Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification,Economic importance and Phytochemicals,a wonderful thing more than fodder for reindeer.
- Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification.
- Cladonia Stellaris Description and Habitat.
- Distribution and ecology:Cladonia Stellaris.
- History and Synoms Record of Cladonia stellaris.
- Cladonia Stellaris Economic importance and Uses.
- Phytochemicals of Cladonia stellaris.
- Cladonia stellaris:Research Update.
Cladonia stellaris:Research Update.:
Growth and Nitrogen Relations in the Mat-forming Lichens Stereocaulon paschale and Cladonia stellaris.:Ann Bot (Lond). 2007 Dec;100(7):1537-45. Epub 2007 Oct 19.Kyt?viita MM, Crittenden PD.School of Biology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, UK.
Background and Aims Mat-forming lichens in the genera Stereocaulon and Cladonia have ecosystem-level effects in northern boreal forests. Yet the factors affecting the productivity of mat-forming lichens are not known. The aim of the presented work was to investigate whether mat-forming lichens adapted to low N availability employ N-conserving mechanisms similar to those of vascular plants in nutrient-poor ecosystems. Specifically, the following questions were asked: (a) Do lichens translocate N from basal areas to apical growth areas? (b) Are the quantities of N translocated of ecological significance. (c) Is lichen growth dependent on tissue N concentration [N]. Methods Two different, but complementary, field experiments were conducted using the mat-forming N(2)-fixing Stereocaulon paschale and non-fixing Cladonia stellaris as model species. First, N translocation was investigated by feeding lichens with Na(15)NO(3) either directly to the apex (theoretical sink) or to the basal part (theoretical source) and observing the redistribution of (15)N after a growth period. Secondly, growth and variation in [N] in thalli of different lengths was measured after a growth period. Key Results (15)N fed to lower parts of lichen was translocated towards the growing top, but not vice versa, indicating physiologically dependent translocation that follows a sink-source relationship. In the growth experiment where thalli were cut to different lengths, the significant decrease in [N] in apices of short vs. longer thalli after a growth period is consistent with internal relocation as an ecologically important source of N. Conclusions The presented results demonstrate that internal recycling of N occurs in both species investigated and may be ecologically important in these mat-forming lichens under field conditions. The higher nitrogen use efficiency and relative growth rate in C. stellaris in comparison with S. paschale probably enable C. stellaris to dominate the ground cover vegetation in dry boreal coniferous forests under undisturbed conditions.
Differential responses of lichen symbionts to enhanced nitrogen and phosphorus availability: an experiment with Cladina stellaris.:Ann Bot (Lond). 2007 May;99(5):877-84.Makkonen S, Hurri RS, Hyv?rinen M.Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Kuopio, POB 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lichens can be both nitrogen- (N) and phosphorous- (P) limited and thus may be susceptible to nutrient enrichment. Nutrient enrichment with N and P may have differing impacts on the lichen structure because of different physiological responses of fungal and algal partners to these nutrients. The hypothesis was tested that the differential responses of lichen symbionts to enhanced availability of N and P is reflected in the lichen thallus structure and the wall-to-wall interface between the algal and fungal cells. METHODS: Lichen cushions of Cladonia stellaris were treated with one P and two N concentrations alone and in combination that yielded total depositions of approx. 300 (moderate) and 1000 (high) mg N m(-2) and 100 (high) mg P m(-2) over an experiment lasting 14 weeks. The effects of N and P inputs on the relative volumes of fungal and algal cell in the medullary tissue and on the thallus structure were studied using light microscopy. The interface between algal and fungal cell walls was examined using transmission electron microscopy. KEY RESULTS: The influence of excess P on the lichen thallus structure was stronger than that of additional N. Addition of P reduced the N : P ratio in podetia, the proportion of the medullary layer volume occupied by the algal cells, the thallus volume occupied by the internal lumen, and the algal cell-wall area covered by fungal hyphae. CONCLUSIONS: Ecologically realistic changes in the availability of key macronutrients can alter the growth of symbionts. Reduction in the proportion of photobiont cells indicates that the application of P either stimulates fungal hyphal growth in the medullary tissue or impairs the cell division of the algal cells. The results suggest that both the N and P availability and thallus N : P ratio affect the growth rates of lichen symbionts.
The phenolic compounds in Cladonia lichens are not antimicrobial in soils.:Oecologia. 2007 May;152(2):299-306. Epub 2007 Feb 10.Stark S, Kyt?viita MM, Neumann AB.Finnish Forest Research Institute, Rovaniemi Research Unit, P.O. Box 16, 96301 Rovaniemi, Finland. email@example.com
According to classic text books on lichen biology, the phenolic secondary chemicals in lichens have antibiotic effects on soil microorganisms and mycorrhizal fungi in ecosystems. However, the experimental evidence for this under natural conditions is still relatively scarce. We examined some of the assumptions behind the concept of antimicrobial effects of lichen secondary substances: (1) the secondary substances of Cladonia stellaris, usnic and perlatolic acids, are leached out from the lichens by rainwater; (2) these substances inhibit the microbial activity of soil, and; (3) since they are extremely resistant to microbial decomposition, the soil underneath a continuous lichen mat is enriched in usnic and perlatolic acids. Our results did not support any of these assumptions. The evidence for the antimicrobial activity of lichen secondary substances seems to be weak in comparison to other suggested functions such as light filtering and herbivore protection. We suggest that it is time to re-evaluate the evidence for the antimicrobial ecological role of lichen secondary substances in natural systems.
Distribution of Np and Pu in Swedish lichen samples (Cladonia stellaris) contaminated by atmospheric fallout.:J Environ Radioact. 2004;73(1):73-85.Lindahl P, Roos P, Eriksson M, Holm E.Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.
The activity concentrations of (237)Np and the two Pu isotopes, (239)Pu and (240)Pu, were determined in lichen samples (Cladonia stellaris) contaminated by fallout from atmospheric nuclear test explosions and the Chernobyl accident. The samples were collected at 18 locations in Sweden, from north to south, between 1986 and 1988 and analysed with high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and alpha spectrometry. Data on the activity ratios (238)Pu/(239+240)Pu and (134)Cs/(137)Cs measured previously were also included in this study for comparison. The (237)Np activity concentration ranged from 0.08 +/- 0.01 to 2.08 +/- 0.17 MBq kg(-1), depending on the location of the sampling site and time of collection. The (239+240)Pu activity concentration ranged from 0.09 +/- 0.01 to 4.09 +/- 0.15 Bq kg(-1), with the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atomic ratio ranging between 0.16 +/- 0.01 and 0.44 +/- 0.03, the higher ratios indicating a combination of weapons test fallout and Chernobyl fallout. The (237)Np/(239)Pu atomic ratios ranged between 0.06 +/- 0.01 and 0.42 +/- 0.04, the lower ratios indicating combination of weapons test fallout and Chernobyl fallout. At a well-defined sampling site at Lake Rogen (62.32 degrees N, 12.38 degrees E), additional lichen samples were collected between 1987 and 1998 to study the distribution of Np and Pu in different layers. The concentrations of the two elements follow each other quite well in the profile.
Regional variation in the chemical composition of winter snow pack and terricolous lichens in relation to sources of acid emissions in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia.:Environ Pollut. 2003;125(3):401-12. Walker TR, Crittenden PD, Young SD.School of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, UK.
The chemical composition of snow and terricolous lichens was determined along transects through the Subarctic towns of Vorkuta (130 km west-east), Inta (240 km south-north) and Usinsk (140 km, southwest-northeast) in the Usa river basin, northeast European Russia. Evidence of pollution gradients was found on two spatial scales. First, on the Inta transect, northward decreases in concentrations of N in the lichen Cladonia stellaris (from 0.57 mmol N g(-1) at 90 km south to 0.43 mmol N g(-1) at 130 km north of Inta) and winter deposition of non-sea salt sulphate (from 29.3 to 12.8 mol ha(-1) at 90 km south and 110 km north of Inta, respectively) were attributed to long range transport of N and S from lower latitudes. Second, increased ionic content (SO42-, Ca2+, K+) and pH of snow, and modified N concentration and the concentration ratios K+:Mg2+ and K+: (Mg2++Ca2+) in lichens (Cladonia arbuscula and Flavocetraria cucullata) within ca. 25-40 km of Vorkuta and Inta were largely attributed to local deposition of alkaline coal ash. Total sulphate concentrations in snow varied from ca. 5 micromol l(-1) at remote sites to ca. 19 micromol l(-1) near Vorkuta. Nitrate concentration in snow (typically ca. 9 micromol l(-1)) did not vary with proximity to perceived pollution sources.
An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vezda ('silver moss', 'reindeer moss' or 'reindeer lichen').:Contact Dermatitis. 1993 Feb;28(2):70-6.Hausen BM, Emde L, Marks V.Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Hamburg, FRG.
The sensitizing potency of Cladonia stellaris ('reindeer lichen', 'silver moss') extracts was determined in guinea pigs by a modified FCA (Freund's complete adjuvant) test. The lichen showed a moderate sensitizing potency. Similar investigations with pure common lichen constituents revealed a moderate sensitizing potency for fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin and a weak one for evernic acid, stictic acid and both forms of usnic acid. Although generally weak, (-)-usnic acid was at least 2 x stronger than (+)-usnic acid. After separation of the Cladonia ether extract into 'usnic-acid-free' and 'usnic-acid-containing' fractions, perlatolic acid was identified as the main allergenic constituent of the 'usnic-acid-free' fraction. Stictic, evernic, fumarprotocetraric acid and atranorin were not detectable. Lichens and lichen products generally possess a weak to moderate sensitizing capacity. Compared with common sensitizers of occupational and environmental importance, these products play only a minor r?le.
- 1.Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification,Economic importance and Phytochemicals,a wonderful thing more than fodder for reindeer.
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