Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification,Economic importance and Phytochemicals,a wonderful thing more than fodder for reindeer.
- Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification.
- Cladonia Stellaris Description and Habitat.
- Distribution and ecology:Cladonia Stellaris.
- History and Synoms Record of Cladonia stellaris.
- Cladonia Stellaris Economic importance and Uses.
- Phytochemicals of Cladonia stellaris.
- Cladonia stellaris:Research Update.
Phytochemicals of Cladonia stellaris.:
An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous Vezda ('silver moss', 'reindeer moss' or 'reindeer lichen').
The sensitizing potency of Cladonia stellaris ('reindeer lichen', 'silver moss') extracts was determined in guinea pigs by a modified FCA (Freund's complete adjuvant) test. The lichen showed a moderate sensitizing potency. Similar investigations with pure common lichen constituents revealed a moderate sensitizing potency for fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin and a weak one for evernic acid, stictic acid and both forms of usnic acid. Although generally weak, (-)-usnic acid was at least 2 x stronger than (+)-usnic acid. After separation of the Cladonia ether extract into 'usnic-acid-free' and 'usnic-acid-containing' fractions, perlatolic acid was identified as the main allergenic constituent of the 'usnic-acid-free' fraction. Stictic, evernic, fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin were not detectable. Lichens and lichen products generally possess a weak to moderate sensitizing capacity. Compared with common sensitizers of occupational and environmental importance, these products play only a minor role
Other Scientists from China find Cladonia stellaris (Opiz.) Pouzar Vezda contains many useful phytochemicals, (+)-usnic acid, perlatolic acid, atranorin; 2, 4-dihydroxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid; 2-hydroxy-4-meth- yoxy-6-n-pentylbenzoic acid; etc.
Chemical constituents of Cladonia stellaris:
Object To study the chemical constituents in lichen plant of Cladonia stellaris. Methods C. Stellaris was extracted with petroleum ether,separated and purified by column chromatography and preparative TLC on silica gel.
All the compounds were identified on the basis of spectral analysis. Results Six compounds were obtained.
Their structures were characterized as usnic acid(1),evinic acid(2),perlatolic acid(3),olivetoric acid(4),2-hydroxyl-4-methoxyl-6-pentyl benzoic acid(5) and 2,4-dihydroxyl benzoic acid(6),respectively. Conclusion Compounds (2) and (4) were isolated from C. Stellaris for the first time.
Some Brief Introductions:
Chemical Name: Benzoic acid, 3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methyl-, 3-hydroxy-4-(methoxycarbonyl)-2,5-dimethylphenyl ester
Formula:C19 H18 O8;MW: 374.34;CAS:479-20-9
The sensitizing capacity of atranorin:
The allergenic potential of the aromatic lichen substance atranorin has been investigated by means of the guinea pig maximization test of Magnusson and Kligman. Sensitivity was induced in 30% of the animals, which corresponds to a moderate allergenic capacity (grade III). This is in agreement with the clinically-observed frequency of 1.5% among our patients. A modified photoallergy test on the same animals was performed, but irradiation did not increase the number of positive reactions. 4 patients with proven contact sensitivity to atranorin, evernic, usnic or physodic acid, were examined with different dilutions from 0.001 to 0.1%. Irradiation of the test series did not provoke any clear-cut photoallergic reaction.
Contact allergy to atranorin in lichens and perfumes:
Atranorin, one of the most common lichen substances, gave positive patch test reactions in eight subjects (1%) in a routine series. These subjects also reacted to fumarprotocetraric acid and some of them to evernic acid. Stictic acid and usnic acid gave negative reactions. The lichen oak moss Evernia prunastri and an oak moss perfume gave positive reactions. Thin-layer chromatography and a spot test indicated that atranorin is present in oak moss perfumes which are made from oak moss and tree moss. Contact with oak moss perfumes and lichens in nature may cause atranorin allergy. None of the eight subjects had a history of light sensitivity or atopy and none had chronic facial eczema.
Atranorin and cosmetic application:
Atranorin belongs to the group of natural products. The substance is a component of oak moss, a lichen variety. Extracts from this lichen are often used in cosmetic products to add a male, tangy fragrance.
Atranorin can be found in:perfumes,shaving lotions,deodorants,body lotions.
- 1.Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification,Economic importance and Phytochemicals,a wonderful thing more than fodder for reindeer.
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