Morinda Root obtained from root of Morinda officinalis How,a subtropical rain forest plant,one of the top four south herbs and its extract.
- Botanical Info of Morinda Root.
- Morinda Root Plant Descriptions.
- Identification and Preparation:Morinda Root.
- Morinda Root Constituents and Natural Phytochemicals.
- Main Functions:Morinda Root and Morinda Extract.
- Morinda Root Pharmacological Effect Study.
- Archeology and Identification of Morinda Root Origins.
- Morinda Root Main effects and Administration Suggestions.
- Applications and Difference:Morinda Root.
- Morinda Root Traditional combinations and remedies.
- Morinda officinalis cultivation methods.
- Research Update:Morinda Root.
Morinda Root Pharmacological Effect Study.:
1. Increase body weight and anti-fatigue:
Select 16-18 g body weight Kunming male mice, according to the weight matching divided into four groups, the blank group with distilled water daily 20 ml / kg gavage, the treatment group gavage morinda root water decoction 20 ml/ kg, administration for 11 consecutive days, before experimental each group plus administration 1 dose. Swimming test every five mice, in accordance with the actual experiment weighing 5% of the weight load. The results showed that morinda root proves significantly increase mice swmming load weight, extended continuous swimming time.
Scientist Xia Guilan and others crushed morinda root,and isolated its total flavonoids by heat dilute alcohol, dilution into 10% oral solution to the mice gavage for 10 days, 1.0 mg/20g.daily, found that the dose can significantly prolong the mice cintinously swim in the water and increase the time hanging in the online campaign, and also can reduce the mice in a state of hypoxia oxygen consumption, increase the duration of hypoxia tolerance. Morinda root increased body reserving ability,increase fatigue resistance, and increase in the body to stimulate the hypoxic stress, the compensatory ability.
2.Effects on immune system:
Mice minors, according to bioactive ACTH test pilot, four days medication, the results showed that temperature morinda root saps 65 g/(kg.d), 80g/(kg.d) oral and 50% Morinda root ethanol extract 60 g/(kg.d) oral, make mouse thymus atrophy (P values were P less than 0.05, p less than 0.001, p less than 0.001 accordingly), Morinda officinalis warm saps 10g/(kg.d) by intraperitoneal injection, thymus atrophy obvious(P less than 0.001). With the report on the method by Qiaozhi,21 days oaged young Kunming mice of either sex, according to the weight mating and divide,the positive control group mice per day to 0.2% (g/ml) concentration vitamin B4 solution 0.6 ml gavage , the treatment group were given Morinda root water decoction, continuous medication for 10 days,after the last dose 24 hours identify body weight, tail blood, white blood cells count, and the animals were killed, the thymus weight, the results also proved morinda root inhibits mouse thymus atrophy and increase their blood leukocyte function.
Scientist Lv Shi-Jing reported morinda root can improve NIH mice spleen cells cultured in vitro on concanavalin A reactive protein that morinda root promote the transformation on T and B lymphocyte proliferation, and increase protein in mice concanavalin A spleen cells induced by the secretion of IL-2 and INF-gamma activity.
Scientist Feng Zhaoming and others shows that HepA liver cancer model in mice study of Morinda root water extract high-dose (45 mg/kg.d) group HepA tumor growth markedly inhibited, and (30 mg/kg.d), low (15 mg/kg.d) dose groups showed a good dose relationship. Speculate may be through the control of immune function, activated lymphocytes and various anticancer activity factor to prevent cancer.
Scientist Chen Zhong and others found in a study of the whole animal immune ability,Morinda officinalis water extract (MOH) increase mice mononuclear phagocyte system of the Congo red clearance rate and the empowerment of peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis of chicken erythrocytes ability that (MOH) on the immune cells in mice with enhanced effectiveness.
According to polysaccharides improving immunity function of the Morinda officinalis,Scientist Chen Xiaojuan and others process study of polysaccharide immune function, it can increase the thymus weight of juvenile mice, mice macrophage phagocytosis, and the percentage of spleen-specific immune Rose spent forming cell formation.
Xu Chaodou processed a study of morinda officinalis oligosaccharide (MOO) immune activity, MOO 25,50 mg/kg oral enable mouse spleen cells were significantly increased in spleen cells of mice antibodies to a significant increase in the number of, but Application of in vitro 25 ~ 200 ug/ml, the proliferative response of the spleen cells and intestinal lymphocyte proliferation response no significant role in promoting, MOO speculate on the role in promoting immune function may not be through direct role in the immunological activity of the cells.
3.Effect on sexual organs:
Morinda root crude extract feed ats or mice 14-15 consecutive days,no assimilation (body weight, muscle or sponge ball muscle weight or mouse kidney weight increase as indicators ), but also no effects in a androgen likeeffects (seminal vesicle weight increase as indicators).
4. Corticosterone secretion:
weighing about 35g male ICR mice, measured by Diamondstone method determine corticosterone in the blood,oral morinda root water decoction extract (1 g/kg), the results of glucocorticoid enzyme markers liver AIP Activity increased significantly, by intraperitoneal injection has also shown more TAT (tyrosine aminotransferase) activity, that Morinda officinalis extract has increased serum corticosterone,the activity may be due to an under pituitary adrenal system stimulating effects.
5.Endocrine system Effect:
As early as 1980s,reports shows morinda root decoction shows no significant impat on normal female rats luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, but the anterior pituitary, ovary and uterus weight increased significantly. It is particularly raise ovarian HCG / LH receptor function. Morinda officinalis can markedly increase LH secretion response ovariectomized rats injections of pituitary luteinizing releasing hormone (LRH). Morinda officinalis may speculate pituitary on the LRH by increasing the responsiveness of the LH and ovarian response to the increased hypothalamus - pituitary - thus promoting ovarian luteal.
Scientist Shen Daoxiu study of warm water decoction of morinda root shows no extending property for the survival time of young rats isolated adrenal gland,in the dosage used shows no increase adrenal hunger mice liver glycogen accumulation. But it found rats plastic ring granuloma significantly inhibited, and cause young mice thymus atrophy,that morinda warm decoction may have adrenocorticotropic hormone-like effect.
Continuous oral dose of morinda root water decoction to rat removed testis 15 days, the foreskin gland, pubococcygeus mucle, prostate,seminal vesicle weight indicators did not show androgen-like effect, speculate reduce brain receptor Rt M value, which weaken Deputy sympathetic - M receptor - cGMP system's response, may be an important way to boost Yang, treatment of male erectile dysfunction. And Scientist Yu Cheng Jun using Morinda officinalis extract on aging male reproductive cells study found the rat epididymal sperm to increase the total number of live sperm rate and reduce the sperm malformation rate, and significantly confrontation propranolol lead to lower rates of live sperm abnormal sperm and the rate of increase. These effects may be Morinda officinalis extract significant increase in the aging rat testis tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity closely related. Jiao Zhi Sheng and others also reported morinda root decoction would increase 0.03 percent methyl AECA (MTU)-induced hypothyroidism mice oxygen consumption, a low increase in mouse brain receptor M maximum binding capacity back to normal.
6. Antihypertensive effect:
Same species plant Morinda lucida plant extracts shows significant antihypertensive effecton on anesthetized cats,and also on non-anesthetized rats, but maintaining a short time, and some stability and diuretic effect.
7. Anti-inflammatory effect:
Morinda root warm extract sap 50 g/kg,60 g/kg gavage or 10 g/kg intraperitoneal,rats plastic ring granuloma inhibited;warm extract sap 25, 50 g/Kg gavage, can not be extended childhood rat cut off adrenal survival time;warm extract sap 350 mg/kg gavage, no increase in adrenal hunger to mice liver glycogen accumulation,that morinda root may have kidney renal cortex hormone-like role.
8. Nervous system effect:
Scientists Zi Chengtong and others in a series of natural selection discovered that morinda root water extraction paste significantly reverse mice monoamine neurotransmitters reduce induced by reserpine in the brain and improve the signs of reserpine, Cui Chengbin and others process a single antidepressant effect of Morinda officinalis water extract and alcohol extract, the first time that Morinda officinalis extract and monomer compounds with antidepressant effect identified. Zhang Zhongqi found in the rat low rate differential strengthen procedures Model 72 seconds,Morinda officinalis water extract 50 mg/kg shows similar antidepressant effects as desipramine 5 mg/kg dose, rats were significantly increased rate differential strengthening low Strengthening of 72 seconds, reducing the number and lower response rate effect. Forced swimming test in mice, Morinda officinalis water extract 50 mg/kg significantly reduce mice immobility time, and the Effect similar as desipramine 20 mg/kg and Amitriptyline 20 mg/kg, while the water extract does not affect the spontaneous activity in mice. In a small sample of open-clinical study its effects positive, not only with antidepressant pharmacological activity, toxicity and small,and well tolerated.
Morinda officinalis ethanol extract have a similar effect as morinda water extract, the alcohol extract A at dosage 25mg/kg also significantly reduce rats forced to swim fixed time. Scientists Cai Bing and others report Morinda officinalis days isolated from Naisi sugar (II), 1F-Fruc(furan) Naisi sugar (III), O-Beta-D-Fruc(furan)- [(2 -> 1) Fruc(furan)-] 4 alpha-D-Glucopyranoside (IV), and O-Beta-D-Fruc(furan)- [(2->1) Fruc(furan)] 5 alpha-D Glucopyranoside (V) all significantly reducing the experimental mice tail hanging fixed time without affecting the spontaneous activity in mice, the effective dose from MW2 of 12.5-50 mg/kg reduced to 62.5-125.0 ug/kg, that components II-V in Morinda officinalis is the main phytochemicals of Antidepressant effective.
Zhang Zhongqi do further research on O-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2->1)-O-beta-D-fructofuransyl)4alpha-D-glucopyranoside (inulin-type hexasaccharide, IHS),and found that IHS(inulin-type hexasaccharide) plays similar effect as classical antidepressant desipramine consistent and shortened mice forced swimming fixed period of time significantly, and the dose effect of the two drugs are followed by the unique pharmacology of the U-shaped curve, the difference is that IHS(inulin-type hexasaccharide) could significantly increase the number of rats enhanced but reflect ratio and effect ratio does not affected. IHS receptor binding experiments showed that the 5 - HT1A receptor-selective cooperation with, and the IC50 value of about 5 umol / L,other protect from 5,7 - DHT (5-HT neurons agent) induced hippocampus and cortex cell damage,may be through raising IHS 5 - HT neurotransmitter systems play antidepressant effect.
Liuyanqin process an in-depth study of IHS(inulin-type hexasaccharide),conducted by IHS 25,10 umol/L and NMDA 400 umol/L common primary cultured rat cerebral cortical cells 24 hours, the survival cells number bigger than simply NMDA 400 umol/L cells, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage rate also decreased, IHS showed a significant protective effect on the NMDA injury primary cultured rat cortical cells,also may be one of the mechanism of antidepressant.
In addition, Li Yunfeng process study on Morinda root oligosaccharide (MW-97) possible mechanism of antidepressant effect. MW-97 or nerve growth factor (NGF) and corticosterone 2 *10-4mol /l works togethor incubation of PC12 cells 48h, prevents corticosterone-induced PC12 nerve cell injury, and further use of the RT-PCR method proved that MW-97 (100mg/kg) and Desipramine (10 mg / kg) by intraperitoneal injection of chronic administration 21 days, will enable NGF rat brain, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and expression of the hippocampus BDNFmRNA increased, which speculate morinda oligosaccharide mechanism of antidepressant may be caused by neurotrophic factor expression increased and the completion of the protective effect of nerve cells.
Morinda officinalis antidepressant effect associated with the nervous system:
Recently, the Academy of Military Medical Sciences Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology, depend on mice antidepressant related experimental animal models, in accordance with drugs on laboratory animals spontaneous activities, the antidepressant drug, pharmacological effects, such as preliminary analysis of three evaluation mode, the traditional herb morinda root antidepressant activity has been systematically studied.
They make Morinda officinalis extract suspended in the water followed by chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol extraction, respectively, in the extract of ME1 (chloroform extraction), ME2 (ethyl acetate extraction), ME3 (n-butyl alcohol extraction) and ME4 (water residues);water decoction was concentrated then extraction with n-butanol,got n-butyl alcohol extract(MW1) and water residues(MW2). Pass the test of ME, ME1 to ME4, MW1 and MW2 effects on spontaneous activity in mice to test the neuron exciting effects; tail hanging mice by and large, water rats forced swimming depression model to evaluate the effect of antidepressant effect of related; use 5 hydroxy tryptophan (5 - HTP) induced mouse shakes,yohimbine induced mice death, a preliminary analysis of the effects on the nervous system mechanisms. The results showed that Morinda officinalis extract without affect spontaneous activity in mice and significantly shorten the tail hanging mice and the mice forced swimming depression fixed time, in addition except ME4 others all significantly increase 5 - HTP induced mouse shakes number, ME1 and ME2 At the same time significant reduce mice stereotypical behavior induced by the APO, but all the extract no noticeable impact on mice death induced by yohimbine. The results show that, morinda root shows a different antidepressant way from other traditional herbs. Most components of Morinda officinalis extract play its antidepressant pharmacological activity by the adoption of 5-HT system,part of the extracts effect on the dopamine system. Moreover, the results also suggested that tonic tcm herbs is very likely to find and develop a new antidepressant excellent resources.
8.2 Enhance learning memory and anti-aging effects:
Reference of the Morris water maze spatial learning and memory in rats conducted tests and found morinda root can significantly improve the spatial learning and memory decrease in aging rats induced by D-galactose, especially space exploration process to highlight that the morinda LTP boosting effect may be the mechanisms of synapse of the enhancement of learning and memory. In aging mice study morinda root can significantly increase the aged mice brain tissue glucose content,the aging rat model brain superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) content increased,activity increased, decreased lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain tissue,retard aging; can reduce brain levels of lipofuscin, which may be related to morinda root inhibition on the decrease of NO.
In addition, the hypoxic state morinda root can increase rats brain slices hypoxia tolerance capability,once reach the effective concentration,morinda root essence can extended vitro hypoxic brain slices PS began reducing time and amplitude PS lost time, and can increase PS recovery rate after oxygen supply resumed, we can see that it shows significant protective effect on brain tissue with increased tolerance and the ability to hypoxic hypoxia-induced injury. Observed morinda essence can improve aging rats acute ischemic brain tissue SOD and GSH-Px activity, decreased LPO,morinda root essence ischemic / hypoxic brain injury protection mechanism and anti-lipid peroxidation mechanism are related raise with the level of brain glucose metabolism. The clinical observation of small samples of the time capsule found morinda root essence 125 mg,1 times/2 day orally, a month later the patients with vascular dementia therapeutic effect roughly similar and equal to Piracetan, but in improving the language function in the "saying" , "reading" brain function may be better than Piracetan.
Chen Zhong and others reports, by gavage morinda root water extract six days, resistance blood inhibition induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX),buffer the CTX side effects, and promote the hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation, increased erythrocyte plasma and the number of leukocytes, which is superior to Dangshen compound fluid which composed of pilose asiabell root,wolfberry and chinese angelica root saps,nurish blood. Its mechanism is morinda direct promotion of certain components of the hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic or through the promotion of various factors and cytokine production and, indirectly, to promote the proliferation of hematopoietic stem cell differentiation needs further study.
Wang Heming and others study also found that in classical osteoblasts induced group (dexamethasone, vitamin C and beta-glycerophosphate sodium), the use of morinda root water extract or alcohol extract-containing serum can significantly promote the culture of bone marrow stromal cells to the osteoblast differentiation, the effects of alcohol extract stronger than the water-extract, that the two plays their roles by increasing the activity of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin content.
10.Pharmacological Research of Iridoids constituents from Morinda L:
10.1.Iridoids constituents from Morinda L:
Structure character of Iridoids constituents from Morinda L:C1 mostly a hydroxyl, sometimes Keto (such as the morindolide from Morinda officinalis) and the reduction with other hydroxy(such as the oruwacin,phumericin from Morinda lucida), and C1-OH very lively,and oftenly combined with D-glucose to glycosides (such as No. 3 ~ 29 compounds), C 3 and C 4 has double bond, C 4-methyl oxidized to -COOH,-COOMe (such as Monotropein,oruwacin, etc.); C 8 connected with various groups to rings. So far, from the genus plant Morinda L. 29 compounds isolated.
10.2. Antibacterial effect: asperuloside isolated from morinda root shows inhibition effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus morgaii, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis,Escherichia coli,Salmonella and SShigela,this pharmacological effects was considered related for for the treatment of skin diseases, colds, fever and other disease of morinda root.
10.3. Antioxidant effect: Citrifolinin B from leaves of Morinda citrifolia plays antioxidant effects, the concentration of 30 umol remove DPPH radical; 6alpha-hydroxyadoxoside and 6beta, 7beta-epoxy-8-epi-splendoside proves no effects of eliminating DPPH radical and ONOO-.
10.4. Anti-mutagenic effect of chromosome: Study found that: asperuloside,rubichloric acid and deacetylasperulosidic acid can inhibit Chinese hamster ovary cells and mouse chromosome mutation .
10.5. Anti-tumor effect: citrifolinoside and citrifolinin A isolated from Morinda citrifolia shows inhibition on ultraviolet (UVB) induced the the activation of protein AP-1 in the tumor-induced growth(semi-inhibitory concentration IC 50, respectively 29.0 umol and 69.6 umol), is so far the only two activity iridoid compound with this activity. Frew T and others do research and found that asperuloside shows inhibition on PtdIns-3-K(PtdIns-3-K,an important protease formed in the process of tumor), the IC 50 (semi-inhibitory concentration) value is 2.0 mmol.
10.6. Diarrhea effect: mice after taking Monotropein,relieve diarrhea,the effective half dose f ED 50 of more than 0.5 g/kg.
10.7. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect: from the hot-plate test and carrageenan-induced writhing analgesia test that, respectively 20 mg kg-1d-1, 30mg kg-1d-1 dose of Monotropein solution gavage the mice, mice can significantly reduce the pain response time; In addition,Monotropein can also contribute significantly to the elimination of the carrageenin-induced edema in rats toes. Pharmacological experiments proved that the Monotropein for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic constituents of morinda root.
- 1.Morinda Root obtained from root of Morinda officinalis How,a subtropical rain forest plant,one of the top four south herbs and its extract.
♥The article and literature was edited by herbalist of MDidea Extracts Professional.It runs a range of online descriptions about the titled herb and related phytochemicals,including comprehensive information related,summarized updating discoveries from findings of herbalists and clinical scientists from this field.The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,we tried best to update it to latest and exact as possible.
♣ last edit date: