Lemongrass,also known as Capim-cidrao,Fever Tea,Melissa Grass,and Sereh,is native to tropical Southeast Asia.

Contents

Research Update:lemongrass.:

Lemon grass Extract INCI Name Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Extract CAS 89998-16-3 EINECS ELINCS No 289-754-1 Lemongrass stalk extract Lemongrass Extract Cymbopogon citrates Citronella extract Squinant extract photo picture image   Identification of Geranic Acid, a Tyrosinase Inhibitor in Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus).: J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Dec 15;

 Lemongrass is a popular Asian herb having a lemon-like flavor. Very recently, potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity has been found in lemongrass in addition to various biological activities reported in the literature. The aim of the present study is to identify the active compounds in the lemongrass. An assay-guided purification revealed that one of the active substances was geranic acid. Geranic acid has two stereoisomers, which are responsible for the trans and cis geometry on the conjugated double bond. Both isomers are present in the active ethyl acetate-soluble extract of the lemongrass, and their IC 50 values were calculated to be 0.14 and 2.3 mM, respectively. The structure requirement of geranic acid for the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity was investigated using geranic acid-related compounds.

  An essential oil and its major constituent isointermedeol induce apoptosis by increased expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c and apical death receptors in human leukaemia HL-60 cells.:Chem Biol Interact. 2007 Oct 24;

 An essential oil from a lemon grass variety of Cymbopogon flexuosus (CFO) and its major chemical constituent sesquiterpene isointermedeol (ISO) were investigated for their ability to induce apoptosis in human leukaemia HL-60 cells because dysregulation of apoptosis is the hallmark of cancer cells. CFO and ISO inhibited cell proliferation with 48h IC50 of approximately 30 and 20mug/ml, respectively. Both induced concentration dependent strong and early apoptosis as measured by various end-points, e.g. annexinV binding, DNA laddering, apoptotic bodies formation and an increase in hypo diploid sub-G0 DNA content during the early 6h period of study. This could be because of early surge in ROS formation with concurrent loss of mitochondrial membrane potential observed. Both CFO and ISO activated apical death receptors TNFR1, DR4 and caspase-8 activity. Simultaneously, both increased the expression of mitochondrial cytochrome c protein with its concomitant release to cytosol leading to caspase-9 activation, suggesting thereby the involvement of both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Further, Bax translocation, and decrease in nuclear NF-kappaB expression predict multi-target effects of the essential oil and ISO while both appeared to follow similar signaling apoptosis pathways. The easy and abundant availability of the oil combined with its suggested mechanism of cytotoxicity make CFO highly useful in the development of anti-cancer therapeutics.

  Antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of partially hydrolyzed sago starch-alginate edible film containing lemongrass oil.: J Food Sci. 2007 Aug;72(6):C324-30.

 Edible films were prepared from a mixture of partially hydrolyzed sago starch and alginate (SA). Lemongrass oil (0.1% to 0.4%, v/w) and glycerol (0% and 20%, w/w) were incorporated in the films to act as natural antimicrobial agent and plasticizer, respectively. The films were characterized for antimicrobial activity, water vapor permeability (WVP), tensile strength (TS), percent elongation at break (%E), and water solubility (WS). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was conducted to determine functional group interactions between the matrix and lemongrass oil. The zone of inhibition was increased significantly (P < 0.05) by addition of lemongrass oil at all levels in the presence and the absence of glycerol. This indicates that the film containing lemongrass oil was effective against Escherichia coli O157:H7 at all levels. In the absence of glycerol, the tensile strength of film decreased as the oil content increased, but there was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in percent elongation. The percent elongation at break and WVP values for film with 20% glycerol was found to be increased significantly (P < 0.05) with an increase in lemongrass oil content. Addition of lemongrass oil did not have any interaction with the functional groups of films as measured by FTIR.

  Free radical scavengers from Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) stapf plants cultivated in bioreactors by the temporary immersion (TIS) principle.:Z Naturforsch [C]. 2007 May-Jun;62(5-6):447-57.Tapia A, Cheel J, Theoduloz C, Rodríguez J, Schmeda-Hirschmann G, Gerth A, Wilken D, Jordan M, Jiménez-González E, Gomez-Kosky R, Mendoza EQ.Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile.

 The biomass production of Cymbopogon citratus shoots cultivated in bioreactors according to the temporary immersion (TIS) principle was assessed under different growth conditions. The effect of gassing with CO2-enriched air, reduced immersion frequency, vessel size and culture time on total phenolic and flavonoid content and free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extracts was measured. From the TIS-culture of C. citratus, seven compounds were isolated and identified as caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), p-hydroxybenzoic acid 3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5), glutamic acid (6) and luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7). The occurrence of compounds 1-7 and their variability in C. citratus grown under different TIS conditions was determined by HPLC. The free radical scavenging effect of the methanolic extract and compounds was measured by the discoloration of the free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The main metabolites in 6- and 8-week-old cultures, both in 5 and 10 1 vessels, were chlorogenic acid (2) (100-113 mg%) and neochlorogenic acid (3) (80-119 mg%), while in the cultures with CO2-enriched air and reduced immersion frequency the main compound detected in the extracts was glutamic acid (6) (400 and 670 mg% for the green and white biomass and 619 and 630 mg% for the green and white biomass, respectively). The most active compounds, as free radical scavengers, in the DPPH discoloration assay were caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), neochlorogenic acid (3) and the flavonoid luteolin 6-C-fucopyranoside (7).

  Anti-proliferative effect of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf (lemongrass) on intracellular amastigotes, bloodstream trypomastigotes and culture epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida).:Parasitology. 2007 Oct;134(Pt 11):1649-56. Epub 2007 Aug 9. Santoro GF, Cardoso MG, Guimar?es LG, Freire JM, Soares MJ.Departamento de Ultra-estrutura e Biologia Celular, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz/FIOCRUZ, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

 This study analyses the anti-proliferative effect of lemongrass essential oil and its main constituent (citral) on all 3 evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Steam distillation was used to obtain lemongrass essential oil, with chemical composition determined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The IC50/24 h (concentration that reduced the parasite population by 50%) of the oil and of citral upon T. cruzi was determined by cell counting in a Neubauer chamber, while morphological alterations were visualized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Treatment with the essential oil resulted in epimastigote growth inhibition with IC50=126.5 microg/ml, while the IC50 for trypomastigote lysis was 15.5 microg/ml. The IC50/48 h for the Association Index (% macrophage infection x number of amastigotes per cell) was 5.1 microg/ml, with a strong inhibition of intracellular amastigote proliferation. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated cytoplasmic and nuclear extraction, while the plasma membrane remained morphologically preserved. Our data show that lemongrass essential oil is effective against T. cruzi trypomastigotes and amastigotes, and that its main component, citral, is responsible for the trypanocidal activity. These results indicate that essential oils can be promising anti-parasitic agents, opening perspectives to the discovery of more effective drugs of vegetal origin for treatment of parasitic diseases. However, additional cytotoxicity experiments on different cell lines and tests in a T. cruzi-mouse model are needed to support these data.
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  Neurobehavioral effect of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in mice.:Phytomedicine. 2007 Jun 8;Blanco MM, Costa CA, Freire AO, Santos JG Jr, Costa M.Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biosciences, UNESP – S?o Paulo State University, Caixa Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, S?o Paulo, Brazil.

 Tea obtained from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is used for its anxiolytic, hypnotic and anticonvulsant properties in Brazilian folk medicine. Essential oil (EO) from fresh leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and orally administered to Swiss male mice 30min before experimental procedures. EO at 0.5 or 1.0g/kg was evaluated for sedative/hypnotic activity through pentobarbital sleeping time, anxiolytic activity by elevated plus maze and light/dark box procedures and anticonvulsant activity through seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock. EO was effective in increasing the sleeping time, the percentage of entries and time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze as well as the time spent in the light compartment of light/dark box. In addition, EO delayed clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole and blocked tonic extensions induced by maximal electroshock, indicating the elevation of the seizure threshold and/or blockage of seizures spread. These effects were observed in the absence of motor impairment evaluated on the rotarod and open field test. Our results are in accord with the ethnopharmacological use of Cymbopogon citratus, and after complementary toxicological studies it can support investigations assessing their use as anxiolytic, sedative or anticonvulsive agent.

  Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. in rats.:J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Jul 25;112(3):440-4. Epub 2007 Apr 8.Adeneye AA, Agbaje EO.Department of Pharmacology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria. adeneye2001@yahoo.com

 The present study was designed to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of the single, daily oral dosing of 125-500 mg/kg of fresh leaf aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (CCi) in normal, male Wistar rats for 42 days. The average weights of rats per group were taken at 2 weeks interval for 42 days. On day 43, blood samples from the rats were collected for fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c) assays through cardiac puncture under halothane anesthesia. Acute oral dose toxicity study of CCi was also conducted using limit dose test of the Up and Down Procedure statistical program (AOT425StatPgm, Version 1.0) at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight/oral route. Our results showed CCi to lower FPG and lipid parameters dose dependently (p<0.05) while raising the plasma HDL-c level (p<0.05) in same dose-related fashion but with no effect on plasma triglycerides level (p>0.05). Results of acute oral toxicity showed CCi to be of low toxicity and as such could be considered relatively safe on acute exposure. Thus, confirming its folkloric use and safety in suspected Type 2 diabetic patients.

  Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, morphogenesis and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus ML2-strain.: J Basic Microbiol. 2007 Feb;47(1):5-15. Helal GA, Sarhan MM, Abu Shahla AN, Abou El-Khair EK.Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. dr_helal56@hotmail.com

 The mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus Link was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek's liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 65% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. flavus hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter decreased and hyphal wall appeared as precipitates and disappeared in some regions. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca(+2), K(+) and Mg(+2) leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated and unsaturated fatty acids increased. One of the most important results obtained during this study was the ability of C. citratus essential oil at its sublethal dose to completely inhibit aflatoxin B(1) production from A. flavus. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegradation and storage contaminating fungi and also in fruit juice preservation.

  Combined effect of heat, essential oils and salt on fungicidal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in a foot bath.:

 This work was originally undertaken to determine the effective conditions of essential oils against Trichophyton mentagrophytes in vitro for the treatment of tinea pedis in a foot bath. Agar blocks implanted with T. mentagrophytes were immersed in 0.1% aqueous agar containing two-fold dilutions of essential oils with or without sodium chloride at 27 degrees C, 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C for 10 and 20 min. The number of surviving mycelia on the agar blocks was determined from the standard curves of the colony diameter and original inocula of the conidia. At the same time, the thermal effect on the cellular morphology was examined using SEM. Most fungal mycelia (99.7%) were killed after treatment at 42 degrees C for 20 min without essential oil. The fungicidal activity of essential oils was markedly enhanced by treating at 42 degrees C for 20 min as compared with that at 27 degrees C, showing 1/4 - 1/32-fold reduction of minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC to kill 99.99%). The order of the fungicidal activity of 11 essential oils was oregano, thyme thymol, cinnamon bark > lemongrass > clove, palmarose, peppermint, lavender > geranium Bourbon, tea tree > thyme geraniol oils. MFCs were further reduced to 1/2 - 1/8 by the addition of 10% sodium chloride. The salt effect was explained, at least partly, by an increase in mycelial adsorption of antifungal constituents in the presence of sodium chloride. Considerable hyphal damage was done at 27 degrees C by the essential oils, but no further alteration in morphology of the hyphae treated at 42 degrees C with or without oil was observed by SEM. The inhibitory effect of heat and oils was also observed against mycelia of T. rubrum and conidia of T. mentagrophytes. Thermotherapy combined with essential oils and salt would be promising to treat tinea pedis in a foot bath.

  Effects of Cymbopogon citratus L. essential oil on the growth, lipid content and morphogenesis of Aspergillus niger ML2-strain..: J Basic Microbiol. 2006;46(6):456-69.Helal GA, Sarhan MM, Abu Shahla AN, Abou El-Khair EK.Botany Department, Faculty of Science, Zagazig University, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt. dr_helal56@hotmail.com

 The mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was completely inhibited using 1.5 (microl/ml or 2.0 (microl/ml of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil applied by fumigation or contact method in Czapek liquid medium, respectively. This oil was found also to be fungicidal at the same concentrations. The sublethal doses 1.0 and 1.5 (microl/ml inhibited about 70% of fungal growth after five days of incubation and delayed conidiation as compared with the control. Microscopic observations using Light Microscope (LM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) were carried out to determine the ultra structural modifications of A. niger hyphae after treatment with C. citratus essential oil. The hyphal diameter and hyphal wall appeared markedly thinner. This oil also caused plasma membrane disruption and mitochondrial structure disorganization. Moreover, Ca+2, K+ and Mg+2 leakages increased from the fumigated mycelium and its total lipid content decreased, while the saturated fatty acids decreased and unsaturated fatty acids increased. These findings increase the possibility of exploiting C. citratus essential oil as an effective inhibitor of biodegrading and storage contaminating fungi and in fruit juice preservation.
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  Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases.:Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006 Jun;101(4):387-90.Betoni JE, Mantovani RP, Barbosa LN, Di Stasi LC, Fernandes Junior A.Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brasil.

 Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts--"guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava (Psidium guajava), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera), and mint (Mentha piperita)--against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA), and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity.

  Citral, a component of lemongrass oil inhibits the clastogenic effect of nickel chloride in mouse micronucleus test system.:Pak J Pharm Sci. 2006 Apr;19(2):108-13.Rabbani SI, Devi K, Khanam S, Zahra N.Department of Pharmacology, Al-Ameen College of Pharmacy, Bangalore 560 027. syedrabbani09@yahoo.com

 Citral is a major component of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass oil). The aqueous suspension of citral (60 mg/kg body weight, per oral) treated for one week was tested for the anti-clastogenic effect using mouse micronucleus test system. A known mutagen nickel (Nickel chloride-10 mg/kg, b.w. intra-peritoneal) was used to induce the nuclear damage measured in polychromatic erythrocytes and normochromatic erythrocytes. The frequency of the micronucleated erythrocytes were studied in peripheral blood and bone marrow after 24, 48 and 72 hours of mutagenic exposure. The antioxidant activity of citral was tested in vitro by superoxide scavenging method. The results indicated that citral significantly (P<0.01) inhibited the formation of micronuclei induced by nickel. Further, a good superoxide scavenging activity (EC50=19 mcg/ml) was observed in citral treated groups, suggesting that the antioxidant action could be responsible for the anti-clastogenic effect of citral against nickel chloride.

  Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle.:Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2006 Jan-Mar;15(1):37-9. Portuguese.Heimerdinger A, Olivo CJ, Molento MB, Agnolin CA, Ziech MF, Scaravelli LF, Skonieski FR, Both JF, Char?o PS.Programa de Pós-Gradua??o em Zootecnia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

 The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.:Nat Prod Res. 2006 May 10;20(5):455-9.Marongiu B, Piras A, Porcedda S, Tuveri E.Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, 09042 Monserrato, Cagliari, Italy. maronb@unica.it

 Dried and ground leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of essential oil with CO(2). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of pressure on the supercritical extraction. A series of experiments were carried out, for 360 min, at 50 degrees C and at different pressures: 90, 100, 110 and 120 bar. Extraction conditions were chosen to maximize citral content in the extract oil. The collected extracts were analysed by GC-MS and their composition was compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation and by steam distillation. At higher solvent density the extract aspect changes passing from a characteristic yellow essential oil to yellowish semi-solid mass because of the extraction of high molecular mass compounds. The optimum conditions for citral extraction were 90 bar and 50 degrees C, at these conditions citral represent more than 68% of the essential oil and the extraction yield was 0.65% while the yield obtained from hydrodistillation was 0.43% with a content of citral of 73%.

  Herbal remedies for anxiety - a systematic review of controlled clinical trials.:Phytomedicine. 2006 Feb;13(3):205-8. Epub 2005 Aug 15. Review.Ernst E.Complementary Medicine Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter Plymouth, UK. edzard.ernst@pms.ac.uk

 Anxiety is a prominent indication for herbal medicine. This systematic review was therefore aimed at summarising the evidence for or against the anxiolytic efficacy of such treatments. Six databases were searched for all randomised clinical trials testing herbal monopreparations in the alleviation of anxiety. Seven such studies and one systematic review were located. Eight different herbals were studied. The herbal medicines, which, according to these data are associated with anxiolytic activity in humans, are Piper methysticum and Bacopa monniera. Only for kava were independent replications available. It was concluded that there is a lack of rigorous studies in this area and that only kava has been shown beyond reasonable doubt to have anxiolytic effects in humans.
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  Allelopathic effects of Cymbopogon citratu volatile and its chemical components.: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2005 Apr;16(4):763-7. Chinese.Li H, Huang J, Zhang X, Chen Y, Yang J, Hei L.Institute of Tropical and Subtropical Ecology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China. lihuashou@scau.edu.cn

 This paper studied the allelopathic effects of Cymbopogon citratus volatile on the seed germination and seedling growth of corn and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) in field and in obturator, and analyzed the chemical components of the volatile with SPME and GC-MS. The results of bio-assay indicated that the germination rate of corn or barnyard grass intercropped with C. citrate or enclosed in obturator with fresh C. citratus had no significant difference from the control, but the seedling growth of corn and barnyard grass was significantly inhibited. The volatile from C. citratus roots contained 10 components. The main component was longifolene-(V4), occupying 56.67% of the total, the second component was selina-6-en-4-ol (20.03%), while the others were under 10%. There were 12 components in the volatile from C. citratus shoots. The main component was citral (53.98%), the second was z-citral (34.40%), and the others were under 4%. There were 2 monoterpenes and 9 sesquiterpenes in the volatile from shoots, and all the terpenes in the volatile from roots were sesquiterpenes. Therefore, the allelopathy of C. citratus should not be ignored when planted it with other crops.

  Citral is a new inducer of caspase-3 in tumor cell lines.: Planta Med. 2005 May;71(5):484-8.Dudai N, Weinstein Y, Krup M, Rabinski T, Ofir R.Hazeva Research and Development Center, Jacob Blaustein Institute for Desert Research, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel.

 Citral, 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al, a key component of the lemon-scented essential oils extracted from several herbal plants such as lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus), melissa (Melissa officinalis), verbena (Verbena officinalis) is used as a food additive and as a fragrance in cosmetics. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer potential of citral and its mode of action. Concentrations of 44.5 muM, comparable to the concentration of citral in a cup of tea prepared from 1 g of lemon grass, induced apoptosis in several hematopoietic cancer cell lines. Apoptosis was accompanied by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 catalytic activity induction. Citral activity (22.25 microM) was compared to a reference compound like staurosporine (0.7 microM), in respect to DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 enzymatic activity. The apoptotic effect of citral depended on the alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehyde group.

  Citronella as an insect repellent in food packaging.:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 1;53(11):4633-6.Wong KK, Signal FA, Campion SH, Motion RL.Ensis Papro, Forest Research, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua, New Zealand. ken.wong@ensisjv.com

 Of five commercial plant extracts (citronella, garlic oil, neem extract, pine oil, and pyrethrum), citronella was found to be effective in deterring the infestation of cartons containing muesli and wheat germ by red flour beetles. The chemical components were applied as part of a coating on the carton board. In an experimental set up that accelerates infestation over a 2 week period, citronella-treated cartons (0.2 g/m2 of carton board) reduced beetle infestation to approximately 50% of the level observed in control cartons. Evidence was provided to indicate that an insect repellent effect persists for at least 16 weeks. Additional work on the controlled release of the insect repellent would be required to prolong the effect.

  Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).:J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Apr 6;53(7):2511-7.Cheel J, Theoduloz C, Rodríguez J, Schmeda-Hirschmann G.Instituto de Química de Recursos Naturales and Laboratorio de Cultivo Celular, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Talca, Casilla 747, Talca, Chile.

 Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.

  LC determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil.:J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2005 Mar 9;37(3):597-601. Epub 2004 Dec 18.Rauber Cda S, Guterres SS, Schapoval EE.Programa de Pós-Gradua??o em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, CEP 90160-000 RS, Brazil. cristie@farmacia.ufrgs.br

 It was the aim of this study to develop and validate a HPLC method for the quantitative determination of citral in Cymbopogon citratus volatile oil. The HPLC assay was performed using a Spherisorb CN column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm), a n-hexane:ethanol (85:15) mobile phase and an UV detector (set at 233 nm). The following parameters were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, quantification and detection limits. The method showed linearity in the range of 10.0-30.0 microg ml(-1). Precision and accuracy were determined at the concentration of 20 microg ml(-1). The concentration of citral in C. citratus volatile oil obtained with this assay was 75%. The HPLC method developed in this study showed an excellent performance (linearity, precision, accuracy and specificity) and can be applied to assay citral in volatile oil.
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  The use of powder and essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus against mould deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of "egusi" melon seeds.:J Basic Microbiol. 2005;45(1):20-30.Bankole SA, Joda AO, Ashidi JS.Department of Crop Production, Olabisi Onabanjo University, PMB 2002, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria. sabankole@yahoo.com

 Experiments were carried out to determine the potential of using the powder and essential oil from dried ground leaves of Cymbopogon citratus (lemon grass) to control storage deterioration and aflatoxin contamination of melon seeds. Four mould species: Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. tamarii and Penicillium citrinum were inoculated in the form of conidia suspension (approx. 10(6) conidia per ml) unto shelled melon seeds. The powdered dry leaves and essential oil from lemon grass were mixed with the inoculated seeds at levels ranging from 1-10 g/100 g seeds and 0.1 to 1.0 ml/100 g seeds respectively. The ground leaves significantly reduced the extent of deterioration in melon seeds inoculated with different fungi compared to the untreated inoculated seeds. The essential oil at 0.1 and 0.25 ml/100 g seeds and ground leaves at 10 g/100 g seeds significantly reduced deterioration and aflatoxin production in shelled melon seeds inoculated with toxigenic A. flavus. At higher dosages (0.5 and 1.0 ml/100 g seeds), the essential oil completely prevented aflatoxin production. After 6 months in farmers' stores, unshelled melon seeds treated with 0.5 ml/ 100 g seeds of essential oil and 10 g/100 g seeds of powdered leaves of C. citratus had significantly lower proportion of visibly diseased seeds and Aspergillus spp. infestation levels and significantly higher seed germination compared to the untreated seeds. The oil content, free fatty acid and peroxide values in seeds protected with essential oil after 6 months did not significantly differ from the values in seeds before storage. The efficacy of the essential oil in preserving the quality of melon seeds in stores was statistically at par with that of fungicide (iprodione) treatment.

  In vivo antimalarial activity of essential oils from Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum on mice infected with Plasmodium berghei.:Planta Med. 2005 Jan;71(1):20-3.Tchoumbougnang F, Zollo PH, Dagne E, Mekonnen Y.Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon.

 The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Ocimum gratissimum growing in Cameroon were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The main constituents of the oil of Ocimum gratissimum were gamma-terpinene (21.9 %), beta-phellandrene (21.1 %), limonene (11.4 %) and thymol (11.2 %), while the oil of Cymbopogon citratus contained geranial (32.8 %), neral (29.0 %), myrcene (16.2 %) and beta-pinene (10.5 %). The effects of these oils on the growth of Plasmodium berghei were investigated. Both oils showed significant antimalarial activities in the four-day suppressive in vivo test in mice. At concentrations of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg of mouse per day, the essential oil of C. citratus produced the highest activity with the respective percentages of suppression of parasitaemia: 62.1 %, 81.7 % and 86.6 %. The corresponding values for the oil of O. gratissimum at the same concentrations were 55.0 %, 75.2 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg of mouse, positive control) had a suppressive activity of 100 %.

  Repellency of citronella for head lice: double-blind randomized trial of efficacy and safety.:Isr Med Assoc J. 2004 Dec;6(12):756-9.Mumcuoglu KY, Magdassi S, Miller J, Ben-Ishai F, Zentner G, Helbin V, Friger M, Kahana F, Ingber A.Department of Parasitology, Hebrew University Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel. kostam@cc.huji.ac.il

 BACKGROUND: Head lice move easily from head to head. The lack of safe, effective repellents leads to reinfestation. OBJECTIVES: To test the efficacy of a slow-release citronella formulation as a repellent against the head louse. METHODS: During 4 months in 2003 a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind clinical study was conducted in four elementary schools; 103 children were treated with the test formulation and 95 with a placebo. RESULTS: A significant difference was observed during the second examination 2 months later, when 12.0% of the children treated with the test repellent and 50.5% of those treated with placebo were infested with lice. A significant difference was also observed at the third examination 2 months later, when 12.4% of the children treated with the test repellent and 33.7% treated with placebo were infested. Overall, there were significant differences between those treated with the repellent and those treated with the placebo (15.4% and 55.1% respectively, P < 0.0001). Side effects were observed in 4.4% of children who disliked the odor of the formulation, and an additional 1.0% who complained of a slight itching and burning sensation. CONCLUSIONS: Use of an effective repellent could significantly lower the incidence of reinfestations, which would lower expenditure on lice control, including pediculicides, combs and products for nit removal, and the time spent on treatment and removal of the nits.

  Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats.:Pharmacol Res. 2004 Nov;50(5):477-80.Gazola R, Machado D, Ruggiero C, Singi G, Macedo Alexandre M.Escola de Farmácia e Odontologia de Alfenas, Centro Universitário Federal. Rua Gabriel Monteiro da Silva, 714, Centro, CEP: 37130000 Alfenas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. rgazola@uol.com.br

 1. This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR). 2. For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff's method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and after application of the extracts. The extracts were utilized in doses: 0.038, 0.38, 3.8 and 38 mg. Results obtained were compared by statistic analyses. 3. The aqueous extracts provoked significant CR reduction and did not alter the CF. The negative CR effect may have occurred by cardiac muscarinics receptors stimulation.

  Inhibitory effect of cinnamon, clove, lemongrass, oregano and palmarose essential oils on growth and fumonisin B1 production by Fusarium proliferatum in maize grain.:Int J Food Microbiol. 2003 Dec 31;89(2-3):145-54.Velluti A, Sanchis V, Ramos AJ, Egido J, Marín S.Food Technology Department, Lleida University, CeRTA, Rovira Roure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain.

 The effect of cinnamon, clove, oregano, palmarose and lemongrass oils on growth and FB1 production by three different isolates of F. proliferatum in irradiated maize grain at 0.995 and 0.950 aw and at 20 and 30 degrees C was evaluated. The five essential oils inhibited growth of F. proliferatum isolates at 0.995 aw at both temperatures, while at 0.950 aw only cinnamon, clove and oregano oils were effective in inhibiting growth of F. proliferatum at 20 degrees C and none of them at 30 degrees C. Cinnamon, oregano and palmarose oils had significant inhibitory effect on FB1 production by the three strains of F. proliferatum at 0.995 aw and both temperatures, while clove and lemongrass oils had only significant inhibitory effect at 30 degrees C. No differences were found using 500 or 1000 microg essential oil g(-1). At 0.950 aw, none of the essential oils had any significant effect on FB1 production. The results suggest that mainly cinnamon and oregano oils could be effective in controlling growth and FB1 production by F. proliferatum in maize under preharvest conditions.
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  Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral.:

 The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.

  A comparative study of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus and some members of the genus Citrus.: Nat Prod Res. 2003 Oct;17(5):369-73.Saleem M, Afza N, Anwar MA, Hai SM, Ali MS.Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Karachi-75280, Pakistan.

 Steam distilled oils of some species of the genus Citrus and Cymbopogon citratus were analyzed by GC-MS. It is observed that citral b was the most common constituent of the oils, which could be a good inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase as all the tested essential oils showed significant inhibition of beta-glucuronidase. IC50 values of a mixture of citral a and b also proved the hypothesis. The same oils also exhibited positive response against tested microbes.

  Comparison of two treatments for preventing dogs eating their own faeces..:Vet Rec. 2003 Jul 12;153(2):51-3.Wells DL.Canine Behaviour Centre, School of Psychology, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN.

 Twenty-eight domestic dogs with the behavioural problem of eating their own faeces were treated in two ways. Half of them were treated with a citronella spray collar, and the others were treated with sound therapy. To assess the relative efficacy of the treatments their owners rated the severity of their dog's faeces eating for a week before the study began, during each of three weeks of treatment, and at the end of a fourth week during which they had not been treated. The owners reported a significantly lower incidence of the behavioural problem during the first week of both treatments, but in the dogs treated by sound therapy its incidence subsequently increased. The behavioural problem was reduced most effectively in the dogs treated with the spray collar, and continued to decrease during the period of treatment.

  Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (lemongrass) against Aspergillus flavus Link. isolated from stored rice.:Lett Appl Microbiol. 2003;37(1):86-90. Paranagama PA, Abeysekera KH, Abeywickrama K, Nugaliyadde L.Department of Chemistry, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. priyani123@yahoo.com

 AIMS: To develop a natural fungicide against aflatoxigenic fungi, to protect stored rice, using the essential oil of lemongrass. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aspergillus flavus Link. was isolated from stored rice and identified as an aflatoxigenic strain. Lemongrass oil was tested against A. flavus and the test oil was fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogen at 0.6 and 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. Aflatoxin production was completely inhibited at 0.1 mg ml(-1). The results obtained from the thin layer chromatographic bioassay and gas chromatography indicated citral a and b as the fungicidal constituents in lemongrass oil. During the fumigant toxicity assay of lemongrass oil, the sporulation and the mycelial growth of the test pathogen were inhibited at the concentrations of 2.80 and 3.46 mg ml(-1), respectively. CONCLUSION: Lemongrass oil could be used to manage aflatoxin formation and fungal growth of A. flavus in stored rice. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Currently, fungicides are not used to control fungal pests or mycotoxin production on stored rice. Rice treated with the essential oil of lemongrass could be used to manage fungal pests as well as the insect pests in stored rice. The essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers, as synthetic chemical fungicides can cause adverse health effects to consumers.

  Chemistry and biological significance of essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus from Pakistan.: Nat Prod Res. 2003 Jun;17(3):159-63.Saleem M, Afza N, Anwar MA, Hai SM, Ali MS, Shujaat S, Atta-Ur-rahman .Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Laboratories Complex, Karachi-75280, Pakistan.

 Steam distilled oil of Cymbopogon citratus was analyzed by Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and citral was found as major constituent. The oil exhibited significant inhibition of beta-glucuronidase activity and also showed activities against some tested human, plant and animal pathogens. The minimum inhibitory concentrations could not be determined due to the lack of some chemicals.
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  Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.:

 Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., commonly known as lemon grass and used, over many years, for medicinal purposes in West Africa, produces a volatile oil on steam extraction of its leaves. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil have been studied. These activities are shown in two of the three main components of the oil identified through chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. While the alpha-citral (geranial) and beta-citral (neral) components individually elicit antibacterial action on gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, the third component, myrcene, did not show observable antibacterial activity on its own. However, myrcene provided enhanced activities when mixed with either of the other two main components identified.

 Ethenomedicinal Practice :It is used as an insecticide and for flavouring food. After the distillation process, the exhausted grass is used locally to feed cattle.

 Oil Extraction Process :Essential oil by steam distillation from the fresh and partially dried leaves (grass), finely chopped.

 Characteristics and Constituents :A yellow, amber or reddish - brown liquid with a fresh, grassy - citrus scent and an earthy undertone. A yellow or amber liquid with a fresh, grassy - lemon scent, generally lighter than the West Indian type.

 Citral (65-85 %), myrcene (12-25 %), dipentene, methylheptenone, linalol, geraniol, nerol, citronellol and farnesol, among others. Citral (up to 85%), geraniol, methyl-eugenol, borneol, dipentene; constituents vary according to type.

  Effect of Lemon Grass Extract on Hepatic and Intestinal Xenobiotic-Metabolizing Enzymes (Somsakul Thumvijit, M.S. Biochemistry).:

 Lemon grass extract, a Thai medicinal plant, has been shown to inhibit chemical-induced carcinogenesis, possibly due to modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. The present study has investigated the effects of lemon grass extract and its component (citral, geraniol, b-myrcene) on phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (CYP450 contents, benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase, acetanilide-4-hydroxylase, aminopyrine and NDMA demethylase) in liver and phase II xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT), and NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase (QR)) in liver and intestinal mucosa of F344 rats. At 5 weeks of age, rats were fed with 2.0, 0.5, 0.1, 0.01 g/kg bw. of lemon grass extract or 1.0, 0.1, 0.01 g/kg bw. of citral or geraniol or b-myrcene by gavage every morning for 5 days. Rats in control groups were given an equal volume of 25% DMSO or corn oil. Rats were killed at the end of experiment, liver and intestine were collected to determine enzyme activities. The results showed that phase I enzymes, aminopyrine-N-demethylase activity was significantly increased in rat received lemon grass extract, or citral, or geraniol or b-myrcene. Benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity was increased in citral treated-rats only. No modulating effects on other cytochrome P450 enzyme activities. It was also found that GST, UDP-GT activities in liver and colonic mucosa and the QR activity in small intestine were significantly elevated in rats received lemon grass extract compared to those controls fed only vehicle. The GST, QR and UDP-GT activities were significantly increased in the liver, small intestine and colon of rats treated with citral, geraniol and b-myrcene, only GST in the small intestine of geraniol treated-rats and QR in colon of b-myrcene treated- rats showed slightly increased. It was suggested that the protection against chemical-induced carcinogenesis of lemon grass may be due to increment of the activities of detoxification enzymes such as GST, UDP-GT and QR in the liver and intestines. From the results, it may be able to explain antimutagenic property against AFB1 or inhibitory effect on AOM-induced ACF in rat colon of lemon grass extract. Aminopyrine-N-demethylase (P450 2B) activity metabolizes AFB1 to AFQ1 which is the weaker mutagenic substance than its parent, AFB1. This enzyme activity was increased in rats received either lemon grass extract or citral or geraniol or b-myrcene which correlates with previous report that lemon grass inhibited AFB1 mutagenesis. Lemon grass extract showed inhibitory effect on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced ACF in rat colon in other previous study, possibility due to no effect of lemon grass on P450 2E1 to metabolize AOM to form its proximate metabolites, methylazomethanol (MAM), in liver, in addition the enhancement of UDP-GT by lemon grass extract may lead to increase conjugation reaction which is the detoxificating pathway of azozymethane (AOM).

  Usefulness of the SOS Chromotest in the study of medicinal plants as radioprotectors.:

 PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to investigate the usefulness of a modified protocol of the SOS Chromotest to detect antigenotoxicity activities against gamma-rays of plant extracts with proven antioxidant activity, and to elucidate the antigenotoxic mechanisms involved in radioprotection using this system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methodology developed was assayed with amifostine, the most studied radioprotector, and with Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf and Pinus caribaea Morelet extracts, using pre- and post-treatment procedures. RESULTS: The P. caribaea and C. citratus extracts were antigenotoxic against gamma-rays when the cells were pre-treated with both extracts, suggesting a possible antigenotoxic action through a free radical scavenging mechanisms. Amifostine and the P. orbicularis extract were also antigenotoxic under pre- and post-treatment conditions, indicating that several antimutagenic components of this plant extract may also operate by some intracellular mechanism, unlike its antioxidant activity. CONCLUSIONS: The results have demonstrated the usefulness of the modified SOS Chromotest assay in the screening of phytochemical radioprotectors as well as in the study of their antimutagenic mechanisms.
 Lemongrass Extract,Lemon grass Extract.Lemongrass stalk extract.Lemongrass silk extract.Cymbopogon citrates,Citronella extract, Squinant extract.10:1.20:1.Citral Photo Picture Image img

  Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.:

 Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids.

  Free radical scavengers and antioxidants from Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.).:

 Methanol, MeOH/water extracts, infusion, and decoction of Cymbopogon citratus were assessed for free radical scavenging effects measured by the bleaching of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, scavenging of the superoxide anion, and inhibition of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes. The extracts presented effect in the DPPH and superoxide anion assay, with values ranging between 40 and 68% and 15-32% at 33 and 50 microg/mL, respectively, inhibited lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes by 19-71% at 500 microg/mL and were inactive toward the XO at 50 microg/mL. Isoorientin, isoscoparin, swertiajaponin, isoorientin 2' '-O-rhamnoside, orientin, chlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods. Isoorientin and orientin presented similar activities toward the DPPH (IC(50): 9-10 microM) and inhibited lipid peroxidation by 70% at 100 microg/mL. Caffeic and chlorogenic acid were active superoxide anion scavengers with IC(50) values of 68.8 and 54.2 microM, respectively, and a strong effect toward DPPH. Caffeic acid inhibited lipid peroxidation by 85% at 100 microg/mL.
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  Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection.:

 The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC) Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L.) was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Muller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  Fungicidal and anti-aflatoxigenic effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf. (lemongrass) against Aspergillus flavus Link. isolated from stored rice.:

 AIMS: To develop a natural fungicide against aflatoxigenic fungi, to protect stored rice, using the essential oil of lemongrass. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aspergillus flavus Link. was isolated from stored rice and identified as an aflatoxigenic strain. Lemongrass oil was tested against A. flavus and the test oil was fungistatic and fungicidal against the test pathogen at 0.6 and 1.0 mg ml(-1), respectively. Aflatoxin production was completely inhibited at 0.1 mg ml(-1). The results obtained from the thin layer chromatographic bioassay and gas chromatography indicated citral a and b as the fungicidal constituents in lemongrass oil. During the fumigant toxicity assay of lemongrass oil, the sporulation and the mycelial growth of the test pathogen were inhibited at the concentrations of 2.80 and 3.46 mg ml(-1), respectively. CONCLUSION: Lemongrass oil could be used to manage aflatoxin formation and fungal growth of A. flavus in stored rice. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Currently, fungicides are not used to control fungal pests or mycotoxin production on stored rice. Rice treated with the essential oil of lemongrass could be used to manage fungal pests as well as the insect pests in stored rice. The essential oil is chemically safe and acceptable to consumers, as synthetic chemical fungicides can cause adverse health effects to consumers.

  Antibacterial constituents in the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf.:

 Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., commonly known as lemon grass and used, over many years, for medicinal purposes in West Africa, produces a volatile oil on steam extraction of its leaves. The antibacterial properties of the essential oil have been studied. These activities are shown in two of the three main components of the oil identified through chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. While the alpha-citral (geranial) and beta-citral (neral) components individually elicit antibacterial action on gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, the third component, myrcene, did not show observable antibacterial activity on its own. However, myrcene provided enhanced activities when mixed with either of the other two main components identified.

  Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle.:
 The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively.

  Comparative analysis of the oil and supercritical CO(2) extract of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.:

 Dried and ground leaves of lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.) were used as a matrix for supercritical extraction of essential oil with CO(2). The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of pressure on the supercritical extraction. A series of experiments were carried out, for 360 min, at 50 degrees C and at different pressures: 90, 100, 110 and 120 bar. Extraction conditions were chosen to maximize citral content in the extract oil. The collected extracts were analysed by GC-MS and their composition was compared with that of the essential oil isolated by hydrodistillation and by steam distillation. At higher solvent density the extract aspect changes passing from a characteristic yellow essential oil to yellowish semi-solid mass because of the extraction of high molecular mass compounds. The optimum conditions for citral extraction were 90 bar and 50 degrees C, at these conditions citral represent more than 68% of the essential oil and the extraction yield was 0.65% while the yield obtained from hydrodistillation was 0.43% with a content of citral of 73%.

  Allelopathic effects of Cymbopogon citratu volatile and its chemical components.:

 This paper studied the allelopathic effects of Cymbopogon citratus volatile on the seed germination and seedling growth of corn and barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli) in field and in obturator, and analyzed the chemical components of the volatile with SPME and GC-MS. The results of bio-assay indicated that the germination rate of corn or barnyard grass intercropped with C. citrate or enclosed in obturator with fresh C. citratus had no significant difference from the control, but the seedling growth of corn and barnyard grass was significantly inhibited. The volatile from C. citratus roots contained 10 components. The main component was longifolene-(V4), occupying 56.67% of the total, the second component was selina-6-en-4-ol (20.03%), while the others were under 10%. There were 12 components in the volatile from C. citratus shoots. The main component was citral (53.98%), the second was z-citral (34.40%), and the others were under 4%. There were 2 monoterpenes and 9 sesquiterpenes in the volatile from shoots, and all the terpenes in the volatile from roots were sesquiterpenes. Therefore, the allelopathy of C. citratus should not be ignored when planted it with other crops.
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  Citronella as an insect repellent in food packaging.:

 Of five commercial plant extracts (citronella, garlic oil, neem extract, pine oil, and pyrethrum), citronella was found to be effective in deterring the infestation of cartons containing muesli and wheat germ by red flour beetles. The chemical components were applied as part of a coating on the carton board. In an experimental set up that accelerates infestation over a 2 week period, citronella-treated cartons (0.2 g/m2 of carton board) reduced beetle infestation to approximately 50% of the level observed in control cartons. Evidence was provided to indicate that an insect repellent effect persists for at least 16 weeks. Additional work on the controlled release of the insect repellent would be required to prolong the effect.

  Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection.:

 The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC) Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L.) was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Muller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). I. Effects of teas prepared from the leaves on laboratory animals.:

 Cymbopogon citratus is one of the most used plants in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of nervous and gastrointestinal disturbances. It is also used in many other places to treat feverish conditions. The usual way to use it is by ingesting an infusion made by pouring boiling water on fresh or dried leaves (which is called "abafado" in Portuguese). Abafados obtained from lemongrass harvested in three different areas of Brazil (Ceara, Minas Gerais and Sao Paulo States) were tested on rats and mice in an attempt to add experimental confirmation to its popular medicinal use. Citral, the main constituent of the essential oil in Brazilian lemongrass, was also studied for comparison. Oral doses of abafados up to 40 times (C40) larger than the corresponding dosage taken by humans, or of 200 mg/kg of citral, were unable to decrease body temperature of normal rats and/or rats made hyperthermic by previous administration of pyrogen. However, both compounds acted when injected by intraperitoneal route. Oral administration of doses C20 -C100 of abafados and 200 mg/kg of citral did not change the intestinal transit of a charcoal meal in mice, nor did it decrease the defecation scores of rats in an open-field arena. Again, by intraperitoneal route both compounds were active. The possible central nervous system depressant effect of the abafados was investigated by using batteries of 12 tests designed to detect general depressant, hypnotic, neuroleptic, anticonvulsant and anxiolytic effects. In all the tests employed, oral doses of abafados up to C208 or of citral up to 200 mg/kg were without effect. Only in a few instances did intraperitoneal doses demonstrate effects. These data do no lend support to the popular oral therapeutic use of lemongrass to treat nervous and intestinal ailments and feverish conditions.

  Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). II. Effects of daily two month administration in male and female rats and in offspring exposed "in utero".:

 An infusion (abafado) prepared from leaves of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf) administered orally to adult rats for 2 months, in doses up to 20 times larger than the estimated corresponding human dosage, did not induce any effect which could be taken as evidence of toxicity. An absence of effects was also noted in male and female rats and in their offspring when the abafado was administered prior to mating or during pregnancy. These data strongly suggest that lemongrass, as used in Brazilian folk medicine, has no toxic properties.

  Pharmacology of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus Stapf). III. Assessment of eventual toxic, hypnotic and anxiolytic effects on humans.:

 A herbal tea (called an abafado in Brazil) prepared from the dried leaves of lemongrass was administered to healthy volunteers. Following a single dose or 2 weeks of daily oral administration, the abafado produced no changes in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipids, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, LDH and CPK. Urine analysis (proteins, glucose, ketones, bilirubins, occult blood and urobilinogen) as well as EEG and EKG showed no abnormalities. There were slight elevations of direct bilirubin and of amylase in some of the volunteers, but without any clinical manifestation. These results taken together indicate that lemongrass as used in Brazilian folk medicine is not toxic for humans. The eventual hypnotic effect of lemongrass was investigated in 50 volunteers who ingested samples of lemongrass and a placebo under double-blind conditions. The parameters (i.e. sleep induction, sleep quality, dream recall and rewakening) did not show any effect of lemongrass as compared to the placebo. Eighteen subjects with high scores of trait-anxiety were submitted to an anxiety-inducing test following taking lemongrass or placebo under double-blind conditions. Their anxiety levels were similar, indicating that the abafado of the plant does not have anxiolytic properties. It is concluded that lemongrass, one of the most popular Brazilian herbal medicines, used for its alleged CNS-depressant effects, is atoxic but lacks hypnotic or anxiolytic properties.
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Reference:
  • 1.Lemongrass,also known as Capim-cidrao,Fever Tea,Melissa Grass,and Sereh,is native to tropical Southeast Asia.

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  • Name:Lemon grass Extract
  • Serie No:P084
  • Specifications:10:1.20:1.TLC
  • INCI Name:CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS EXTRACT
  • EINECS/ELINCS No.:289-754-1
  • CAS:89998-16-3
  • Chem/IUPAC Name:Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Extract is an extract of the lemongrass, from Cymbopogon schoenanthus, Gramineae

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Lemon grass Extract INCI Name Cymbopogon Schoenanthus Extract CAS 89998-16-3 EINECS ELINCS No 289-754-1 Lemongrass stalk extract Lemongrass Extract Cymbopogon citrates Citronella extract Squinant extract photo picture image

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