Theophrastus and the name of Artichoke.
- Basic Botanical Info of Artichoke.
- Artichoke Plant Description.
- What Is Artichoke?.
- Main Actions and Suggested health benefits of artichoke.
- Artichoke has a long history.
- Chemistry,Pharmacology of Origin Plant.
- What is Artichoke Leaf Extract?.
- How Artichoke acts as a Herbal Remedy?.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:Brief
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:1.Effects on the gastrointestinal system.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:2.Artichoke and Lipid Lowering Effects.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:3.High CholesterolDrugs and Side Effects.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:4.Artichoke as a Herbal Medicine.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:5.Cardiovascular health.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:6.Cardiovascular protection.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:7.Hepato-protection.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:8.Dyspepsia.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:9.Liver protection.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:10.Digestion.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:11.Further effects.
- Artichoke Extract Health Benefits:12.Other applications.
- Artichoke plant Research Update.
- Suggestions and Administrations of Artichoke.
- Research Update:Artichoke Leaf.
Chemistry,Pharmacology of Origin Plant.:
Artichoke leaf contains up to 2% phenolic acids, mainly 3-caffeoylquinic acid (chlorogenic acid), plus 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (cynarin), and caffeic acid; 0~4% bitter sesquiterpene lactones of which 47~83% is cynaropicrin; 0.1~1.0% flavonoids including the glycosides luteolin-7-b-rutinoside (scolymoside), luteolin-7-b-D-glucoside and luteolin-4-b-D-glucoside; phytosterols (taraxasterol); sugars; inulin; enzymes; and a volatile oil consisting mainly of the sesquiterpenes b-selinene and caryophyllene (Hnsel et al., 1992~1994; Leung and Foster, 1996; Meyer-Buchtela, 1999; Newall et al., 1996).
The leaves of the artichoke contain a high content of pharmacologically active ingredients, including three essential groups consisting of caffeeolyquinic acid (CCS), flavonoids and bitter substances. Within these groups are constituents such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, cynarin (1,5-dicaffeolyquinic acid), luteolin, and the glycosides scolymoside and cynaroside. Among the most important of the CCS are the 1,3-Di-O-CCS, choloregenic acid and the non-genuine Cynarin, which was the first constituent to be extracted. Cynarin was originally thought to be the single active component in artichoke leaf extract and was often used as a monosubstance. However, further research observes that other active ingredients play a significant role in the effectiveness of artichoke leaf extract antioxidant. It was found that the whole complex of compounds are considered just as active and aid in the many beneficial results.
The British Herbal Pharmacopoeia reported hepatic action (BHP, 1996). In vivo, artichoke leaf has demonstrated hepatoprotective and hepatostimulating properties (Adzet et al., 1987; Maros et al., 1966). The Merck Index reported the therapeutic category of cynarin, an active principle of artichoke, as choleretic (Budavari, 1996). The African Pharmacopoeia reported diuretic and anti-atherosclerotic actions (Iwu, 1993). Artichoke leaf has shown cholesterol-lowering and lipid-lowering activity in rats and humans (Lietti, 1977). Human studies have validated carminative, spasmolytic, antiemetic, and choleretic actions (Kraft, 1997).
Pharmacopeial grade artichoke leaf consists of the dried radical leaves of Cynara scolymus L. Botanical identification is carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), macroscopic and microscopic evaluations, and organoleptic tests. The dried leaf must contain not less than 25% water-soluble extractive (BHP, 1996).
- 1.Cladonia species and Cladonia Stellaris Identification,Economic importance and Phytochemicals,a wonderful thing more than fodder for reindeer.
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