg/g dry weight) and chromium (2.88 microg/g dry weight), the C. esculentis nuts contained much less of these same nutrients compared to pumpkin seeds. In conclusion, pumpkin seeds represent a useful source of many nutrients essential to humans. The data in this report should of practical value to public health officials in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa.

  Effects of methylated derivatives of Luteolin isolated from Cyperus alopecuroides in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells:Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 Feb;98(2):168-72. Michels G, Mohamed GA, Weber N, Chovolou Y, Kampk?tter A, W?tjen W, Proksch P.Institute of Toxicology, Heinrich-Heine-University, P.O. Box 101007, 40001 Düsseldorf, Germany.

 Polyphenols are ubiquitous substances in human diet. Their antioxidative, antiinflammatory and antiviral effects are of interest for human health, and polyphenols such as luteolin are used at high concentrations in food supplements. Luteolin is metabolized to glucuronides, but also to methylated derivatives. For example, O-methylation of the catechol group mediated by the catechol-O-methyl transferase, is an important step in flavonoid metabolism. The aim of this project was to determine the effect of O-methylation on antioxidative capacity and cytotoxicity of luteolin in H4IIE rat hepatoma cells. Therefore we analyzed the effects of luteolin 5,3'-dimethylether, isolated from the flowers of foxtail flatsedge (Cyperus alopecuroides) and luteolin 5,7,3',4'-tetramethylether compared to the non-methylated flavonoid luteolin. The antioxidative potential of luteolin was lowered by methylation, an effect that seems to be mediated by masking of the catechol moiety in the B ring. The cytotoxic potential of luteolin 5,3'-dimethylether is comparable to luteolin, but the tetramethylether showed no cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic effect of luteolin but not luteolin 5,3'-dimethylether was mediated via apoptosis (caspase-3 activation). We conclude that the O-methylation of luteolin led to a decreased radical-scavenging activity and to a reduction in the apoptotic potential of the flavonoid.

  Antidiarrhoeal activity of Cyperus rotundus.:Fitoterapia. 2006 Feb;77(2):134-6. Epub 2005 Dec 20.Uddin SJ, Mondal K, Shilpi JA, Rahman MT.Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Bangladesh. uddinsj@yahoo.com

 The methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizome, given orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg b.w., showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. Among the fractions, tested at 250 mg/kg, the petroleum ether fraction (PEF) and residual methanol fraction (RMF) were found to retain the activity, the latter being more active as compared to the control. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) did not show any antidiarrhoeal activity.

  Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Apr 21;105(1-2):76-83. Epub 2005 Dec 6.Natarajan KS, Narasimhan M, Shanmugasundaram KR, Shanmugasundaram ER.ALMPG Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Madras, Taramani Campus, Chennai 600113, India.

 A combination of spices (Piper nigrum, Piper longum and Zingiber officinale), herbs (Cyperus rotundus and Plumbago zeylanica) and salts make up Amrita Bindu. The study was focused to evaluate the antioxidant property of individual ingredients in Amrita Bindu against the free radical 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS). The analysis revealed the antioxidant potential of the ingredients in the following order: Piper nigrum>Piper longum>Cyperus rotundus>Plumbago zeylanca>Zingiber officinale. Two different experiments were designed. In experiment I, rats were fed with normal diet whereas in experiment II rats were given feed mixed with Amrita Bindu for 3 weeks (4 g/kg of feed). Rats from both experimental groups were challenged against a single intraperitonial injection of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) (7.5 mg/kg body weight). At the end of 24 and 72 h, blood was analysed for free radicals and antioxidant levels. It was interesting to note that rats with Amrita Bindu pretreatment showed significantly lower levels of free radicals, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls along with significantly higher levels of antioxidants when compared with rats without Amrita Bindu pretreatment on PHZ administration. These results reveal that Amrita Bindu, a salt-spice-herbal mixture exerts a promising antioxidant potential against free radical induced oxidative damage.
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  New prenylflavans from Cyperus conglomeratus.:Fitoterapia. 2005 Dec;76(7-8):762-4. Epub 2005 Oct 20.Abdel-Razik AF, Nassar MI, El-Khrisy ED, Dawidar AA, Mabry TJ.Natural Products Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, Dokki 12622, Cairo, Egypt. aymanfarag2001@yahoo.com

 In addition to luteolin and its 7-methyl ether, the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of Cyperus conglomeratus afforded two new prenylflavans identified as 7,3'-dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethoxy-8-prenylflavan and 5,7,3'-trihydroxy-5'-methoxy-8-prenylflavan. The structures were established by CIMS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, H-H COSY, HMQC, HMBC and DEPT analysis.

  Effects of environmental factors on AM fungi around steppe plant roots in Tibet Plateau.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2005 May;16(5):859-64. Chinese. Cai X, Qian C, Peng Y, Feng G, Gai J.Department of Agriculture, Tibet Agricultural and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi 860000, China. caitw21@sohu.com

 The study on the representative steppe plant species in Tibet Plateau showed that the density of AM fungi spores in host plant rhizosphere did not correlate with the infection rate of AM fungi. The big changes in air temperature and rainfall at different altitudes played an important role in determining the growth and infection of AM fungi specific to steppe plants, and steppe type and soil texture also had obvious effects on AM fungi's growth and infection. Within a certain range, the spore density increased significantly with increasing soil pH (r = 0.5319, n = 20), but showed a declining trend with the improvement of soil organic matter (r = - 0.1973, n = 20). In contrast, the infection rates of AM fungi to host plants were to some extent negatively and positively correlated with soil pH and soil organic matter, respectively. Phosphorus (P) enrichment in soil environment led to the inhibition of the reproduction and infection of AM fungi. The suitable soil pH, OM and Olsen P contents for the growth and reproduction of AM fungi ranged from 8.0-8.7, 3.8-4.8 g.kg(-l) and 7.8-10.1 mg.kg(-1), respectively. Moderate and serious degradation of steppe (especially the serious degradation) had negative or detrimental impacts on the reproduction and infection of AM fungi. Reasonable grazing was helpful to the conservation of critical species of AM fungi. AM fungi also showed a relatively high infection rate on the roots of sedge species such as Carex praecpara, Kobresia humilis and Cyperus compressus.

  Comparison of nutrient removal ability between Cyperus alternifolius and Vetiveria zizanioides in constructed wetlands.:Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2005 Jan;16(1):156-60. Chinese.Liao X, Luo S, Wu Y, Wang Z.Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou. xdliao2002@yahoo.com.cn

 In order to compare the nutrient removal ability of Cyperus alternifolius and Vetiveria zizanioides, a 17.0 m2 subsurface flow wetland covered with Cyperus alternifolius and another 13.3 m2 one covered with Vetiveria zizanioides were constructed for piggery wastewater treatment, and the biomass as well as the N, P, Cu and Zn contents in the root and shoot of the plants was measured by the end of each season. The results showed that the below-ground biomass of V. zizanioides was greater than that of C. alternifolius. By the contrary, the above-ground biomass of C. alternifolius was greater than that of V. zizanioides. The annual biomass yield of C. alternifolius was 2.3 times higher than that of V. zizanioides,which was 3406.47 g x m(-2) and 1483.88 g x m(-2), respectively. The N concentration in C. alternifolius tissue was higher than that in V. zizanioides tissue, being 22.69 mg x g(-1) and 15.44 mg x g(-1) respectively, and similarly, the P concentration in C. alternifolius tissue was higher than that in V. zizanioides tissue, being 6.09 mg x g(-1) and 5.47 mg x g(-1) respectively. The Cu and Zn concentrations in C. alternifolius tissue were a little higher than those in V. zizanioides. 68.72 g N x m(-2) and 18.49 g P x m(-2) were removed by harvesting C. alternifolius vegetation, while 8.93 g N x m(-2) and 3.69 g x P m(-2) were removed by harvesting V. zizanioides vegetation. It was concluded that the removals of N, P, Cu and Zn by harvesting vegetation were 4-7 times higher in C. alternifolius wetland than in V. zizanioides wetland.

  Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Feb 28;97(2):305-11. Epub 2005 Jan 5.Shiratsuchi LS, Antoniol FJ, Rocha SR.Department of Research and Development, Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-Embrapa Cerrados, Planaltina, Brazil. shozo@cpac.embrapa.br

 The objective of this work was to develop a fast and practical method of weed seedbank evaluation to generate spatially distributed maps for use in site-specific weed management. Soil cores were collected at 0.20 m depth, air-dried, and then submitted to seedling growth in greenhouse. The sampling grid of 20 by 20 m was georeferenced by Global Positioning System, obtaining 73 soil cores with three replicates. During the greenhouse trial, there were two peaks of weed seedling growth: one in 119 days after water irrigation and another after KNO3 application. Weeds seedbank maps were obtained at different stages of seedling growth. The Pearson correlation was 0.99 for Brachiaria plantaginea seedbank map, 0.95 for Commelina benghalensis, and 0.85 for Cyperus rotudus generated at 119 days compared with 392 days after seedling growth in the greenhouse. The Brachiaria plantaginea seedbank map evaluated at 35 days presented correlation of 0.97 with 392 days. It was concluded that, for site-specific weed seedbank management, the evaluation of seedling growth in greenhouse until the first emergence peak is enough to generate weed seedbank maps.

  Ions and amino acid analysis of Cyperus articulatus L. (Cyperaceae) extracts and the effects of the latter on oocytes expressing some receptors.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Dec;95(2-3):303-9. Bum EN, Lingenhoehl K, Rakotonirina A, Olpe HR, Schmutz M, Rakotonirina S.Departement des Sciences Biologiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Ngaoundéré, B.P. 565 Ngaoundéré, Cameroun. eli_bum@yahoo.fr

 Extracts from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus L. (Cyperaceae) used in Africa and Amazonia to treat many diseases has been shown to possess sedative and anticonvulsant properties. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism of action of Cyperus articulatus extracts. In Xenopus oocytes expressing receptors, using electrophysiological measurement, extracts of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus (300 microg/ml) inhibited 50% of the EC(50) and EC(80) of glutamate (1.3 and 2.9 microM, respectively) induced inward current through hNMDAR1A/2A receptors. Extracts induced very small current through rGluR3 receptors. The largest current induced by the extract (30 mg/ml) represents 128% of the EC(100) of glutamate induced inward current, through rGluR3 receptors. The excess 28% current could be induced by aspartate and/or glutamate in the extracts. The effect on Xenopus oocytes expressing heteromeric GABA(B)R1b/R2 receptors and rectifying potassium channels (Kir3) is clear. A decoction and water extract of Cyperus articulatus induced a large inward current that represented 71 and 57% (respectively) of the EC(100) of gaba (30 microM) induced inward current. The water extract induced also a large current through rectifying potassium channels (Kir3). Part of the current induced through GABA(B) receptors could be related to rectifying potassium channels and GABA(B) site receptors. Cyperus articulatus extracts possessed components that could decrease excitation (NMDA receptor antagonists) and increase inhibition (GABA(B) receptor agonists) in the central nervous system.
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  Pharmacodynamical research of Jingu Tongxiao granule:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 Aug;29(8):796-9, 818. Chinese.Du ZQ, Zhou ZM, Xiong YL, Zhao X, Li JH, Wu YH.Luoyang Orthopedic Traumatological Institute of Henan Province, Luoyang 471002, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To study functions of Jingu Tongxiao granule (JGTXG, treatmenting ache of bones and muscles) in antiphlogistic and antalgic aspect, invigorating the circulation of blood and absorbing clots and antitraumatic soft tissue. METHOD: Animal models of inflammation, ache, gore and traumatic soft tissue were adopted, and pharmacodynamic actions of Jingu Tongxiao granule were observed. RESULT: JGTXG could conspicuously restrain inflammatory reactions of mouse ear tumid model treated by croton oil tumid and rat foot metatarsus tumid model treated by carrageenan, and restrain pain responses of mouse caused with whipping back end method by heat stimulating and of mouse caused with wriggling body method by acetic acid being injected in its abdominal cavity. It could significantly improve petechia degree in traumatic rat blood stasis model, and prominently improve raumatized limb's tumefaction degree and alleviate blood stasis, swelling and phlogistic cell soakage in traumatic rat soft tissue model. At the same time, it could prominently restrain platelet aggregation and improve whole blood viscosity. CONCLUSION: Jingu Tongxiao granule has antiphlogistic and antalgic functions, invigorating the circulation of blood and absorbing clots and antitraumatic soft tissue, and it could keep curative effect of original dosage form.

  Release and activity of allelochemicals from allelopathic rice seedlings.:J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 19;52(10):2861-5.Kong C, Liang W, Xu X, Hu F, Wang P, Jiang Y.Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China. chkong@scau.edu.cn

 3-Isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 (1), momilactone B (2), and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone (3) were isolated and identified from an allelopathic rice accession PI312777. These three compounds at low concentrations could inhibit the growth of weeds Echinochloa crusgalli and Cyperus difformis associated with rice, especially mixtures of the compounds had stronger inhibitory activity than did individual compounds. Studies with hydroponic culture, continuous root exudates trapping system (CRETS), and direct resin adsorption methods showed that a total of 7.6 n moles 1, 2, and 3 were exuded from living roots of each seedling into the environment at 10 days after seedlings were transplanted. Furthermore, 1, 2, and 3 were found in the soil growing PI312777 seedlings at day 15 after seedlings emergence and reached a total of 39.5 microg/g soil at day 30. The results indicated that PI 312777 seedlings could release sufficient quantities of 1, 2, and 3 into the environment to act as allelochemicals inhibiting the growth of associated weeds. Investigations on the distribution of 1, 2, and 3 in PI 312777 plant, and its root exudates showed that the levels of 1, 2, and 3 were significantly higher in the shoots and root exudates than in the roots, and only trace 1 was observed in the roots. The results suggest that the roots of rice seedlings are not major site of synthesis or accumulation 1, 2, and 3, but a pathway for their release into the environment. The levels of 1, 2, and 3 in the root exudates were over 2-folds higher under direct resin adsorption than under hydroponic culture and CRETS, and hence, it is the preferred method to collect and identify active allelochemicals in rice exudates in future studies on rice allelopathy.

  Fumigant combinations for Cyperus esculentum L control.:Pest Manag Sci. 2004 Apr;60(4):369-74.Hutchinson CM, McGiffen ME Jr, Sims JJ, Becker JO.Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida/IFAS, Gainesville, FL 32611-0690, USA. cmhutch@ufl.edu

 The phase-out of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant has stimulated research into the use of other soil fumigants for weed control. Methyl bromide, methyl iodide, propargyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and metam-sodium were tested alone and in combination with chloropicrin in laboratory experiments to determine their efficacy against Cyperus esculentus L (yellow nutsedge) tubers. Propargyl bromide and metam-sodium were the most efficacious fumigants tested, with EC50 values of 3.7 and 6.5 microM, respectively. The relative potencies of methyl iodide and chloropicrin were not significantly different but were 2.6 and 2.9 times more potent than methyl bromide, respectively. The EC50 values for all fumigants other than 1,3-D were significantly lower than that of methyl bromide. Combining each fumigant with 17% chloropicrin resulted in a synergistic interaction. The greatest increase in potency between the expected result and the actual result was a relative potency of 3.8 with the methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination. The smallest increase in efficacy was with propargyl bromide and chloropicrin, with a relative potency of 1.5. There was no significant difference between the EC50 values of methyl bromide/chloropicrin and methyl iodide/chloropicrin combinations. Combining 1,3-D with 17% chloropicrin resulted in an EC50 value for C. esculentus control similar to that of methyl iodide applied alone.

  Two compounds from allelopathic rice accession and their inhibitory activity on weeds and fungal pathogens.:Phytochemistry. 2004 Apr;65(8):1123-8.Kong C, Xu X, Zhou B, Hu F, Zhang C, Zhang M.Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China. chkong@scau.edu.cn

 A flavone (5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone), a cyclohexenone (3-isopropyl-5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1) and a liquid mixture of low polarity, containing long-chain and cyclic hydrocarbons, were isolated from leaves of allelopathic rice accession PI 312777 using column chromatography. Their structures and constituents were identified by means of HR-MS, NMR and GC/MS analyses, respectively. Bioassays showed that both the flavone and cyclohexenone significantly inhibited the growth of weeds Echinochloa crus-galli, Cyperus difformis and Cyperus iris, and the spore germination of fungal pathogens Pyricularia oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani at all tested concentrations. Moreover, the combination of the inactive mixture of low polarity and the active flavone or cyclohexenone significantly enhanced the inhibitory activities on weed growth. In addition, the two compounds and the mixture of low polarity from the leaves of PI312777 did not inhibit the rice growth at the same concentrations. It was also established that both compounds could be released into the soil, and was especially induced by E. crus-galli. The results suggest that 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone and 3-isopropyl- 5-acetoxycyclohexene-2-one-1 may act as allelochemicals participating in the defense of rice against weeds and pathogens.

  Structures of new sesquiterpenes and hepatoprotective constituents from the Egyptian herbal medicine Cyperus longus.:J Nat Prod. 2004 Apr;67(4):569-76.

 Six new sesquiterpenes, cyperusols A(1) (1), A(2) (2), B(1) (3), B(2) (4), C (5), and D (6), together with two monoterpenes and 13 sesquiterpenes were isolated from an Egyptian herbal medicine, the whole plants of Cyperus longus. The stereostructures of the new sesquiterpenes were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, the principal constituents were found to exhibit inhibitory activity on D-galactosamine-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.
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  Effect of polyherbal formulation on experimental models of inflammatory bowel diseases.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Feb;90(2-3):195-204.Jagtap AG, Shirke SS, Phadke AS.Department of Pharmacology, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400 098, India.

 A polyherbal ayurvedic formulation from an ancient authentic classical text of ayurveda was evaluated for its activity against inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The polyherbal formulation contained four different drugs viz., Bilwa (Aegle marmeloes), Dhanyak (Coriandrum sativum), Musta (Cyperus rotundus) and Vala (Vetiveria zinzanioids). The formulation has been tried before in clinical practice and was found to be useful in certain number of cases of IBD (ulcerative colitis), so was tried in the same form i.e., decoction (aqueous extract) in experimental animals to revalidate the claims of the same. The formulation was tried on two different experimental animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which are acetic acid-induced colitis in mice and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats. Prednisolone was used as the standard drug for comparison. The formulation showed significant inhibitory activity against inflammatory bowel disease induced in these experimental animal models. The activity was comparable with the standard drug prednisolone. The results obtained established the efficacy of this polyherbal formulation against inflammatory bowel diseases.

  Aeroallergens in clinical practice of allergy in India. An overview.:Ann Agric Environ Med. 2003;10(2):131-6. Review.Singh AB, Kumar P.Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi-110007, India. ab@igib.res.in

 Allergic diseases such as bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis are dramatically increasing all over the world including developing countries like India. Today, more than 30 % of the population is known to suffer from one or other allergic ailment. Major causative agents implicated are pollen grains, fungal spores, dust mites, insect debris, animal epithelia, etc. Several aerobiological studies have been conducted in different parts of the country to ascertain aerial concentration and seasonality of pollen grains and fungi. Recently, an "All India Coordinated Project on Aeroallergens and Human Health" was undertaken to discover the quantitative and qualitative prevalence of aerosols at 18 different centres in the country. Predominant airborne pollen are Holoptelea, Poaceae, Asteraceae, Eucalyptus, Casuarina, Putanjiva, Cassia, Quercus, Cocos, Pinus, Cedrus, Ailanthus, Cheno/Amaranth, Cyperus, Argemone, Xanthium, Parthenium and others. Clinical and immunological evaluations have revealed allergenically important texa - some of them for the first time. Allergenically important pollen are Prosopis juliflora, Ricinus communis, Morus, Mallotus, Alnus, Querecus, Cedrus, Argemone, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Holoptelea, Brassica, Cocos, Cannabis, Parthenium, Cassia and grasses. Further cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies is a common phenomenon among various pollen allergens. Ricinus communis pollen from commonly growing weeds in India, cross-reacts with latex (Hevea brasiliensis), Mercurialis annua and also with seeds of Ricinus communis - all belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Areca catechu cross-reacts with other members of Arecaceae such as Phoenix sylvestris, Cocos nucifera and Borassus flabelifer. Several reports on pollen and fruit syndrome have been analyzed. Experiments conducted by us revealed that pollutants (NO(2) and SO(2)) not only affect pollen morphology but also changes their allergenic potency. Immunotherapy with recombinant proteins having similar epitopes from different allergens have been advocated, besides allergen avoidance.

  Preliminary investigation of the potential of four tropical emergent macrophytes for treatment of pre-treated pulp and papermill wastewater in Kenya.:Water Sci Technol. 2003;48(5):223-31.Abira MA, Ngirigacha HW, van Bruggen JJ.Department of Water Development, Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 2657 Kisumu, Kenya. mabira59@yahoo.com

 The potential of four aquatic macrophytes for treatment of wastewater in constructed wetlands was investigated in bucket mesocosms at Pan African Paper Mills (E.A) Limited. The buckets were operated as semi-continuous batch reactors with reversed vertical flow for a period of 3 months. Four treatments were applied involving two hydraulic retention times (HRT) and two wastewater concentrations. Plants appear healthier and greener in treatments at HRT5 than at HRT10. Cyperus immensus and Typha domingensis had higher biomass gain compared to the other two species. Plant nitrogen and phosphorus content, based on dry weight, was lower at the end of the experiment than at the beginning in all treatments for all species The removal efficiency achieved for COD ranged from 10 to 55% for planted buckets at HRT5 and 15 to 65% at HRT10 for similar buckets. The mean percentage COD removal in unplanted buckets was significantly lower than in planted ones. TSS removal efficiency ranged from 44-86%. Buckets planted with Typha exhibited the highest removal efficiency in all treatments. Those at HRT5 showed significantly higher removal efficiencies than those at HRT10 for all species. The results indicate that the plants are suitable for use in constructed wetlands for treatment of the wastewater provided the appropriate treatment is applied.

  Use of Ancient texts in modern therapeutic research:Rev Hist Pharm (Paris). 2003;51(338):239-50. French.Fabre A.

 Two main purposes were assigned to this study of medicinal prescription of spices at the time of the Roman Empire: analyze Roman pharmacopoeia of spices in reference to modern criteria and assess a new discipline, close to "ethno-botany" and "ethno-pharmacology", aiming to a new approach of drug research: "archeopharmacology". A brief overview is given of the Roman world of spices : all aromatic substances from Orient, India and Far-East held a major place which can only be compared to the role of petroleum in our modern times. The study is conducted on a thesaurus of 2600 quotations from twelve authors: Apicius, Caelius Aurelianus, Cassius Felix, Celsus, Dioscorides, Galen, Marcellus,(Anonymous) Mulonmedicina, Pelagorius, Pliny the Elder, Serenus Sammonicus and Scribonius Largus and a set of 33 medicinal spices among which: cyperus, ferulas (Asa foetida), frankincense, pepper, myrrh and saffron. Medicinal use of spices (mainly for pneumology, dermatology and gastroenterology) do not differ notably from the rest of Roman pharmacopoeia: the main criteria for prescription of spices is not their place of origin but a "therapeutic profile" which is clearly assigned to each substance by tradition. During the last decades, new methods of therapeutic research: ethno-botany and ethno-pharmacology have been used extensively to explore traditional medicines. A new discipline is ready to emerge: "archeo-pharmacology", aiming towards a drug research based on Ancient texts.

  Pharmacokinetic and pharmacological interactions between ticlopidine hydrochloride and Kangen-Karyu - Chinese traditional herbal medicine.:Phytother Res. 2003 Nov;17(9):1021-4.

 Kangen-Karyu (KGK), containing peony root, cnidium rhizome, saf flower, cyperus rhizome, saussurea root and Salvia miltiorrhiza root, is a Chinese traditional medicine formula to invigorate the 'blood' and dispel 'blood stasis', arising from poor blood circulation. The present study evaluated the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological interactions between KGK and ticlopidine hydrochloride. Ticlopidine was administered orally or intravenously to KGK-treated rats, and its plasma concentrations were measured. KGK did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of ticlopidine in rats treated with both oral and intravenous administration. Ticlopidine alone significantly prolonged the mouse tail-bleeding time and adenosine 5'-diphosphate-induced ex vivo platelet aggregation, which was slightly augmented by KGK. It is suggested that the combined therapy of ticlopidine and KGK may augment the antithrombotic effects, and that the dosage of ticlopidine should be reduced to prevent thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, a severe adverse effect of ticlopidine.
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  Oscillations of plants' stems and their damping: theory and experimentation.:Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2003 Sep 29;358(1437):1487-92.Brüchert F, Speck O, Spatz HC.Institut für Forstbenutzung und Forstliche Arbeitswissenschaften, Universit?t Freiburg, Werderring 6, 790085 Freiburg, Germany.

 Free oscillations of upright plants' stems, or in technical terms slender tapered rods with one end free, can be modelled by considering the equilibrium between bending moments and moments resulting from inertia. For stems with apical loads and negligible mass of the stem and for stems with finite mass but without top loading, analytical solutions of the differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions are available for a finite number of cases. For other cases approximations leading to an upper and a lower estimate of the frequency of oscillation omega can be derived. For the limiting case of omega = 0, the differential equations are identical with Greenhill's equations for the stability against Euler buckling of slender poles. To illustrate, the oscillation frequencies of 25 spruce trees (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) were compared with those calculated on the basis of their morphology, their density and their static elasticity modulus. For Arundo donax L. and Cyperus alternifolius L. the observed oscillation frequency was used in turn to calculate the dynamic elasticity modulus, which was compared with that determined in three-point bending. Oscillation damping was observed for A. donax and C. alternifolius for plants' stems with and without leaves or inflorescence. In C. alternifolius the difference can be attributed to the aerodynamic resistance of the leaves, whereas in A. donax structural damping in addition plays a major role.

  Utilization of tigernut (Cyperus rotundus, L.) meal in diets for cockerel starters.:Bioresour Technol. 2003 Sep;89(3):245-8.Bamgbose AM, Eruvbetine D, Dada W.Animal Nutrition Department, University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 2240, Abeokuta, Nigeria.

 The effect of feeding graded levels of tigernut meal (TGN) as a replacement for maize in the diets of cockerel starters on carcass characteristics and economics of feed conversion was assessed for 70 days. Tigernut replaced maize at 0%, 33.33%, 66.67% and 100% levels. A total of 120 day-old chicks were randomly allotted to four experimental diets such that each dietary treatment had three replicates of ten birds. Inclusion of TGN at 33.33% in cockerel diets supported better carcass yield in terms of high plucked, eviscerated, drumstick, thigh, neck, wing, heads, shanks, livers, hearts and lung weights without significant differences (P>0.05) in values obtained. However, there were significant difference (P<0.05) in back, breast, abdominal fat, gizzard, spleen, kidney and intestinal weights and lengths. Inclusion of TGN 100% level significantly depressed parameters assessed. The optimum replacement level of maize with TGN was 33.33% as this gave no significant reduction in carcass yield of the birds but a significant reduction in the cost of feed consumed. It required a feed cost of 42.90 ( 0.31 US dollars) to produce one kilogram weight gain on diet 2 (33.33%). Inclusion of TNG in the diets resulted in feed cost savings of 4.88% (D2), 8.17 (D3) and 8.90% (D4) respectively.

  Effects of Cyperus articulatus compared to effects of anticonvulsant compounds on the cortical wedge.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jul;87(1):27-34.Ngo Bum E, Rakotonirina A, Rakotonirina SV, Herrling P.Département des Sciences Biologiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Ngaoundéré, B.P. 565, Ngaoundéré, Cameroon. eli_bum@yahoo.fr

 Cyperus articulatus L. (Cyperaceae) is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa and Latin America to treat many diseases. The water extract from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus concentration-dependently reduced spontaneous epileptiform discharges and NMDA-induced depolarisations in the rat cortical wedge preparation at concentrations at which AMPA-induced depolarisations are not affected. The two antiepileptic compounds, valproate and ethosuximide, possessed effect neither on epileptiform discharges nor on AMPA- and NMDA-induced depolarisations. Phenobarbital, pentobarbital and phenythoin inhibited both AMPA- and NMDA-induced depolarisations and spontaneous epileptiform discharges. The effects of Cyperus articulatus were very close to the effect of D-CPPene. D-CPPene also inhibited spontaneous epileptiform discharges and antagonised NMDA- but not AMPA-induced depolarisations. The extract of Cyperus articulatus could contain components acting as NMDA antagonists.

  Investigations on rhizoplane Actinobacteria communities of papyrus (Cyperus papyrus) from an Egyptian wetland.:Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2002;49(4):423-32.Rifaat HM, Márialigeti K, Kovács G.Department of Microbiology, E?tv?s Loránd University, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/c, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.

 Wetlands have important global ecological functions, which include carbon storage and water interception. Wetland contributes to the maintenance of regional and global biodiversity. Though many important wetland ecological functions are based on microbial metabolism, we have scanty knowledge on microbial diversity in wetlands. Plant rhizoplane habitats are considered to harbor highly diverse bacterial communities. Most of the floating mats on river Nile are dominated by papyrus (Cyperus papyrus). Papyrus root samples were collected from a floating mat at the "Gold Island" inside the Nile River at Cairo, Egypt in February 1996 and May 1997 in order to investigate the rhizoplane actinobacteria communities. The root-tip regions were cut off, repeatedly washed, macerated and plated. Using the plate-count technique with three actinobacteria media, an average of 2.1 x 10(4) CFUg-1 root actinobacteria were obtained. All actinobacteria colonies were isolated, purified and investigated by classical and molecular methods. In the papyrus rhizoplane Streptomyces anulatus, Micromonospora sp., Rhodococcus luteus, Verrucosispora gifhornensis and Aureobacterium liquefaciens dominated, moreover Actinoplanes utahensis, and Str. diastaticus were also present. The physiological traits of the members of dominant groups revealed that these bacteria might be active in the rhizoplane and can be present there is their vegetative forms.

  Protective effect of a plant formula on ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.:Phytother Res. 2002 May;16(3):276-80.Zhu M, Lew KT, Leung PL.Department of Pharmacy, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories. minzhu@cuhk.edu.hk

 A plant formula and its five components were evaluated independently for their gastric protective effect against ethanol-induced stomach lesions in rats. Aqueous extracts of the plant formula (0.25-2g crude drug/kg orally) and its individual components (at the same dose) all showed significant stomach protective effects dose dependently. However, when these extracts were given to rats at a dose of 0.25 g/kg, the five single-herb preparations did not show any activity, but the formula-extract still exhibited a strong protective effect. These findings suggest the presence of a synergistic effect among the plant components. Chemical examination of the extracts indicated that the major ingredients of the five plants were essential oils, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and saccharides and these may contribute to the stomach protective activity observed.
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  A benzoquinone and flavonoids from Cyperus alopecuroides.:Phytochemistry. 2002 Jun;60(4):385-7.Nassar MI, Abdel-Razik AF, El-Khrisy Eel-D, Dawidar AA, Bystrom A, Mabry TJ.Chemistry of Natural and Microbial Products Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Cairo, Egypt. mnasser_eg@yahoo.com

 A benzoquinone, named alopecuquinone, was isolated from the ethanol extract of the inflorescences of Cyperus alopecuroides. Its structure was primarily elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 1H, 13C NMR, APT, HMQC, 1H-1H COSY and CIMS. The known flavonoids, vicenin 2, orientin, diosmetin, quercetin 3,3'-dimethyl ether and its 3,4'-dimethyl ether, were also isolated and characterized. The ethanol extract of the plant material showed moderate estrogenic activity using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  Effects of Kangen-karyu on coagulation system and platelet aggregation in mice..:Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Apr;25(4):523-5.

 Four sesquiterpenes, beta-selinene, isocurcumenol, nootkatone and aristolone and one triterpene, oleanolic acid were isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and tested for their ability to modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor function by radioligand binding assays using rat cerebrocortical membranes. Among these compounds, only isocurcumenol, one of the newly identified constituents of this plant, was found to inhibit [3H]Ro15-1788 binding and enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the presence of GABA. These results suggest that isocurcumenol may serve as a benzodiazepine receptor agonist and allosterically modulate GABAergic neurotransmission via enhancement of endogenous receptor ligand binding.

  DNA decay rate in papyri and human remains from Egyptian archaeological sites.:Am J Phys Anthropol. 2002 Apr;117(4):310-8.Marota I, Basile C, Ubaldi M, Rollo F.Laboratorio di Archeo-Antropologia Molecolare/DNA Antico, Dipartimento di Biologia Molecolare, Cellulare e Animale, Università di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino, Italy.

 The writing sheets made with strips from the stem (caulis) of papyri (Cyperus papyrus) are one of the most ingenious products of ancient technology. We extracted DNA from samples of modern papyri varying in age from 0-100 years BP and from ancient specimens from Egypt, with an age-span from 1,300-3,200 years BP. The copy number of the plant chloroplast DNA in the sheets was determined using a competitive PCR system designed on the basis of a short (90 bp) tract of the chloroplast's ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene sequence. The results allowed us to establish that the DNA half-life in papyri is about 19-24 years. This means that the last DNA fragments will vanish within no more than 532-672 years from the sheets being manufactured. In a parallel investigation, we checked the archaeological specimens for the presence of residual DNA and determined the extent of racemization of aspartic (Asp) acid in both modern and ancient specimens, as a previous report (Poinar et al. [1996], Science 272:864-866) showed that racemization of aspartic acid and DNA decay are linked. The results confirmed the complete loss of authentic DNA, even in the less ancient (8th century AD) papyri. On the other hand, when the regression for Asp racemization rates in papyri was compared with that for human and animal remains from Egyptian archaeological sites, it proved, quite surprisingly, that the regressions are virtually identical. Our study provides an indirect argument against the reliability of claims about the recovery of authentic DNA from Egyptian mummies and bone remains.

  Modulation of radioligand binding to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex by a new component from Cyperus rotundus.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Jan;25(1):128-30.Ha JH, Lee KY, Choi HC, Cho J, Kang BS, Lim JC, Lee DU.Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Taegu, Korea.

 Four sesquiterpenes, beta-selinene, isocurcumenol, nootkatone and aristolone and one triterpene, oleanolic acid were isolated from the ethylacetate fraction of the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and tested for their ability to modulate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor function by radioligand binding assays using rat cerebrocortical membranes. Among these compounds, only isocurcumenol, one of the newly identified constituents of this plant, was found to inhibit [3H]Ro15-1788 binding and enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding in the presence of GABA. These results suggest that isocurcumenol may serve as a benzodiazepine receptor agonist and allosterically modulate GABAergic neurotransmission via enhancement of endogenous receptor ligand binding.

  Chemical study of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus.:Phytochemistry. 2001 Nov;58(5):799-810.Sonwa MM, K?nig WA.Institut für Organische Chemie, Universit?t Hamburg, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany.

 Minor constituents of the essential oil of Cyperus rotundus have been investigated. The three new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (-)-isorotundene, (-)-cypera-2,4(15)-diene, (-)-norrotundene and the ketone (+)-cyperadione were isolated and their structures elucidated. The absolute configuration of (-)-rotundene was derived by chemical correlation and enantioselective gas chromatography.
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  Anticonvulsant properties of the methanolic extract of Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae).:J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Jul;76(2):145-50. Bum EN, Schmutz M, Meyer C, Rakotonirina A, Bopelet M, Portet C, Jeker A, Rakotonirina SV, Olpe HR, Herrling P.Département des Sciences Biologiques, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Ngaoundéré, B.P. 454, Ngaoundere, Cameroon. boum@cna-assur.com

 The methanolic extract of rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus, a plant used in traditional medicine in Africa and Latin America for many diseases, possesses anticonvulsant activity in mice. This extract protected mice against maximal electroshock (MES)- and pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures. It also delayed the onset of seizures induced by isonicotinic acid hydrazide and strongly antagonized N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced turning behavior. The ED(50) for protection against seizures was 306 (154-541) mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for the PTZ test and 1005 (797-1200) mg/kg i.p. for the MES test. The ED(50) of methanolic extract against N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced turning behavior was 875 (623-1123) mg/kg i.p. C. articulatus L. methanolic extract protected 54% of mice from seizures induced by strychnine at the dose of 1000 mg/kg i.p. but had no or a moderate effect only against picrotoxin- or bicuculline-induced seizures. With these effects, the rhizome of C. articulatus L. possesses anticonvulsant properties in animals that might explain its use as a traditional medicine for epilepsy in Africa.

  Inhibitory effects of methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes on nitric oxide and superoxide productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 Jun;76(1):59-64. Seo WG, Pae HO, Oh GS, Chai KY, Kwon TO, Yun YG, Kim NY, Chung HT.Department of Microbiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, 570-749, Chonbuk, South Korea.

 The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) have been used in oriental traditional medicines for the treatment of stomach and bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2-) are important mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to address whether the metanol (MeOH) extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could modulate NO and O2- productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. The MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus showed the inhibition of NO production in a dose-dependent manner by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-gamma plus lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of NO production by the extract was due to the suppression of iNOS protein, as well as iNOS mRNA expression, determined by Western and Northern blotting analyses, respectively. In addition, the MeOH extract suppressed the production of O2- by phorbol ester-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Collectively, these results suggest that the MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could be developed as anti-inflammatory candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2-.

  Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2001 May;75(2-3):185-90. Sripanidkulchai B, Wongpanich V, Laupattarakasem P, Suwansaksri J, Jirakulsomchok D.Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, 40002, Khon Kaen, Thailand. bungorn@kkul.kku.ac.th

 Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P < 0.01) which was 79 and 74%, respectively, of the effect of an equivalent dose of hydrochlorothiazide. Both plant extracts gave similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of the hydrochlorothiazide. The analyses of the urinary osmolality and electrolyte excretion per unit time suggest the observed effect of A. comosus was intrinsic, whereas that of C. papaya may have resulted from a high salt content of this extract. However, our experimental evidence on the diuretic activities of the other three plants did not parallel their local utilization for dysuria. It was found that the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica apparently inhibited the urination of rats whereas the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus and the stem of Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria.

  Constituents of the essential oil of Cyperus alopecuroides.:Phytochemistry. 2001 Feb;56(4):321-6.Sonwa MM, K?nig WA.Institut für Organische Chemie, Universit?t Hamburg, Germany.

 We have investigated the constituents of the essential oil of Cyperus alopecuroides. Three new compounds, the hydrocarbon, (-)-eudesma-2,4(15)-11-triene, the sesquiterpene alcohol (-)-eudesma-3,11-dien-5-ol and the diterpene hydrocarbon (-)-dolabella-3,7,18-triene were isolated and their structure elucidated.

  Sedative properties of the decoction of the rhizome of Cyperus articulatus.:Fitoterapia. 2001 Jan;72(1):22-9.Rakotonirina VS, Bum EN, Rakotonirina A, Bopelet M.Laboratory of Animal Physiology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, B.P. 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon

 The decoction of the rhizome of Cyperus articulatus is empirically used in several African countries in the treatment of a wide variety of human diseases. Studies were conducted in mice in order to determine scientifically the pharmacological properties of this medicinal herb. At the same time, the qualitative chemical characterisation of the total extract showed that C. articulatus contains flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenes and sugars. The total extract of the rhizome of C. articulatus does not appear to possess either anaesthetic or paralysing effects. In contrast, spontaneous motor activity is significantly reduced by the extract. However, when compared to diazepam, C. articulatus does not seem to have muscle relaxant effects. When associated with sodium thiopental or diazepam, the total extract facilitates sleep induction, and increases the total sleep time without any concomitant analgesic effect. These observations suggest that the rhizome of C. articulatus has pharmacological properties similar to those of sedatives. The sedative actions probably explain at least part of the therapeutic efficiency claimed for this plant in traditional medicine.
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  Two novel flavans from Cyperus conglomeratus.:Pharmazie. 2000 Sep;55(9):693-5.Abdel-Mogib M, Basaif SA, Ezmirly ST.Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. mamdouh_m@hotmail.com

 Separation of the extract of the underground tubers of Cyperus conglomeratus Rottb. (family Cyperaceae) afforded, in addition to known compounds, two novel flavans, which were identified, by one and two dimensional NMR, MS and IR spectra, as 5-hydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyflavan and 5,7-dihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxy-6-prenylflavan.

  The ameliorating effects of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs on scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats.:Phytother Res. 2000 Aug;14(5):375-7.Hsieh MT, Peng WH, Wu CR, Wang WH.Institute of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, China Medical College, Taiwan, R.O.C. rei106@tcts1.seed.net.tw

 Ameliorating effects were investigated of the cognitive-enhancing Chinese herbs administered orally for 1 week-Panax ginseng (PG), Panax notoginseng (PNG), Dioscorea opposita (DO), Gastrodia elata (GE), Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM), Acorus gramineus (AG), Coptis chinensis (CC), Polygonum multiflorum (PM), Cyperus rotundus (CR) and Psoralea corylifolia (PC)-on the scopolamine (SCOP)-induced amnesia by using a passive avoidance task in rats. Of ten Chinese herbs, only PG, PNG, GE and CC prolonged the SCOP-shortened STL. These results revealed that PG, PNG GE and CC administered orally for 1 week improved the SCOP-induced learning and memory deficit in rats.

  The repellant and antifeedant properties of Cyperus articulatus against Tribolium casteneum Hbst.:Phytother Res. 2000 Jun;14(4):281-3.Abubakar MS, Abdurahman EM, Haruna AK.Department of Pharmacognosy and Drug Development, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

 Cyperus articulatus is an insect repellant plant commonly found in Northern Nigeria and used traditionally in pest control. The light petroleum and methanol extracts of the plant's rhizome were evaluated against Tribolium casteneum Hbst (the red flour beetle) using standard techniques. The methanol extract showed more antifeedant property than the light petroleum extract, while both the extracts were observed to have similar repellant actions.

  Rotundines A-C, three novel sesquiterpene alkaloids from Cyperus rotundus.:J Nat Prod. 2000 May;63(5):673-5.

 Rotundines A (1), B (2), and C (3), three novel sesquiterpene alkaloids with an unprecedented carbon skeleton, were isolated from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus. The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods.

  Treatment of complications due to peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure with traditional Chinese medicine.:J Tradit Chin Med. 1999 Mar;19(1):3-9.Wei L, Chen B, Ye R, Li H.Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, First Military Medical University, Guangzhou.

 In this paper, the experience in the treatment of complications due to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure with traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is reported. Modified Renshen Yangrong Tang (Ginseng Nutrition Decoction) was used for anorexia and hypoproteinemia; modified Xiangsha Liujunzi Tang (Decoction of Cyperus and Amomum with Six Noble Ingredients) for abdominal pain and distension; modified Da Chaihu Tang (Major Bupleurum Decoction) for peritonitis; modified Shenling Baizhu San (Powder of Ginseng, Poria and Atractylodes) for diarrhea due to insufficiency of the spleen with abundance of dampness; Lizhong Tang (Decoction for Regulating the Function of Middle-jiao) and modified Sishen Wan (Pills of Four Miraculous Drugs) for insufficiency of both the spleen and the kidney; Siwu Tang (Decoction of Four Ingredients) added with other drugs for cutaneous pruritus, and Guishao Sijunzi Tang (Decoction of Four Noble Drugs added with Chinese Angelica Root and white Peony Root) for renal anemia. The therapeutic principles of invigorating the liver and kidney, strengthening the bones and muscles, and promoting blood circulation to eliminate blood stasis were adopted in the treatment of renal osteopathy, and the therapeutic principles of invigorating the liver and kidney, expelling phlegm and resolving dampness, and promoting blood circulation to eliminate blood stasis in the treatment of hyperlipemia. Shen Tekang capsules (capsules for improving the renal function) was administered to patients for strengthening the viability and improving the nutrition state, and the recipe for treating renal function failure (both formulated by the authors) for improving the renal function so as to decrease the frequency and duration of dialysis.
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  The lethal effects of Cyperus iria on Aedes aegypti:J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1998 Mar;14(1):78-82.Schwartz AM, Paskewitz SM, Orth AP, Tesch MJ, Toong YC, Goodman WG.Department of Entomology, University of Wisconsin-Madison 53706, USA.

 The sedge Cyperus iria, a common weed in rice, contains large amounts of the insect hormone (10R) juvenile hormone III (JH III). Given its widespread distribution in Asia and Africa, we examined the possibility that C. iria could be used as a safe, inexpensive, and readily available mosquito larvicide. Plants of varying ages were harvested and leaves tested for lethal effects on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. The median lethal doses (LD50s) for frozen leaves from 1- and 2-month-old plants were 267 and 427 mg/100 ml of water, respectively. Leaves from 1-month-old C. iria contained 193 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight, whereas leaves from 2-month-old plants contained 143 micrograms JH III/g fresh weight. Larval sensitivity to the plant differed with age; 4-day-old larvae displayed the greatest mortality followed in decreasing sensitivity by larvae 5, 6, 3, and 2 days old. Six Cyperus species (C. albostriatus, C. alternifolius, C. esculentus, C. iria, C. miliifolius, and C. papyrus) of similar developmental stage were assayed for JH III content. Only C. iria was found to contain significant levels of JH III.

  Extracts from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae) displace [3H]CGP39653 and [3H]glycine binding from cortical membranes and selectively inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission.:J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Nov;54(2-3):103-11.Bum EN, Meier CL, Urwyler S, Wang Y, Herrling PL.Sandoz Research Institute Berne Ltd., Switzerland.

 The marshland plant Cyperus articulatus (Cyperaceae) is commonly used in traditional medicine in Africa and Latin America to treat a wide variety of human diseases ranging from headache to epilepsy. We tested the hypothesis that the purported anti-epileptic effect of this plant might be due to a functional inhibition of excitatory amino acid receptors. One or several component(s) contained in the extracts inhibited the binding of [3H]CGP39653 to the NMDA recognition site and of [3H]glycine to the strychnine-insensitive glycine site of the NMDA receptor complex from rat neocortex. Water extracts from rhizomes of Cyperus articulatus dose-dependently reduced spontaneous epileptiform discharges and NMDA-induced depolarizations in the rat cortical wedge preparation at concentrations at which AMPA-induced depolarizations were not affected. We conclude that the purported beneficial effects of Cyperus articulatus might at least partially be due to inhibition of NMDA-mediated neurotransmission.

  Antimalarial sesquiterpenes from tubers of Cyperus rotundus: structure of 10,12-peroxycalamenene, a sesquiterpene endoperoxide.:Phytochemistry. 1995 Sep;40(1):125-8.Thebtaranonth C, Thebtaranonth Y, Wanauppathamkul S, Yuthavong Y.National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok, Thailand.

 Activity-guided investigation of Cyperus rotundus tubers led to the isolation of patchoulenone, caryophyllene alpha-oxide, 10,12-peroxycalamenene and 4,7-dimethyl-1-tetralone. The antimalarial activities of these compounds are in the range of EC50 10(-4)-10(-6) M, with the novel endoperoxide sesquiterpene, 10,12-peroxycalamenene, exhibiting the strongest effect at EC50 2.33 x 10(-6) M.

  Studies on protective effect of Cyperus scariosus extract on acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity.:Gen Pharmacol. 1995 May;26(3):627-31. Gilani AU, Janbaz KH.Department of Pharmacology, Aga Khan University Medical College, Faculty of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan.

 1. The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanolic extract of Cyperus scariosus (Cyperaceae) was investigated against acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. 2. Acetaminophen produced 100% mortality at a dose of 1 g/kg in mice while pretreatment of animals with plant extract (500 mg/kg) reduced the death rate to 30%. 3. Acetaminophen at a dose of 640 mg/kg produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the rise in serum levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) to 430 +/- 68, 867 +/- 305 and 732 +/- 212 IU/l (n = 10) respectively, compared to respective control values of 202 +/- 36, 59 +/- 14 and 38 +/- 7. 4. Pretreatment of rats with plant extract (500 mg/kg) significantly lowered (P < 0.05) the respective serum ALP; GOT and GPT levels to 192 +/- 31, 63 +/- 9 and 35 +/- 8. 5. The hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg; orally) raised serum ALP, GOT and GPT levels to 328 +/- 30, 493 +/- 102 and 357 +/- 109 IU/l (n = 10) respectively, compared to respective control values of 177 +/- 21, 106 +/- 15 and 47 +/- 12. 6. The same dose of plant extract (500 mg/kg) was able to significantly prevent (P < 0.05) CCl4-induced rise in serum enzymes and the estimated values of ALP, GOT and GPT were 220 +/- 30, 207 +/- 95 and 75 +/- 38, respectively. 7. The plant extract also prevented CCl4-induced prolongation in pentobarbital sleeping time confirming hepatoprotectivity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  Effects of the combination of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (AM), Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (TAS), Cyperus rotundus L. (CR), Ligusticum chuangxiong Hort (LC) and Peaonìa veitchii lynch (PV) on the hemorheological changes in "blood stagnating" rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1994 Feb;19(2):108-10, 128. Chinese.Xue JX, Yan YQ, Jiang Y.Institute of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.

 The "blood stagnating" rat model was built with adrenaline and cold stimulation. Its hemorrheological character was an increase in the viscosity, thickness and liability to coagulate. The experimental result showed that AM and TAS could decrease the whole blood specific viscosity, but at the same time increase the plasma specific viscosity. The qi-regulating drug CR and two blood-activating drugs LC and PV could improve the hemorrheological changes in "blood stagnating" rats. The combination of qi-regulating drugs and blood-activating drugs had more favorable effect.
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  Survey of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored tubers of Cyperus esculentus L.:Mycopathologia. 1993 Oct;124(1):41-6.Adebajo LO.Department of Biological Sciences, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

 The mold incidence, moisture contents, pH and levels of mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, G1 and ochratoxin A) on/of/in rootstock snack (tubers of Cyperus esculentus L.) samples were monitored during a 150-day storage period. Whereas the mold incidence, moisture and mycotoxin levels increased with storage time, the pH declined during the same period. Altogether, 12 fungal species, mostly toxigenic, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. ochraceus were isolated. At collection period only 3 of the 9 snack samples analysed contained trace amounts of aflatoxins. By 120th day, all the 9 samples were contaminated and the average levels were 454 and 80 ppb for aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 respectively on the 150th day. Ochratoxin A was not detected before 120th day and then only at low levels, occurring in a maximum of four-samples and ranging between 10 and 80 ppb.

  Effects of the combination of Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. (AM), tail of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels. (TAS), Cyperus rotundus L. (CR), Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (LC) and Paeonia veitchii Lynch (PV) on the hemorrheological changes in normal rats.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Oct;18(10):621-3, 640. Chinese. Xue JX, Jiang Y, Yan YQ.Institute of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.

 The results showed that AM and TAS had significant effects of enriching the blood. CR, a Qi-regulating drug, LC and PV, two blood-activating drugs, could improve all hemorrheological indexes, such as the whole blood specific viscosity, the plasma specific viscosity, erythrocyte electrophoresis, etc. The combination of Qi-regulating drug and blood-activating drug displayed more favorable effect. This experiment has provided some pharmacological evidence for the theory of "Qi Xue Xiang Guan" (correlation of vital energy with blood circulation) in traditional Chinese medicine.

  Microbial counts and invert sugars in juice extracts from stored tubers of Cyperus esculentus Linn. (earth almond).:Nahrung. 1993;37(6):607-12.Adebajo LO.Department of Biological Sciences, Ogun State University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria.

 The microbial populations and the levels of invert sugars in juice extracts from healthy tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. stored at 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C were determined. Bacterial counts increased with time and attained the peak on the 25th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. Similar trends were obtained for the yeasts, but the peak counts were recorded on the 20th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. At 10 and 20 degrees C, the counts, both for bacteria and yeasts increased throughout the 40-d period. Invert sugar levels increased throughout the investigation period at all the tested temperatures. Highest levels were recorded at about 30 and 40 degrees C while the lowest levels were obtained at 10 degrees C. Of the seven bacteria and five yeasts tested, only Saccharomyces rouxii, S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces sp., Pseudomonas chlororaphis, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis brought about significant hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro. Results on the microbial populations and levels of invert sugars in raw juice extracts suggest that yeasts could possibly play a greater role than bacteria in the hydrolysis of sucrose in vivo.

  Treatment of intestinal metaplasia and atypical hyperplasia of gastric mucosa with xiao wei yan powder.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1992 Oct;12(10):602-3, 580. Chinese.Liu XR, Han WQ, Sun DR.Qingdao TCM-WM Hospital.

 138 cases of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 104 cases of atypical hyperplasia (AH) of the gastric mucosa of chronic gastritis treated with Xiao Wei Yan Powder (XWYP) were reported. The diagnoses were based on the pathological examination of gastric antrum biopsy specimens. The cases were randomly divided into treated group and control group. The XWYP contained Smilax glabrae, Hedyotis diffusae, Taraxacum mongolicum, Caesalpinia sappan, Paeonia alba, Cyperus rotundus, Bletilla striata, Glycyrrhiza uralensis etc., and was prepared in powder form, taken orally 5-7g tid. After 2-4 months of administration, gastroscopic and pathological examinations were repeated. Results: In treated group, the total effective rate of IM was 91.3% and that of the AH was 92.16%, while in control group, they were 21.3% and 14.46% respectively (P < 0.01). It denoated that XWYP had marked therapeutic effects for IM and AH. The animal experiments revealed no toxic effect, so safety guarantee was provided for its clinical application.

  Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of coumarin derivatives from Cyperus incompletus.:Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper. 1992 Jul;68(7):453-61.Dini A, Ramundo E, Saturnino P, Scimone A, Stagno d'Alcontres I.Dipartimento di Chimica delle Sostanze Naturali, Università di Napoli Federico II.

 Ten coumarin derivatives were isolated and characterized by UV, 1H NMR and GC-MS spectra. Their in vitro efficacy against several human pathogenic bacteria and two fungi was evaluated. The tested coumarins showed mild to undefined activity.
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  Observations on pre-prophase bands of microtubules in uniseriate hairs, stomatal complexes of sugar cane, and Cyperus root meristems.:Eur J Cell Biol. 1980 Jun;21(2):214-23.Busby CH, Gunning B.

 Three aspects of the location and properties of pre-prophase bands of microtubules inplant tissues were examined. (i) Anatomical locations: Pre-prophase bands were found preceding mitosis in the basal meristematic cell of uniseriate hairs in Salvinia auriculata and in intercalary dividing cells in the uniseriate hairs of Tradescantia stamens. Previously they had only been found in 2- or 3-dimensional aggregates of cells. Other new locations were Tradescantia stamen filaments, and periclinal and anticlinal divisions in root and root cap meristems of Cuperus eragrostis. (ii) Prediction of the site of cytokinesis: Developing stomatal complexes of Saccharum officinarum were examined in view of recent reports that guard mother cells in this plant violate the otherwise general rule that the pre-prophase band predicts the line of fusion of the cell plate and the parental wall. The generality of the prediction phenomenon was upheld. (iii) Bisection of pre-prophase band sites: Evidence that the site of the pre-prophase band in the cell cortex is (at least approximately) bisected at cytokinesis was obtained for asymmetrical divisions in Cyperus roots, stomatal complexes of Saccharum, and Salvinia hairs, and symmetrical divisions in Tradescantia stamen hairs and Saccharum guard mother cells. The observations are discussed with particular reference to possible roles of the pre-prophase band site after its microtubules have disappeared at prophase.

  Effect of herbal feed additives on the nutrient utilization in buffalo calves.:Bakshi, M. P. S., Wadhwa, M. Department of Animal Nutrition, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana - 141 004, India.Bubalus Bubalis, 2004 (Vol. 10) (No. 1) 65-70

 A 153-day trial was conducted to determine the effect of 9 herbal feed additives on the health and productive performance of 20 male buffalo calves (281±8.7 kg body weight). The animals were divided into 5 groups: control (C) and 4 experimental groups supplemented with different herbal combinations containing Cyperus scariosus, Cuminum cyminum and Foeniculum vulgare in a 3:1:2 ratio (HC1, Group I); Asparagus racemosus, Leptadenia reticulata and Eclipta alba in 3:1:2 ratio (HC2, Group II), a combination of HC1 and HC2 in a 1:2 ratio (HC3, Group III) and Kutaki picrorrhiza, Plumbago zeylanica and Anethum sowa in a 1:4:2 ratio (HC4, Group IV). Each of the herbal combinations was given at a rate of 10 g/100 kg liveweight except in HC3 where it was 5 g/100 kg liveweight. The roughage to concentrate ratio was maintained at 75:25. The animals were offered concentrate mixture supplemented with FWS (naturally fermented urea:wheat straw (3.5:96.5) moistened to 40% for 9 days) and green fodder once a day at 9 h as total mixed ration. The proximate digestibility as well as cell wall constituents improved significantly when the diet was supplemented with HC2 and HC4 herbal combinations. The N retained as percentage of absorbed N, i.e. apparent biological value was better in animals given herbal combinations 1 and 2. The availability of metabolizable energy (ME) to the animals improved significantly when the diet was supplemented with HC2 or HC4 herbal combinations. The animals responded also well when supplemented with HC4 and gained more weight (23.5%) compared to other herbal combinations (15.8-17.3%). In conclusion, the herbal combinations in Groups II and IV exhibit promising results for use in feeding buffalo calves.

  Allelopathic effect of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. on Cyperus rotundus L. and Cynodon dactylon L. pers.:CHANDRA BABU R.; KANDASAMY O. S. Crop Physiology and Agronomy Departments, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, INDE.Journal of agronomy and crop science (J. agron. crop sci.) ISSN 0931-2250 CODEN JASCEV

 The allelopathic potential of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (gum tree) fresh and dried leaf leachates was studied using two perennial weeds, viz. purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L. Pers) as test weeds. Aqueous leachate of fresh leaves of eucalyptus significantly suppressed the establishment of vegetative propagules and early seedling growth of the weeds. Leachate of fresh leaf cuttings had growth inhibitory effect on bermuda grass but showed growth promotion effect on purple nutsedge. Similarly the leachate of dried leaves of eucalyptus had differential influence on the growth of the two weeds. There is a possibility to harness the allelochemicals of eucalyptus leaves as herbicides for the management of these perennial weeds.

  Cytoprotective effects of Cyperus rotundus against ethanol induced gastric ulceration in rats.:M. Zhu *, H. H. Luk, H. S. Fung, C. T. Luk Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T. Hong Kong*Correspondence to M. Zhu, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N. T. Hong Kong

 The rhizome of Cyperus rotundus was assessed for its cytoprotective effects against ethanol induced gastric damage. Decoctions of Rhizoma Cyperi were given orally (1.25, 2.5, 4.0 g crude drug/kg) to rats 30 min before ethanol (40% v/v, 10 mL/kg) was administered. The decoction showed an ulcer inhibitory effect in a dose dependent manner. Moreover, the activity was also observed when the decoction was given subcutaneously (0.3-0.6 g/kg), suggesting that the herb possessed systemic effects on protecting the stomach. Compared with controls, gastric motility of the ethanol-treated rats was delayed significantly by either oral (2.5-4.0 g/kg) or subcutaneous (0.3 g/kg) administration of the decoction. Pretreatment of rats with indomethacin (5 mg/kg) significantly reduced the gastric protective action of C. rotundus. Mucus content in the stomach was not affected by administration of the docoction. The findings in this study suggest that the protective action of C. rotundus is related to its inhibition of gastric motility and endogeneous prostaglandins may play an important role.

  Inhibitory effects of methanol extract of Cyperus rotundus rhizomes on nitric oxide and superoxide productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells.:Nitric oxide; NO synthase; Superoxide; Cyperus rotundus rhizomes

 The rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus (C. rotundus) have been used in oriental traditional medicines for the treatment of stomach and bowel disorders, and inflammatory diseases. Nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O2?) are important mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. This study was undertaken to address whether the metanol (MeOH) extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could modulate NO and O2? productions by murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. The MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus showed the inhibition of NO production in a dose-dependent manner by RAW 264.7 cells stimulated with interferon-γ plus lipopolysaccharide. The inhibition of NO production by the extract was due to the suppression of iNOS protein, as well as iNOS mRNA expression, determined by Western and Northern blotting analyses, respectively. In addition, the MeOH extract suppressed the production of O2? by phorbol ester-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners. Collectively, these results suggest that the MeOH extract of rhizomes of C. rotundus could be developed as anti-inflammatory candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases mediated by overproduction of NO and O2?.
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  Effect of purple (Cyperus rotundus) and yellow nutsedge (C. esculentus) on growth and reflectance characteristics of cotton and soybean.:Weed Science.Article: pp. 557–564 | Abstract Volume 51, Issue 4 (July 2003)Chris T. Leon1, David R. Shaw2, Lori M. Bruce3, and Clarence Watson4 1. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762. Present address: Department of Agronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, 2. Corresponding author. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762; E-mail: dshaw@rstc.msstate.edu, 3. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, 4. Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762

 Because of interest in monitoring crop response to weed interference, greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate interference of purple and yellow nutsedge on the growth, development, and spectral response of cotton and soybean. Cotton fresh weight was reduced 9 to 42% compared with the control when grown with yellow and purple nutsedge. Fresh weight of soybean was reduced 27 to 60% when it emerged simultaneously with yellow nutsedge and 45 to 63% when it emerged 7 d after yellow nutsedge. Soybean fresh weight was reduced 30 to 35% when it emerged simultaneously with purple nutsedge and 44 to 72% when it emerged 7 d after purple nutsedge. Reflectance data were analyzed using wavelet transformation techniques with the HAAR mother wavelet. Nine extracted features from the cotton and soybean leaf reflectance measurements were used to classify single-leaf cotton and soybean reflectance measurements to predict whether cotton or soybean was growing in the presence or absence of purple and yellow nutsedge. After training the system, the ability to separate leaf reflectance measurements of crops growing weed free from those growing in the presence of purple and yellow nutsedge was tested using cross-validation with the nearest mean classifier. Cross-validation accuracy results for cotton were 62 to 70%. Cross-validation accuracy for soybean and yellow nutsedge was similar, regardless of emergence, and ranged from 60 to 71%. Features extracted from the soybean reflectance measurements were not as effective in classifying soybean leaf reflectance measurements based on the presence or absence of purple nutsedge. A decrease in accuracy was observed for both simultaneous and delayed soybean emergence in purple nutsedge fresh weight categories from more than 2,560 g to more than 3,420 g. Overall, the system correctly classified soybean emerging simultaneously with purple nutsedge 58 to 74% and soybean emerging 7 d after purple nutsedge 53 to 67%. These results indicate the potential of differentiating crops under stress using spectral reflectance, although refinements to the system must be made before it is field ready.

  Wound healing activity of cyperus rotundus linn.:Puratchikody A1, Devi C Nithya1, Nagalakshmi G21 Department of Pharmacy, School of Engineering and Technology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli-620 024, India2 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, The Erode College of Pharmacy, Erode-638 112, India

 The present study was aimed to evaluate the wound healing activity of extract of tuber parts of Cyperus rotundus . It is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicine. On the basis of traditional use and literature references, this plant was selected for evaluation of wound healing potential. An alcoholic extract of tuber parts of Cyperus rotundus was examined for wound healing activity in the form of ointment in three types of wound models on rats: the excision, the incision and dead space wound model. The extract ointments showed considerable difference in response in all the above said wound models as comparable to those of a standard drug nitrofurazone ointment (0.2% w/w NFZ) in terms of wound contracting ability, wound closure time and tensile strength.

 Wound may be defined as a loss or breaking of cellular and anatomic or functional continuity of living tissue[1]. Wound healing is a complex phenomenon involving a number of processes, including induction of an acute inflammatory process, regeneration of parenchymal inflammatory process[2], migration and proliferation of both parenchymal and connective tissue cells, synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, remodelling of connective tissue and parenchymal components, and acquisition of wound strength[3]. All these steps are orchestrated in a controlled manner by a variety of cytokines including growth factors[4]. Some of these growth factors like platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF), transforming growth factor B (TGF-B), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) have been identified in self-healing wounds[2]. In chronic wounds, the normal healing process is disrupted due to some unknown reasons, and in such cases, exogenous application of certain growth-promoting agents or compounds which can enhance the in situ generation of these growth factors is required to augment the healing process. Several factors delay or reduce wound healing, including bacterial infection, necrotic tissue, interference with blood supply, lymphatic blockage and diabetes mellitus. Generally if the above factors could be inhibited/controlled by any agent, increasing healing rate could be achieved[5].

 Cyperus rotundus Linn. (Family Cyperaceae), commonly known as mustaka, is a pestiferous perennial weed with dark green glabrous culms, arising from a system of underground tubers found throughout India[6],[7]. The tubers are useful as infusion or as a soup in fever, diarrhoea, dysentery, dyspepsia, vomiting and cholera. Fresh tubers are applied on the breast in the form of paste or plaster as galactagogue. Paste is applied to scorpion stings and when dried, to spreading ulcers[7]. The acetone and ethanol extracts of tubers were found to possess anti-bacterial activity[8]. It is one of the plants mentioned in the literature having claims of activity against liver disorders[9]. The tubers of the plant are used as anthelmintic, antihistaminic, antiemetic, antipyretic, hypotensive, smooth-muscle relaxant and emmenagogue in uterine complaints[10]. The plant has also been reported to have antimalarial, tranquillizing, hepatoprotective against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage, lipolytic action and reduced obesity by releasing enhanced concentration of biogenic amines from nerve terminals of the brain, which suppressed the appetite centre[11]. The plant has also been reported to have antimalarial, tranquillizing action as well as hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage. It is said to have lipolytic action and also property that helps reduce obesity by releasing enhanced concentration of biogenic amines from nerve terminals of the brain that suppress the appetite centre[11]. It is also reported to have anti-inflammatory activity [12].

 It contains a wide variety of phytoconstituents that are useful in the treatment of different ailments and includes sesquiterpene 4a-, 5a-, oxidoeudesm-11-en-3a-ol, cyperene-1 (a tricyclic sesquiterpene), cyperene-2 (a bicyclic sesquesterpene hydrocarbon), cyperenone, and a-cyperone[12], mustakone (a new sesquesterpene ketone), β -selinene, sugetriol triacetate (a new sesquesterpenoid), sugenol (sesquesterpenic ketol)[13]; the essential oil including copadiene, epoxyguaiene rotundone, cyperenol, cyperolone, eugenol, cyperol, isocyperol, a-and β -rotunol, kobusone, isokobusone[12], d-cadinene and calamenone; a flavonol glycoside, rhamnetin 3-O-rhamnosyl-(1?4) rhamnopyranoside and β -sitosterol[11]. A survey of literature reveals that no systematic approach has been made to study the wound healing activity of tubers of this plant. In the present work, we have investigated the wound healing activity of the ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus in an ointment form.

 Fresh rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Linn. were collected from Namakkal District, Tamilnadu, during the months of May-June 2003. The identity of the tubers has been confirmed by using all official monographic specifications[14]. Tubers were dried under shade, pulverised by a mechanical grinder and passed through a 40 mesh and then stored in a well-closed container for further use.

 The powdered tubers (500 g) were extracted with ethanol (90% w/v) for 24 h using a Soxhlet extractor. This ethanol extract was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and controlled temperature (50-60o) to yield solid masses that were completely free from solvents (12.3%). The different concentrations (0.5, 1 and 2% w/w) of extract ointment were prepared using simple ointment base BP[15].

 Male Wistar rats (150-180 g) were selected for the present investigation. The animals were maintained at a well-ventilated, temperature-controlled (30±1o) animal room for 7 d prior to the experimental period. The animals were provided with food and water ad libitum. The animals were divided into six groups of six rats each as follows: Group I rats were treated with simple ointment base (control). Group-II rats were treated with a reference standard 0.2% w/w nitrofurazone (NFZ) ointment. Group III, IV and V rats were treated with 0.5, 1 and 2% w/w of extract ointments respectively. The extract ointments (0.5, 1 and 2% w/w) at a quantity of 0.5 g were applied once daily to treat different groups of animals. The simple ointment base and 0.2% w/w NFZ ointment were applied in the same quantity to serve as control and standard respectively. Before performing these experiments, ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (CPCSEA Registration No. 418).

 In the excision wound model[16],[17],[18], the full-thickness excision wounds were made on the rats by removing a 500 mm2 piece of skin from the depilated backs after being anaesthetized with anaesthetic ether by the open-mask method. After skin excision, the wound was left open to the environment. Male Wistar rats (150-180 g) were used in this study and worked-up as above. The groups were treated in the same manner as mentioned in the animal experimentation. Wound healing potential was monitored by wound contraction and wound closure time [Table - 1]. Wound contraction was calculated as percentage reduction in wound area [Figure - 1]. The progressive changes in wound area were monitored planimetrically by tracing the wound margin on graph paper on wounding day, followed by 6th, 12th and 18th day.

 For the incision wound model[19],[20],[21], the animals in each group were anaesthetized with anaesthetic ether, and two paravertebral long incisions of 6 cm length were made through the skin and cutaneous muscles at a distance of about 1.5 cm from the midline on each side of the depilated back of the rats. After the incision was made, the parted skin was kept together and stitched at 0.5 cm intervals continuously and tightly using surgical thread (No. 000) and a curved needle (No.11). All the groups were treated in the same manner as mentioned in the case of excision wound model. Extract ointments, simple ointment base (control), and standard drug were applied once daily for 9 d. When the wounds were cured thoroughly, the sutures were removed on day 9 and the tensile strength of the healed wound was measured on day 10 by continuous and constant water flow technique by the method of Lee [Table - 1][22],[23].

 Physical changes in the granuloma tissue were studied in this model. Under light ether anaesthesia, in the rats, subcutaneous dead space wounds were inflicted in the region of the axilla and groin by making a pouch through a small nick in the skin.[24] Granuloma formation was induced by implanting grass piths in those regions. Cylindrical grass pith measuring 2.5 cm in length and 0.3 cm in diameter was introduced into the pouch. The wounds were sutured and mopped with alcoholic swabs. Animals were placed into their individual cages after recovery from anaesthesia. Excision of the granulomas from the surrounding tissues were performed on the 10th post-wounding day under light ether anaesthesia. Granuloma surrounding the grass piths were excised and slit open. The tensile strength of the piece measuring about 15 mm in length and 8 mm in width (obtained by trimming the rectangular strip of granuloma tissue) was determined on the 10th post-wounding day by adopting continuous water flow technique of Lee[22],[23]. The buffer extract of the wet granuloma tissue was used for the determination of tensile strength[25]. The results are expressed as mean±SEM and statistical significance was evaluated zby using Student's t test Vs control group. P <0.001 implies significance[26].

 The effect of extract ointments, NFZ ointment (standard) and simple ointment base (control) in the excision wound model and in the incision wound model were assessed by measuring the wound area and tensile strength respectively. The data including wound area (mm 2) and tensile strength of healed wound was furnished in [Table - 1]. The present investigation revealed that the test extract in varying concentrations in the ointment base were capable of producing significant wound healing activity on both wound models. The entire test extract ointments used in excision wound model showed significant wound healing effect on days 12 and 18. The results in [Table - 1] indicate that out of the three extract ointments used in the experiment, ointment prepared with 2% w/w of alcoholic extract of Cyperus rotundus has been found to have relatively more wound healing activity with 100% of wound closure on day 18 as compared to the standard NFZ. A considerable difference in response between the two extract ointments (0.5 and 1% w/w) was noted on wound closure. The percentage wound contraction is shown in [Figure - 1]. In the incision wound studies, there was a significant increase in tensile strength on day 10 due to treatment with either the extract ointments or the standard NFZ when compared to control. The effect produced by the NFZ ointment (0.2% w/w) application was found to be same as that obtained with the application of the extract ointment (2% w/w) [ Table 1].

 The results of dead space wound model are given in [Table - 2]. The tensile strengths of the granuloma tissues were determined by water-flow technique of Lee[22],[23]. Extract ointment (1% w/w and 2% w/w) were found to enhance the tensile strength as compared to the control group ( P <0.001). The relative distribution of cells, collagen fibres and vessels in different parts of the 10-day-old granulation tissue in inner and outer zone of control group, 1% and 2% w/w extract ointment is shown in [Figure - 2][Figure - 3][Figure - 4][Figure - 5], respectively. In this wound model, the increase in tensile strength of treated wound may be due to increase in collagen concentration/unit area and stabilisation of the fibres[27].

 This plant is previously reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity and used in spreading ulcers. The process of wound healing occurs in four phases: (i) coagulation, which prevents blood loss, (ii) inflammation and debridement of wound, (iii) repair, including cellular proliferation, and (iv) tissue remodelling and collagen deposition[28]. Any agent that accelerates the above process is a promoter of wound healing, due to the presence of active terpenes[29], flavonol glycosides[30],[31] and β -sitosterol in tuber part of Cyperus rotundus . This may be effective in reducing tissue swelling, and oozing of tissue fluids accompanying inflammation revealed a positive healing profile.

 The wound healing property of Cyperus rotundus appears to be due to the presence of its active principles, which accelerates the healing process and confers breaking strength to the healed wound. On the basis of the results obtained in the present investigation, it is possible to conclude that the ointment of the extract of Cyperus rotundus has significant wound healing activity at all the doses tested.

  Growth Inhibitory Effects of Nutgrass (Cyperus rotundus) on Rice (Oryza sativa) Seedlings.:Authors: Quayyum H.A.1; Mallik A.U.1; Leach D.M.2; Gottardo C.2Source: Journal of Chemical Ecology, Volume 26, Number 9, September 2000 , pp. 2221-2231(11)

 Growth inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts and leachates of leaves and tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. were investigated by using rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedling as a bioassay material. Both the extracts and leachates of Cyperus were inhibitory to the growth of rice seedlings. Growth inhibition was more pronounced in the presence of aqueous extracts than the leachates. The extract and leachate of leaves had higher total phenolic contents than those of the tubers. Soil amendment with fresh leaves of Cyperus reduced plant height, leaf area, and root and shoot weight of rice seedlings. Total phenolic content was higher in soil amended with fresh Cyperus leaves than the unamended control soil. Nineteen compounds were tentatively identified from the aqueous extracts of leaves and tubers by ethyl acetate extraction followed by gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Dicarboxylic, phenolic, and fatty acids were the major compounds. Our results suggest that Cyperus may affect the growth and establishment of rice seedlings after sowing or transplanting, especially when Cyperus plants are mixed in soil during land preparation by ploughing in rain-fed rice culture.

  Natural composition for curing hepatitis-B, methods for making the same and pharmaceutical formulations thereof.:United States Patent 20060110479

 Disclosed herein is a natural antiviral composition comprising extracts of plant Cyperus rotundus and/or plant Cyperus scariosus and a pharmaceutically acceptable carrier. Also disclosed are methods of making the plant extract, methods for preparing the composition and methods of treating diseases related to acute and chronic hepatitis B and other viral diseases of the liver.

  Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antimutagenic Activities of Essential Oil from (Tunisian) Cyperus rotundus.(Cyperus wtundus, Cyperaceae, essential oil composition, antibacterial activity, mutagenicity, antimutagenicity, SOS chromotest, Ames test.):Journal of Essential Oil Research: JEOR, Nov/Dec 2005 by Kilani, Soumaya, Abdelwahed, Afef, Ammar, Ribai Ben, Hayder, Nawel, Et al

 Essential oil from the tubers of Cyperus ratundus, obtained by steam distillation, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In total, 33 compounds were identified. The oil was characterized by its high content of sesquiterpenes with cyperene (30.9%) being major. The antibacterial activity of oil from tubers of Cyperus rotundus, showed more important activity against Gram-positive bacteria specially Staphylococcus aureus than Gram-negative bacteria. The antimutagenic activity was tested by the "SOS Chromotest" and the "Ames" test. C. rotundas oil acted as an antimutagen against Aflatoxin B1 in both Salmonella strains (TA100 and TA98) and Escherichia coli strain (PQ37) and against nifuroxazide in Escherichia coli strain (PQ37), where its mutagenicity is not expressed. The highest rates of AFB1 mutagenesis inhibition tested by Ames assay, ranged from about 82.56% for TA100 strain to 85.47% for TA98 strain at the same dose of 50 μg AFB1 per plate. Whereas, the mutagenic effect of respectively nifuroxazide and AFBl (50 μg/assay) were reduced by aproximately 58.19% and 81.67% when tested by the SOS chromotest assay.

 Cyperus rotuncliis L., a sedge of the family Cyperaceae, was collected in the region of Monastir situated in the center of Tunisia in June 2003. It is widely distributed in the Mediterranean basin areas. This plant, which grows naturally in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, is widespread in northeast, center and south (Gabes) of Tunisia (1).

 The tuberal part of C, rotuncliis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants used for the treatment of dysmenorrhoea and menstrual irregularities. It was also used as analgesic, sedative, antispasmodic and to relieve diarrhea (2). Cyperus rotundus has been widely investigated by several authors (3,4). It is a medicinal plant appearing among Indian, Chinese and Japanese traditional drugs that are used against spasms, stomach disorders and anti-inflammatory diseases (5,6).

 Other pharmacological investigations indicated that C. rotundus had remarkable hypotensive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. Previous phytochemical studies showed that the major chemical components of this herb were essential oil, flavonoids, sesquiterpenes and cardiac glycosides (7).

 In this study, we report on the composition analysis of essential oil from C. rotundus tubers, its antibacterial and antimutagenic activities using two tests of genotoxicity: the "SOS chromotest" and the "Ames test."

 The Aines test was further more chosen as it is a wellknown reference test that proved suitable in many similar investigations (8-11). Whereas the SOS chromotest is a widely used assay for genotoxic/antigenotoxic activity (12) that has been used for testing extracts from medicinal plants (13,14). The SOS chromotest and the Ames test detect genotoxicity by different mechanisms and thus complement each other.
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  • 1.Cyperus scariosus or Cyperus rotundus,an old famous Sedge from ancient Egypt and China.

♥The article and literature were edited by Herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals, including comprehensive information related, summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website https://www.mdidea.com and https://www.mdidea.net, we tried to update it to latest and exact as possible.
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  • Name:Cyperus Scariosus Extract
  • Serie No:P057
  • Specifications:5:1,10:1 TLC.
  • INCI Name:CYPERUS ROTUNDUS EXTRACT
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:285-381-3
  • CAS:85085-54-7
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Cyperus Rotundus Extract is an extract of the tubers of Cyperus rotundus,Cyperaceae
  • Other Names:Cyperus scariosus R. Br.,Cyperus rotundus L,Nutgrass Flatsedge Rhizome,Cyperus Root,Cyperus tuberosus Roxb,Cyperus purpuro-variegatus Boeckeler,Cyperus stoloniferum pallidus Boeckeler,Cyperus tetrastachyos Desf.,Chlorocyperus rotundus L. Palla,Herbe a oignons,Nutsedge,Nutgrass Galingale Rhizome,Purple Nutsedge,Souchet a tubercules,Souchet rond,Umbrella's Edge,Sha Cao Gen,San Ling Cao,Xiangfu,Xiangfuzi,Xiang Fu.

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Cyperus scariosus Extract INCI Name Cyperus Rotundus Extract CAS 85085-54-7 EINECS ELINCS No 285-381-3 Cyperus root extract Cyperus scariosus ethanol extract Cyperus scariosus aqueous-methanolic extract

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