Morinda Root obtained from root of Morinda officinalis How,a subtropical rain forest plant,one of the top four south herbs and its extract.

Contents

Research Update:Morinda Root.:

Morinda Root Ba Ji Tian Morinda officinalis Radix Morindae Officinalis Medicinal Indianmulberry Root

  Extract from Morindae officinalis against oxidative injury of function to human sperm membrane.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2006 Oct;31(19):1614-7. Chinese.Yang X, Zhang YH, Ding CF, Yan ZZ, Du J.Zhejiang Province Cooperation of Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Hangzhou 310003, China. hzxyang@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To study the intervention of Morindae officinalis extract in human sperm membrane, and to study the treatment of male infertility and asthenoospermia by M. officinalis. METHOD: To select sperm with normal physiological function using the Percoll gradient centrifugation for the normal sperm model. Then separating the sperm suspension into the normal, model, and control group (Vitamin C group), and the large, medium and small dose of M. officinalis. The ROS was made from hypoxanthine-xanzine xanzine (HX-XO), and ROS, different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mg x mL(-1) of the extract were hatched with sperm in the oxygen environment, the sperm membrane Lipid peroxide injury were analyzed, and the function of sperm membrane were analyzed by sperm Hypoosmoticswelling (HOS) and compared with the controlled group. RESULT: In the same conditions, all the small, medium and large extracts of M. officinalis (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 g x mL(-1)) improved SOD vitality of sperm suspension, reduced the content of MDA, intervened in the injury of sperm membrane by ROS to some extent and protected some function of sperm membrane. The 0.125 mg x mL(-1) extract had no obvious difference (P > 0.05) with Vitamin C in it, but the (0.25, 0.5 mg x mL(-1)) concentration of the extract is significantly better than control Vitamin-C (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a dependence on the dosage, the large dose (0.5 mg x mL(-1)) of M. officinalis especially protected the function of sperm membrane. CONCLUSION: The extract from M. officinalis can significantly intervene in lipin peroxidation in sperm membrane by guarding against oxidation, and protect the structure and function of sperm membrane, that is one of the mechanisms for treating male's infertility and asthenoospermia with M. officinalis.

 Determination of antioxidation of the extract from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis How by flow injection chemiluminescence and spectroscopy.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2006 Sep;26(9):1688-91. Chinese.Wu YJ, Shi J, Qu LB, Li FF, Li XJ, Wu YM.College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

 Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis was used to determine the antioxidation activity of extract from Morinda officinalis How. The determination was based on the inhibition effect of Morinda officinalis How extraction in the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol - H2O2-CuSO4 system, and vitamin C was used as positive control. It was showed that Morinda officinalis How original liquid has obvious anti-radical activity. Spectroscopy was applied to determine the inhibition ratio of Morinda officinalis How extraction for the superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals in the special system. It was shown that the extraction from Morinda officinalis How could obviously scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals. It is suggested that the Chinese Medicine Morinda Officinalis How is a potential antioxidation activity medicine.

 RAPD analysis on germplasm resources of different farm races of Morinda officinalis.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Jan;29(1):1-3. Chinese.Ding P, Xu JY, Chu TL.College of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic diversity of different farm races of Morinda officinalis on molecular level. METHODS: The molecular biological technique-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used. RESULTS: Of the 40-mer arbitary primers, 14 were found to amplify polymorphic products. 3-5 polymorphic bands were amplified by each polymorphic primer on the average. Using UPGMA method all the tested accesions can be clustered into two groups: 4 accessions of Daye were classified as one group, 1 accession of Xiaoye be another group. CONCLUSION: There actually existed much genetic diversity on molecular level among the different farm races of Morinda officinalis.

 Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis.:Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi. 2005 Dec;25(12):2076-8. Chinese.Wu YJ, Liu J, Wu YM, Liu LE, Zhang HQ.College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052, China.

 Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it.

 Antinociceptive anti-inflammatory effect of Monotropein isolated from the root of Morinda officinalis.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Oct;28(10):1915-8.

 The root of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and impotence in the traditional Oriental medicine. To identify the antinociceptive anti-inflammatory components of this crude drug, we adopted an activity-directed fractionation approach. The active fraction of the BuOH extract of M. officinalis root was subjected to silica gel and ODS column chromatography to yield two diterpenes, compounds 1 and 2 and these were identified as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid, respectively. The iridoid glycoside, monotropein, was tested for its anti-inflammatory antinociceptive effects using hot plate- and writhing antinociceptive assays and by using carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory assays in mice and rats. Pretreatment with monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) significantly reduced stretching episodes and prolonged action time in mice. It also significantly reduced acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats. These results indicate that monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root.
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 In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 May;57(5):607-15.Yang X, Zhang YH, Ding CF, Yan ZZ, Du J.Zhejiang Province Cooperation of Chinese and Western Medicine Hospital, Hangzhou 310003, China. hzxyang@163.com

 OBJECTIVE: To study the intervention of Morindae officinalis extract in human sperm membrane, and to study the treatment of male infertility and asthenoospermia by M. officinalis. METHOD: To select sperm with normal physiological function using the Percoll gradient centrifugation for the normal sperm model. Then separating the sperm suspension into the normal, model, and control group (Vitamin C group), and the large, medium and small dose of M. officinalis. The ROS was made from hypoxanthine-xanzine xanzine (HX-XO), and ROS, different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 mg x mL(-1) of the extract were hatched with sperm in the oxygen environment, the sperm membrane Lipid peroxide injury were analyzed, and the function of sperm membrane were analyzed by sperm Hypoosmoticswelling (HOS) and compared with the controlled group. RESULT: In the same conditions, all the small, medium and large extracts of M. officinalis (0.125, 0.25, 0.5 g x mL(-1)) improved SOD vitality of sperm suspension, reduced the content of MDA, intervened in the injury of sperm membrane by ROS to some extent and protected some function of sperm membrane. The 0.125 mg x mL(-1) extract had no obvious difference (P > 0.05) with Vitamin C in it, but the (0.25, 0.5 mg x mL(-1)) concentration of the extract is significantly better than control Vitamin-C (P < 0.01, P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a dependence on the dosage, the large dose (0.5 mg x mL(-1)) of M. officinalis especially protected the function of sperm membrane. CONCLUSION: The extract from M. officinalis can significantly intervene in lipin peroxidation in sperm membrane by guarding against oxidation, and protect the structure and function of sperm membrane, that is one of the mechanisms for treating male's infertility and asthenoospermia with M. officinalis.

 Effects of various organic fertilizers on growth and mineral nutrient absorption of Morindar officinalis.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Oct;25(10):699-701. Chinese.Pan C, Zhan R, Ding P, Xu H.College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405.

 OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of various organic fertilizers on the growth and the mineral nutrient absorption of Morindar officinalis. METHOD: The growing character and the mineral nutrition contents were determined with conventional assay methods. RESULT: The influences of four kinds of fertilizers on the bionomics and nutrient absorption of M. officinalis successively were: biotic organic fertilizer A > biotic organic fertilizer C > biotic organic fertilizer B > farm manure. CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organic fertilizers could facilitate the growth and the mineral nutrient absorption of M. officinalis. Increasing the fertilizer amount of germ manure could promote the absorption of mineral nutrients and the accumulation of dry matters in plants.

 The cytoprotective effect of inulin-type hexasaccharide extracted from Morinda officinalis on PC12 cells against the lesion induced by corticosterone.:Life Sci. 2004 Aug 13;75(13):1531-8.Li YF, Liu YQ, Yang M, Wang HL, Huang WC, Zhao YM, Luo ZP.Division of Psychopharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 TaiPing Road, Beijing 100850, China. lyf619@yahoo.com.cn

 High concentration of corticosterone (Cort) 0.2 mM was incubated with PC12 cells to simulate the lesion state of brain neurons in depressive illness, it was found that the inulin-type oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, inulin-type hexasaccharide (IHS) at the doses of 0.625, 1.25 microM or desipramine (DIM) 0.25, 1 microM protected the PC12 cells from the lesion induced by Cort. With Fura-2/AM labeling assay, DIM 0.25, 1 microM or IHS 2.5, 10 microM attenuated the intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h in PC12 cells. Using RT-PCR, treatment with Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h decreased the nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA level in PC12 cells, IHS 5, 10 microM reversed this change. In summary, IHS attenuate the intracellular Ca2+ overloading and thereby up-regulate the NGF mRNA expression in Cort-treated PC12 cells, which may be consisted at least part of the cytopretective effect of IHS. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that neuroprotective action is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants.

 Relation between root structure and accumulation of anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis.:Shi Yan Sheng Wu Xue Bao. 2004 Apr;37(2):96-102. Chinese.Yao H, Wu H, Feng CH, Zhao S, Liang SJ.Center for Medicinal Plant Research, College of Life Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510640.

 The histological structures of the roots of Morinda officinalis How of different ages were observed, the distribution and accumulation of anthraquinones in the root were studied with the help of paraffin section, fluorescent microscope and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the mature structures of the roots of M. officinalis were similar to those of common perennial herbs, and that the anthraquinones in the root of M. officinalis distributed in parenchymatous cells and the content of anthraquinones in the root gradually increased in number with age. Based on above mentioned investigation, we came to the conclusion that the root of M. officinalis should be collected after four years of growing and the top grade root should have well developed phloem and thin xylem.

 In vitro culture and the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of Morinda officinalis.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2002 Oct;27(10):733-5. Chinese.He H, Xu HH.College of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangzhou 510405, Guangdong, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To establish an effective system for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of M. officinalis, for laying a foundation for the improvement of breeds and introduction of foreign objective genes. METHOD: The explants used for culture were the nodular stem segments from M. officinalis. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain was EHA101, containing vector plasmid pGA482GG. The GUS gene and NPT II gene were introduced into the plasmid. RESULT: MT basal medium with BA 1 mg.L-1 was effective to inducing the direct shoot formation, and the frequency of shoot formation was 97.8%. As BA concentrations increased, the ability of shoot formation decreased. The explants oriented with their apical ends protruding from the medium produced more shoots than when they were placed with their basal end upright or were placed horizontally. The optimal rooting medium for regenerating shoots was MT basal medium supplemented with 0.2 to 0.5 mg.L-1 NAA, and a root induction rate over 80.0% was observed. The selection pressure for kanamycin was 50 mg.L-1. Cefotaxime was used as antibiotics, and the concentration was 300 mg.L-1. After 1.5 months, 14.8% resistant shoots were emerged from the explants. Histochemical GUS assay showed that 22.2% of the resistant plants were GUS-positive. CONCLUSION: Plant regeneration system and Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation have been established for M. officinalis in vitro.
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 Diagnosis and integrative evaluation on soil fertility of three Chinese medicinal materials in GAP plots.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2002 Mar;25(3):157-9. Chinese.Pan C, Huang H, Zhan R, Xu H, Liao G.College of Pharmacy, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405.

 The fertility of soil was diagnosed and integratively evaluated by modified Nemoro Index with eight indexes, i.e. pH, organic matter, total N, P, K and available N, P, K on three national Chinese medicinal materials GAP (Good Agricultural Practice) experimental plots of Pogostemon cablin, Citrus medica and Morinda officinalis in Guangdong. The results showed that the pH, organic matter and other major nutrient contents were low and imbalance. There are lots of nutritive disturbance factors. The level of soil integrative fertility in any of the plots was poor.

 Inhibition of the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on the corticosterone induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.:Life Sci. 2003 Jan 10;72(8):933-42.Li YF, Gong ZH, Yang M, Zhao YM, Luo ZP.Division of Psychopharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, 100850 Beijing, China. LYF619@yahoo.com.cn

 The mechanisms of the antidepressant action of the oligosaccharides (P(6)) extracted from Morinda Officinalis were studied. By flow cytometry analysis, treatment of PC12 cells with corticosterone (Cort) induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent manner. The highest percentage of apoptotic cells accumulated to 27.85 +/- 9.2% following pretreatment with Cort 10 microM for 5 d. In agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, the sample obtained from PC12 cells pretreated with Cort 10 microM for 5 d showed a typical ladder pattern suggesting that Cort increased the DNA fragmentation significantly. Furthermore, the ultrastructure of Cort-treated cells displayed typical apoptosis-like morphological changes including fragmented chromatin accumulation to the inside of nucleolus membrane with a shape like crescent moon or ring, nuclear fragmentation or apoptotic body. In the presence of P(6), or tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DIM), the apoptosis induced by Cort in the three measurements above was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that DIM or P(6) antagonize the apoptosis induced by Cort in PC12 cells, which may be one of the cellular mechanisms of their antidepressant effects.

 Evaluation of the hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant activities of Morinda officinalis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.:Singapore Med J. 2002 Feb;43(2):077-85. Soon YY, Tan BK.Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine National University of Singapore, Singapore.

 AIM OF STUDY: The aim was to investigate the hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant activities of the dried roots of Morinda officinalis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODOLOGY: An ethanolic extract of the dried roots of Morinda officinalis and its three fractions (ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) were obtained. We evaluated the hypoglycemic effects of three different single doses of the crude extract and its fractions in normal and diabetic rats for three hours after administration. Administration of the extract at 150 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days to the diabetic rats was also carried out.The effects of the 10-day treatment on the fasting serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, body weight, food intake, fluid intake, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and renal TBARS levels were monitored. RESULTS: In the three-hour dose response study, the crude ethanolic extract reduced the fasting serum glucose levels of the diabetic rats significantly at 150 mg/kg but increased those of the normal rats significantly at 600 mg/kg only. The water fraction demonstrated a dose dependent hypoglycemic effect in the diabetic rats whereas the n-butanol fraction increased the fasting serum glucose levels of the diabetic rats significantly at 50 mg/kg only within three hours after administration.The 10-day oral administration of the extract reduced the fasting serum glucose, hepatic and renal TBARS level and significantly increased the hepatic SOD and CAT activities as well as GSH levels. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the dried roots of Morinda officinalis possess hypoglycemic, hyperglycemic and anti-oxidant properties.

 The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice.:Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2002 May;72(1-2):39-43.Zhang ZQ, Yuan L, Yang M, Luo ZP, Zhao YM.Division of Psychopharmacology, Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 27 Taiping Road, Beijing, 100850, China. zzhongqi@yahoo.com.cn

 The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25-50 mg/kg), similar to clinically effective antidepressant drug desipramine (5-10 mg/kg), significantly reduced response rate and efficiency ratio while at the same time increasing reinforcement rate. In the forced swimming test in mice, the plant extract (50 mg/kg), like the effect of desipramine (20 mg/kg), also elicited a significant reduction in the duration of immobility. A tendency to this phenomenon could be seen at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the plant extract, in the effective doses for the forced swimming test, had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice. These findings provide further support for the conclusion that M. officinalis extract possesses the antidepressant effect.

 Antistress effect of oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis in mice and rats.:Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001 Dec;22(12):1084-8.Li YF, Yuan L, Xu YK, Yang M, Zhao YM, Luo ZP.Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing 100850, China. LYF619@yahoo.com.cn

 AIM: To explore the antistress effect of Morinda officinalis (Chinese medicine "Bajitian") oligosaccharides (MW-97) in mice. METHODS: Male mice and rats were subjected to a variety of unpredictable stressors on a daily basis over 15 d period and then the Vidiomex-V image pattern analytic system was used to observe the spontaneous motor activity. Meanwhile, regular method was used to prepare pathologic section of adrenal gland and blood cells analytic system was used to detect white blood cell (WBC) count (including relative WBC percentages) in peripheral blood. On the end, the serum level of stress hormone was detected using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Chronic stress resulted in diffuse hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex and atrophy of the adrenal medulla in mice, which suggested that stress-adaption failure of the adrenal gland occurred, while adrenal gland of the mice pretreated with MW-97 (100 mg/kg, ip) prior to each stressor for 15 d did not occur any pathologic changes. In addition, chronic stress also significantly reduced the WBC count and relative WBC percentages in the peripheral blood, including the percentage of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, however, MW-97 (25 and 100 mg/kg) reversed these changes and raised WBC count, along with relative WBC percentages significantly. Furthermore, the serum concentration of testosterone was decreased and corticosterone was increased significantly in chronically stressed animals. MW-97 also declined the serum level of corticosterone and raised level of testosterone. MW-97 had no effects on the spontaneous motor activity in the stressed mice. CONCLUSION: MW-97 had antistress effect against chronic stress, moreover, MW-97 had no excitatory or inhibitory effects on the CNS, which suggested that MW-97 might become a new kind of antistress agent.
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 Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.:Chem Pharm Bull. 1995 Sep;43(9):1462-5.

 A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

 Antidepressant active constituents in the roots of Morinda officinalis How.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1995 Jan;20(1):36-9, 62-3. Chinese.Cui C, Yang M, Yao Z, Cao B, Luo Z, Xu Y, Chen Y.Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Beijing.

 Five compounds having antidepressant activities have been isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional Yang-tonic drug. These compounds were identified as succinic acid (1), nystose (2), 1F-fructofuranosylnystose (3), inulin-type hexasaccharide (4) and heptasaccharide (5) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds are isolated from the species of genus Morinda for the first time.

 Influence of the blight of Morinda officinalis How on microscopic structure and constituents of the host.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1993 Jul;18(7):401-3, 446. Chinese.Lin L, Xu HH, Yao YL, Wang SY, Deng PF, Zhen YE, Lu WQ.Guangzhou College of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica.

 The results showed that microscopic structure in biennial roots, the contents of B and Mn in nutritive organ and beta-sitosterol content in roots, stems of Morinda officinalis were affected markedly. The total sugar content in the roots and aerial stems was decreased by 5.42%-15.29%.

 Experimental studies on growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis How.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1992 Oct;17(10):588-91, 638. Chinese.Wei X, Pang F, He M, Hu T.Guangxi Institute of Materia Medica, Nanning.

 By using the techniques of growing seedlings in bowshaped shed covered with plastic sheeting plus treatment with plant growth regulator, vegetative and generative propagation tests have been made of Morinda officinalis. Scientific evidences have thus been provided for growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis.

 Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus.:Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1992;27(5):358-64. Chinese.Yang YJ, Shu HY, Min ZD.Department of Phytochemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing.

 From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds.
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 Chemical constituents of Morinda officinalis How.:Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1991 Nov;16(11):675-6, 703. Chinese.Li S, Ouyang Q, Tan X, Shi S, Yao Z.Nanjing Municipal Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine.

 This paper reports the identification of four compounds isolated from the cortex of Morinda officinalis growing in Guangdong Province. These compounds are beta-sitosterol (I), 2-methyl-anthraquinone(II), rubiadin-1-methyl ether(III) and 24-ethylcholesterol(VI). Compounds II and VI are isolated from Morinda Genus for the first time.

 Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua.:Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1991 Jul;11(7):415-7, 390. Chinese.Qiao ZS, Wu H, Su ZW.College of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai.

 There are three kinds of plants, Morinda officinalis (1), Damnacanthus officinarum (2), and Schisandra propinqua (3) whose roots have been used since the ancient time. In this paper, some of their pharmacological actions that are related to tonifying and invigorating Yang were examined and compared. The body weight, the thymus weight, the amount of leukocyte in the blood, and the continuing swimming times of the young mice could be increased with the oral administration of the water extractions of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05-0.001). The Rt of M-receptor in the brains of the hypothyroidism mice were decreased after administration of the water extracts of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05). (1) could also increased the amount of leukocyte in the blood of leukocytopenia mice caused by radiation of gamma-ray (P less than 0.01). (3) has not shown the obvious effects (P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that (1) and (2) have the ability of anti-fatigue, improving the immunological action of the young mice, and reducing the excitability of the para-sympathetic nervous system of the hypothyroidism mice through decreasing the Rt of M-receptor in their brains. All of them did not show acute toxicity, inducing mutation, and sexual hormone like actions.

 Effects of herbal preparation Equiguard on hormone-responsive and hormone-refractory prostate carcinoma cells: mechanistic studies.:Int J Oncol. 2002 Apr;20(4):681-9.Hsieh TC, Lu X, Guo J, Xiong W, Kunicki J, Darzynkiewicz Z, Wu JM.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Brander Cancer Research Institute, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

 The Equiguard is a dietary supplement comprised of standardized extracts from nine herbs, respectively, Herba epimedium brevicornum Maxim (stem and leaves), Radix morindae officinalis (root), Fructus rosa laevigatae michx (fruit), Rubus chingii Hu (fruit), Schisandra chinensis (Turz.) Baill (fruit), Ligustrum lucidum Ait (fruit), Cuscuta chinensis Lam (seed), Psoralea corylifolia L. (fruit), and Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge (root). This proprietary product, formulated according to Chinese traditional medicinal concepts, is aimed at restoring harmony in the of the kidney, an organ which Chinese medicinal principles consider to be vital for invigorating as well as maintaining balance of the entire urological system. As the prostate is an integral component of the urological system, we performed in vitro studies to test the effects of ethanol extracts of Equiguard to modulate prostate growth and gene expression. These studies used prostate cancer cells mimicking the androgen-dependent (AD) and androgen-independent (AI) states of prostate carcinogenesis. Results show that Equiguard significantly reduced cancer cell growth, induced apoptosis, suppressed expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and lowered intracellular and secreted prostate specific antigen (PSA), and almost completely abolished colony forming abilities of prostate cancer cells. These data support the interpretation that this herbal formulation contains ingredients that collectively may be efficacious in preventing or treating AD and AI prostate carcinoma. The anti-prostatic activities of Equiguard may stem from its complex composition capable of targeting multiple signal transduction/metabolic pathways, to effectively correct, counteract or circumvent the impaired or dysfunctional mechanisms accompanying different stages of prostate carcinogenesis.

 Effects of semen Cuscutae, rhizoma Curculiginis, radix Morindae officinalis on human spermatozoan's motility and membrane function in vitro.:Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1997 Mar;17(3):145-7. Chinese.Peng SJ, Lu RK, Yu LH.Institute of Reproductive Medicine, Wannan Medical College, Anhui Wuhu.

 OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Semen Cuscutae (SC), Rhizoma Curculiginis (RC) and Radix Morindae Officinalis (RMO) on human sperm motility in vitro and cytomembrane function. METHODS: Compare the sperm motility of the above-mentioned medicinal plants with modified Tyrode's solution (MTS) and MTS added caffeine in vitro. Human spermatozoa were incubated with decoctions of medicinal plant at various concentrations in 37 degrees C for 30 minutes. The motility of sperm was evaluated by the sperm capillary penetrating test, sperm speed test and sperm activity index calculations. The spermatozoa membrane function was evaluated by spermatozoal hypo-osmotic swelling test together with eosin staining methods. RESULTS: The sperm motility improved markedly and sperm membrane function became more stabilized after incubation, the SC had best effect, RC took second place, RMO was relatively poor. CONCLUSIONS: SC decoction is an effective promoting preparation for sperm motility and the membrane function stabilized. Therefore, SC may be beneficial in treating male sterility and may raise success rate in artificial insemination.

 The effect of Baji Zibugao on the serum levels of endocrines in thyroidectomized (yang deficiency) rabbits.:Hua Xi Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1994 Dec;25(4):431-3. Chinese.Xu M, Deng X, Zhang X, Xu H, Lin L.Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Guangzhou College of TCM.

 In order to study the effect of Baji Zibugao (BJZBG, a medicinal plaster mainly consisting of Radix Morindae Officinalis) on the endocrine functions of hypothyroid rabbits, we determined the serum levels of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), cAMP, cGMP and corticosterone in three groups of rabbits: total thyroidectomized and untreated (group I), total thyroidectomized and treated with BJZBG (group II) and controls (group III). The results showed: (1) The serum level of T4 in group I and II after operation was significantly lower than that before operation (P < 0.005), and the serum level of T3 in group I was also lower than that before operation (P < 0.02), but the change of T3 in group II after operation was not significant (P > 0.05); (2) The serum cAMP level in group I after operation decreased and the cGMP level increased (P < 0.025), but the changes of cAMP and cGMP level in group II after operation were not significant (P > 0.05), (3) The change of serum corticosterone level in group I or II after operation was not remarkable (P > 0.05).
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 Evaluation of Morinda citrifolia as an Endodontic Irrigant.:J Endod. 2008 Jan;34(1):66-70.Murray PE, Farber RM, Namerow KN, Kuttler S, Garcia-Godoy F.Department of Endodontics, College of Dental Medicine, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, Florida.

 The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro effectiveness of Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) to remove the smear layer from the canal walls of endodontically instrumented teeth. Sixty extracted, single-rooted, mature, permanent, human premolar teeth with a single canal were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis at 37 degrees C in a CO(2) atmosphere for 30 days. The teeth were randomly allocated to 6 treatment groups; the pulp chamber was accessed, cleaned, and shaped by using ProTaper and ProFile rotary instrumentation to a size 35. During instrumentation the irrigation was provided by MCJ, NaOCl, CHX, MCJ/CHX, followed by a final flush of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). MCJ irrigation was also followed by a final flush of saline, and saline irrigation was also used as a negative control. The teeth were then processed for scanning electron microscopy, and the removal of smear layer was examined. Data were analyzed by chi(2) statistical tests (P values) at a significance of 95%. The most effective removal of smear layer occurred with MCJ and NaOCl, both with a rinse of 17% EDTA. Both MCJ and NaOCl treatments were similarly effective with a rinse of 17% EDTA (P < .2471) to completely remove up to 80% of the smear layer from some aspects of the root canal. MCJ was more effective than CHX for removing smear layer (P < .0085) and saline as the negative control (P < .0001). The efficacy of MJC was similar to NaOCl in conjunction with EDTA as an intracanal irrigant. MJC appears to be the first fruit juice to be identified as a possible alternative to the use of NaOCl as an intracanal irrigant.

 Determination of monotropein in Radix Morindae from different processed products by HPLC:Zhong Yao Cai. 2007 Jan;30(1):20-2. Chinese.Xu JY, Liang YJ, Ding P.College of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of TCM, Guangzhou 510405, China. twtyfkfqvey@126.com

 OBJECTIVE: To determine the contents of monotropein in the different processed Products of Radix Morindae. METHODS: Conditions: Kromasil C18 (150 mm x 4. 6 mm,5 micorm) column; The mobile phase was methol-0.4% phosphate solution (5:95-->28.8: 71.2, 15 min); The velocity of flow was 1 ml/min; The detection wavelength was at 210 nm; And column temperature was 25 degrees C RESULTS: There were obvious differences between the crude and kinds of different processed products of monotropein in the Radix Morindae, The contents of monotropein from the different processed products (crude drugs, removed from wood, processed with salt, prepared) were 13.92 mg/g,9.10 mg/g, 9.21 mg/g, 12.86 mg/g, respectively. CONCLUSION: The different processing methods can make the contents of monotropein in the Radix Morindae.

 In vitro antidrepanocytary actvity (anti-sickle cell anemia) of some congolese plants.:Phytomedicine. 2007 Feb;14(2-3):192-5. Epub 2006 Nov 17.Mpiana PT, Tshibangu DS, Shetonde OM, Ngbolua KN.D√©partement de Chimie, Universit√© de Kinshasa, Kinshasa XI, R. D. Congo. ptmpiana@yahoo.fr

 Thirty aqueous and ethanolic extracts from 13 congolese plants were evaluated for their antidrepanocytary activity. Twelve of these plants, Alchornea cordifolia, Afromomum albo violaceum, Annona senegalensis, Cymbopogon densiflorus, Bridelia ferruginea, Ceiba pentandra, Morinda lucida, Hymenocardia acida, Coleus kilimandcharis, Dacryodes edulis, Caloncoba welwithsii, and Vinga unguiculata exhibited significant activities, thus, supporting the claims of the traditional healers and suggesting a possible correlation between the chemical composition of these plants and their uses in traditional medicine.

 RAPD analysis on germplasm resources of different farm races of Morinda officinalis.:Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Jan;29(1):1-3. Chinese.Ding P, Xu JY, Chu TL.College of Chinese Materia Medica, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510405, China.

 OBJECTIVE: To explore the genetic diversity of different farm races of Morinda officinalis on molecular level. METHODS: The molecular biological technique-random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) were used. RESULTS: Of the 40-mer arbitary primers, 14 were found to amplify polymorphic products. 3-5 polymorphic bands were amplified by each polymorphic primer on the average. Using UPGMA method all the tested accesions can be clustered into two groups: 4 accessions of Daye were classified as one group, 1 accession of Xiaoye be another group. CONCLUSION: There actually existed much genetic diversity on molecular level among the different farm races of Morinda officinalis.

 Ultrasound-assisted extraction of anthraquinones from roots of Morinda citrifolia.:Ultrason Sonochem. 2006 Sep;13(6):543-8. Epub 2005 Dec 1.Hemwimol S, Pavasant P, Shotipruk A.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand.

 This study investigated the use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) to improve the extraction efficiency of the classical solvent extraction techniques such as maceration and soxhlet extraction to extract anti-oxidant activity compounds, anthraquinones, from the root of Morinda citrifolia. The effects of different extraction conditions were determined, i.e., temperature of (25, 45, 60 degrees C), ultrasonic power, solvent types, and compositions of ethanol in ethanol-water mixtures. The results show that the yield increases with increasing extraction times and extraction temperatures. The percent recovery of anthraquinones using ultrasound was found to be highly dependent on the type of solvents (acetone > acetonitrile > methanol > ethanol). Furthermore, the use of ethanol-water solution as extraction solvent increased the yield of anthraquinones due to the relative polarity, the swelling effect of plant tissue matrix by water, and increased sound absorption. To achieve the same recovery as that achieved by UAE, soxhlet extraction and maceration required much longer time.
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 Antinociceptive anti-inflammatory effect of Monotropein isolated from the root of Morinda officinalis.:Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Oct;28(10):1915-8.

 The root of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and impotence in the traditional Oriental medicine. To identify the antinociceptive anti-inflammatory components of this crude drug, we adopted an activity-directed fractionation approach. The active fraction of the BuOH extract of M. officinalis root was subjected to silica gel and ODS column chromatography to yield two diterpenes, compounds 1 and 2 and these were identified as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid, respectively. The iridoid glycoside, monotropein, was tested for its anti-inflammatory antinociceptive effects using hot plate- and writhing antinociceptive assays and by using carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory assays in mice and rats. Pretreatment with monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) significantly reduced stretching episodes and prolonged action time in mice. It also significantly reduced acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats. These results indicate that monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root.

 In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis.:J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 May;57(5):607-15.

 The anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis (MEMO) (Rubiaceae) were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. The effects of MEMO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)induced responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were examined. MEMO potently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these results, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, and of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha at the mRNA level, was also inhibited by MEMO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEMO inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with the prevention of degradation of the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB), and subsequently with attenuated p65 protein in the nucleus. The anti-inflammatory effect of MEMO was examined in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema model. The antinociceptive effects of MEMO were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and the hot-plate test. MEMO (100, 200 mg kg-1 per day, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in these animal models. Taken together, the data demonstrate that MEMO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, inhibiting iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB binding activity.

 Pressurized hot water extraction of anthraquinones from the roots of Morinda citrifolia.:Biotechnol Prog. 2004 Nov-Dec;20(6):1872-5.Shotipruk A, Kiatsongserm J, Pavasant P, Goto M, Sasaki M.Department of Chemical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Payathai, Bangkok 10330, Thailand. artiwan.s@chula.ac.th

 This study examines pressurized hot water extraction of anthraquinones from dried roots of Morinda citrifolia (Noni). The effects of various operating conditions such as water temperature (110, 170, and 220 degrees C), and water flow rate (2, 4, and 6 mL min(-1)) on extraction yield and extraction rate were determined. At 220 degrees C, the extraction yield was the highest and was approximately 43.6 mg g(-1). Subcritical water extraction at 4 mL min(-1) or higher was found to be able to recover all the antraquinones present in the roots within 3 h of extraction, even at 170 degrees C. Pressure had no significant effect on the results for the range of temperatures studied. The flow rate of 6 mL min(-1) resulted in the highest extraction rate, but the extraction efficiency, as measured by the amount of anthraquinones extracted per unit volume of water was lower than that of 4 mL min(-1). Anthraquinones solubility in pressurized hot water was determined. The results indicate a presence of a mass transfer limitation in the extraction process from solid matrix.

 Induction of normal phenotypes in ras-transformed cells by damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia.:Cancer Lett. 1993 Sep 30;73(2-3):161-6.

 We have screened tropical plant extracts for substances that induce normal morphology in K-rasts-NRK cells. As a result we isolated an anthraquinone compound, damnacanthal, from the chloroform extract of the root of Morinda citrifolia. Damnacanthal induced normal morphology and cytoskeletal structure in K-rasts-NRK cells at the permissive temperature, without changing the amount and localization of Ras. The effect of damnacanthal was reversible, and the compound had no effect on the morphology of RSVts-NRK cells expressing the src oncogene. Thus, damnacanthal is a new inhibitor of ras function.
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 Effect of Mornidae Radix extracts on experimental osteoporosis in sciatic neurectomized mice.:Phytother Res. 2005 Mar;19(3):231-8.

 The preventive and therapeutic effects of aqueous extracts of Mornidae Radix (MR) were observed in sciatic neurectomized mice, a disused osteoporotic model. The right hind limbs of 80 mice were neurectomized and 20 mice were sham-operated and served as a sham control. Then 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of MR extracts were dosed 3 days after neurectomy for 6 weeks in the prevention study and were dosed 2 weeks after neurectomy for 12 weeks for the therapeutic study. After dosing with the MR extracts, the thickness of the hind limbs, tibia failure load, tibia bone mineral density (BMD), serum osteocalcin levels, tibia calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) contents were monitored with histomorphometrical changes of the tibia. In both the prevention and therapeutic studies, the MR extracts significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the decrease in hind limb thickness, tibia failure load, BMD, tibia Ca and P contents with an increase in serum osteoclacin levels. In addition, the MR extracts also significantly and dose-dependently suppressed the decrease in histomorphometrical parameters of the tibia such as volume, length and thickness of trabecular bone and thickness of cortical bone with an increase in osteoclast cells in both the prevention and therapeutic studies. Based on these results, the MR extracts may act as both a suppressor of bone resorption and an enhancer of bone formation in vivo and may have some favorable effects for preventing and treating the osteoporosis induced by sciatic neurectomy.
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Reference:
  • 1.Morinda Root obtained from root of Morinda officinalis How,a subtropical rain forest plant,one of the top four south herbs and its extract.

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