Hercules II was formulated based on Hercules I to provide sustained, balanced energy and to invigorate the whole mind and body.Especially Booste the Muscle growth naturally.Ground breaking research indicates that the phytochemicals contained in Hercules I can be used safely to invigorate the body and enliven the mind. The herbs in Hercules I are rich in phytonutrients and have been used for thousands of years in China, Europe, and South America. Due to their tonic nature, these herbs can be safely consumed on a daily basis with no any side effects.
Hercules II. is comprised of multiple well-known and fully researched sports adaptogens suited for their synergistic balance and proven performance,including Alfalfa herb,Horsetail herb,Oatstraw stem,Plantain herb,Marshmallow root,Wheat grass herb,Hops flowers, and other kinds of strong herbs such as turtle shell,Epimedium leaf,etc..
Fighting Origin:Boxing or fist fighting used by human being long long ago,to protect self and attack the enemies.According to ancient material and registration,archeologist ever find from Egypt descriptions of swathe made of hide as early as 40 century B.C.,fresco and sculpt dig out from Bagdad suburb shows scene of fighting of those days.
Boxing spread through the Mediterranean sea and reaches ancient Greece,legend saying the Greeks accpet it since 3700 B.C.
In Ancient China,Boxing appears at least 3000 years,early as Yin Shang Dynasty,soldiers apply "Dou" as one fighting techniques,and it developed much more until the Spring and Autumn Period(770~476B.C.)Later,Boxing named "Bian" since Han Dynasty and became a necessary techniques of soldiers and fighters.
Origins of Muay Thai:
Muay Thai history is deeply entwined with the history of Thailand itself. Because of perpetual invasions from neighbouring countries when Thailand was in the process of forming, Thai people depended on their ability to defend themselves. In these early times only short-range weapons such as spears, pikes and clubs would have been available for use in battle. During this kind of hand-to-hand combat, fighting methods can quickly change and the body's natural weapons such as the head, fists, elbows and feet would necessarily also have been utilised. Undoubtedly, it is the systemised use of these natural weapons, developed as a practical fighting skill for the battlefield that came to be Muay Thai boxing.
Hercules I was formulated to provide sustained, balanced energy and to invigorate the whole mind and body.Especially Booste the Muscle growth naturally.Ground breaking research indicates that the content contained in Hercules I can be used safely to invigorate the body and enliven the mind.Protect cells and organs from oxidative damage and Hypoxia continuously.Strongly boost the ATP and CP levels and Calcium absorption to make sure your muscle and energy keep increasing.The herbs in Hercules I are rich in phytonutrients and have been used for thousands of years in China, Europe, and South America. Due to their tonic nature, these herbs can be safely consumed on a daily basis with no side effects.
Hercules II Muay Thai King.Natural Fighter Blend.M.T.K. is a fascinating newly developed herb formula especially for Fighters and Boxers,it based and extended from Hercules I Super Energy and Muscle Booster, except boosting muscle growth strongly and bring you high energy,Hercules II M.T.K. generally upgrade your bones and muscles,help to prompt your bone stronger and not easy to broken during fighting,make your shinbone,forearm,shank,knees and elbows,wrist,anklebone,neck and nape stronger;speed up your body performance and celerity,boost your responses and reactivity,generally increase your patience,stamina for fighting;make your muscle more fit to fight,increase tonicity,nerviness,brawniness,musculature.
Origins of Muay Thai:
The Birth of Siam:
Nan Zhao was destroyed by the Mongols in 1253, but long before that time small groups of Thais moved out in search of greener pastures. One group already mentioned, the Shans, settled eastern Burma. Others included the Lao, who settled the Khorat Plateau and the upper Mekong valley; the Ahom or Assamese, who have been the dominant group in northeast India since 1228; the White, Red and Black Thai, who stayed in the highlands of Indochina and derived their names from the main color of their clothing; and a group called the Small Thai, who settled in the heart of modern Thailand, the Menam (Chao Phraya) valley. Those Thais who stayed at home became the Zhuang, the largest (12 million) ethnic minority in modern China. Wherever they went the Thais became both settlers and mercenaries. Once they left China they discarded the culture that they learned from the Chinese, since it was now a symbol of oppression. In its place they learned Theravada Buddhism from the Mons, the arts from the Khmers, and developed an alphabet based on the scripts of both.
As long as Southeast Asia was ruled by strong empires like Pagan and Kambujadesa, the Thais were no threat. But when those empires weakened in the thirteenth century the Thais found a vacuum they could fill. In several places along the Menam River Thai mercenaries revolted, setting up independent muang or city-states in place of Khmer rule. The most important of these was Sukhothai, founded around 1238 on the upper Menam, and Lan Na ("One Million Rice Fields"), farther north on the same river. Lan Na's first ruler, Mangrai (1259-1318), was an excellent monarch, who defeated and conquered several rival muang around him and made his kingdom both civilized and powerful. He even defeated the Mongols when they invaded Lan Na in 1296 and 1301. After making a few counter-raids of his own into China, Mangrai sent elephants and other gifts to the court of the Great Khan, and Sino-Thai relations were fine after that. In 1296 he founded an impressive new capital, Chiangmai, and the kingdom of Lan Na is usually referred to as Chiangmai after this.
Mangrai's successors quarreled over the Chiangmai throne for eleven years (1318-29), and by the time stability returned the southern kingdom of Sukhothai had clearly become the leader among the Thai states. Sukhothai's first two kings are obscure, but the third was a multi-talented monarch called Rama Khamheng, or Rama the Brave (1279-1317). Under him Sukhothai grew from just another muang into a "super-muang"; most of Malaya, Laos, eastern and central Thailand came under his rule, and he also made vassals of the Mons in Burma. Rama Khamheng was a fearless warrior, but most of the time he did not have to fight; his reputation went ahead of him and caused most enemies to submit without a battle. He made two trips in person (1294 and 1300) to pay tribute at the court of the Great Khan, thereby escaping the mongol tatar raids that fell upon the rest of Southeast Asia.
On top of other things, Rama Khamheng claimed to be the inventor of the Thai alphabet. Whether or not this is true, the oldest known Thai inscription was written by him. Dated 1292, it portrays Sukhothai as a rich and happy state, active in trade, and governed by a paternal monarch; taxes were modest, all citizens (both Thai and non-Thai) were treated with equal justice, and everyone followed Buddhism. Allowing for some exaggeration of the country's virtues, the picture presented still shows a remarkable contrast to life under the Khmer god-kings, who demanded much in labor and taxes to support themselves and a religion that had little relevance to the commoner's life.
King Rama Khamheng was able to be a good ruler, warrior, diplomat and patron of Buddhism and the arts--all at the same time. His successors were not so talented; his son, Lo Thai, devoted his energy to Buddhism and neglected everything else. Under him it became difficult to rule the kingdom from a capital that was far removed from the centers of agriculture and population. Many muang on the kingdom's periphery seceded, claiming that their submission to Rama Khamheng was now null and void. One of these local princes, Rama T'ibodi I, revolted and founded a new capital, Ayutthaya (also called Ayuthia or Ayudhya), on the lower Menam. Sukhothai's fifth king, the monkish Li Thai, recognized superior leadership and abdicated to him. That marked the beginning of Siam's Ayutthayan era, a time future Thais would regard as a golden age.
Origins of Muay Thai:
When the Burmese army sacked and razed Ayuddhaya to the ground, the archives of Thai history were lost. With them, much of the early history of Muay Thai also went.The little we do know, comes from the writings of the Burmese, Cambodian, early European visitors and some of the chronicles of the Lanna Kingdom - Chiangmai.
Although Muay Thai, or Thai Boxing, is said to be around 2000 years old, it's true origins will probably never be known. The historical records of Thailand were burnt by Thailand's long time enemy, the Burmese, in 1769. We do know that Muay Thai was originally a military art that was trained alongside their weapon arts. Spoken history tells us, also that Muay Thai dates back to 1560 when king Naresuen was taken prisoner by the Burmese army and given a chance to regain his freedom if he could beat their champion. Some stories actually have the king-to-be, "Prince" Naresuen, fighting the prince of Burma to decide whether the Burmese should attack Thailand or not. Regardless, Naresuen is said to have won and became a national hero.
Muay Thai history is deeply entwined with the history of Thailand itself. Because of perpetual invasions from neighbouring countries when Thailand was in the process of forming, Thai people depended on their ability to defend themselves. In these early times only short-range weapons such as spears, pikes and clubs would have been available for use in battle. During this kind of hand-to-hand combat, fighting methods can quickly change and the body's natural weapons such as the head, fists, elbows and feet would necessarily also have been utilised. Undoubtedly, it is the systemised use of these natural weapons, developed as a practical fighting skill for the battlefield that came to be Muay Thai boxing.
Originally, Muay Thai was very brutal, even deadly. There were no weight categories, and few rules. There was also no padding or protection. Fighters wrapped their hands in either strips of horse hide or hemp rope to protect their hands and cause their opponent maximum damage. If both fighters agreed, they would sometimes dip their hands in a type of glue and then dip their hands in broken glass to cause severe cuts and bleeding during the fight. Fighters would wrap their ankles with cotton wrap and either wear coconut shells or triangular pillows for groin protection. In those days, many fighters died in the ring, especially from knees and elbows.
The first great upsurge of interest in Muay Thai as a sport, as well as a battlefield skill, was under King Naresuan in 1584, a time known as the Ayuddhaya period. During this period, every soldier trained in Muay Thai and could use it, as the King himself did. Slowly Muay Thai moved away from its root in the 'Chupasart' and new fighting techniques were evolving.
The change in the art was to continue under another fighting King - Prachao Sua - the Tiger King. He loved Muay Thai so much that he often fought incognito in village contests, beating the local champions. During the reign of the Tiger King the nation was at peace. The King, to keep the army busy, ordered it to train in Muay Thai. The interest in the sport was already high but now it took off yet again.Brief period listed follows:
The Sukhothai Era:
In 1238, (Buddhist years) the Siam capital was in the northern city of Sukhothai. The recorded history of the city relates the many wars that were fought between neighboring tribes and kingdoms. The need for the defense of the city capital spawned the creation of the first Siamese army to protect the government and people within the city and surrounding villages. The first Thai army was created and soldiers were taught skills with weapons and hand-to-hand combat. Learning to use the entire body as a weapon and using limbs to imitate attacking styles of weapons that eventually evolved into Muay Thai and Krabi Krabong.
The study of Muay Thai moved outside the realm of the military. Young men coming home from war or in times of peace practiced Muay Thai as an art form for self-defense and exercise or fitness. Under constant threat of attack and war, learning the military arts or "Muay Thai" became engrained within the culture and everyday life of the people of early Siam. Training centers or the first "Muay Thai camps" began to appear in different cities throughout the kingdom. Muay Thai was even practiced at many Buddhist temples where monks were often the instructors passing down the knowledge and history from one generation to the next.
If Muay Thai was popular with the poor and common people of the kingdom, it was a required art form for the royalty and high-class. Good warriors make good and brave leaders as the train of though with the elite of the kingdom. King Phokhun Sri In Tharatit, the first King of Sukhothai, sent both his sons to learn at the Samakorn training center, to better prepare them as future kings and rulers of the kingdom.
The first ancient text of Muay Thai was written in 1300 by Phokhun Ram Khamhaeng. Today, the University of the same name resides in Bangkok with the Sport Authority of Thailand.
The Krungsri Ayutthaya Era:
This period was marked by the many wars between the developing countries of Thailand, Burma (Myanmar) and Cambodia. The development of large armies trained in warfare and tactics became essential for the survival of the Thai kingdom. Training centers devoted to warfare skills, sword and staff or stick "Krabi Krabong" were opened throughout the country constantly training young men to go to war or defend their kingdom from invasion. The most famous of these training centers during the era was the Phudaisawan Center for swords and pole arms. The center was also the eras equivalent of a college or university training and teaching in daily matters.
The Era of King Naresuan:
During the era of King Naresuan, who loved Muay Thai and fighting competition, he called upon the young men of Thailand, scattered and beaten by the Burmese. Naresuan trained an army of scouts and soldiers in combat tactics and jungle warfare. King Naresuan is a legend of Muay Thai and his defeat of Burmese warriors led to him freeing his country from the occupation of Burmese forces around 1600.
King Naresuan, born in 1555, was the son of Somdet Phra Maha Thrammaracha, a descendant of the Phra Ruang dynasty of Sukhothai, and Queen Phra Wisut Kasattri of the Suwannaphum dynasty of Ayuttaya. He was a brave king who declared independence from the Pegu kingdom in 1584 and succeeded his father in 1590.
King Naresuan was a genius in military affairs, politics, government, and international affairs. Through his personal strength Ayuttaya regained its independence. He protected his realm and people and spread the might of Ayuttaya kingdom in all directions and was highly respected by all neighbouring states. He died in 1605 when he was leading the Thai army into the enemy's territory. It was a heroic act deserved to be praised and honoured with pride by all his subjects.
Muay Thai:Early days and Legends
Early Muay Thai:
There are few written records pertaining to pre-twentieth century Muay Thai history. Knowledge has been passed down by oral tradition, which makes it difficult to be sure of the facts. But even in times of peace self-defence techniques have always been of great importance to Thai military leaders and the monarchy; we can be sure that Thai soldiers have studied Muay Thai boxing since early times. Muay Thai has most likely earned money for its competitors since the Sukothai era (1238~1377). During this time Muay Thai boxing gradually became a means of personal advancement as the nobility increasingly esteemed skilful practitioners. About 50 miles north of Bangkok lies the ancient city Ayuthaya. This once great city was Thailand's capital for over 400 years. Here a platoon of elite guards was formed to protect the king. Officers were highly skilled in Muay Thai boxing. As well as its continued use as a practical fighting technique Muay Thai became a sport where spectators went to watch for entertainment. Regional varieties of Muay Thai existed with different fighting styles being adopted in the various provinces. For example, Southern fighters from Surat Thani province are renowned for using their brain to decide on strategy and tactics.
In the beginning Muay Thai boxers fought bare-fisted. Early competitive forms of Muay Thai had no grappling; fighters moved in, then quickly withdrew again. There was no attempt to pair opponents based on their weight. They needed only to express a willingness to fight. Sometimes fighters on a winning streak could be matched against several opponents in succession. There were no real rules. The head was used as a weapon and the groin was an acceptable target. The ring was a bare patch of earth. At some point came the division of the contest into rounds. Time for these was measured by placing a coconut shell with a hole bored through the bottom into water. When the coconut was filled with water and thus submerged the round was over. Tree bark, seashells, and later kapok-stuffed triangular cushions were used to protect the groin.
The Era of King Narai:
It was during this era that Muay Thai became a national sport and began to develop style and traditions that would remain the same for the next 400 years. The introduction of the Mongkong (headband), the pa-pra-jiat (armband). The first formed style of combat arena was formed as a rope laid on the ground in a square or circle marked the fighting area. The first form of hand covering and binding was made with hemp ropes and threads wrapped about the hands and forearms. Fighters could also sometimes dip their hands in a thick starchy liquid that would bind the threads and make harder surface with which to strike the opponent. 400 years later, TWINS is the countries # 1 manufacturer of Muay Thai boxing gloves and equipment.
The first professional fights were not governed by weight, height, or experience or age. Local champions would represent their city or village and fights continued until there was a definite winner. Gambling was as popular 400 years ago on Muay Thai as it is today in stadiums across the country. Often, one village would challenge another, or even wealthy businessmen and royalty would settle disputes by having the Muay Thai fighter represent their interests. Often this would lead to a large loss of face for the fighter or the wealthy businessman who bet money on the outcome and lost.
King Prachao Sua "Tiger King" Era:
The era of the "Tiger King" or Khun Luang Sorasak loved the competition and combat of Muay Thai. The "Tiger King" was known for disguising himself as a commoner and entering Muay Thai tournaments in small villages and cities. A promoter who did not recognize the king, despite that he hailed from the capital city of Ayyuthaya, allowed the disguised king to fight in the tournament against several good fighters. The legend tells of the king defeating three fighters named Nai Klan Madthai (Killing Fists), Nai Yai Madklek (Fists of Iron), and Nai Lek Madnok (Strong Fists). The "Tiger King" went on to defeat each of his opponents. The "Tiger King" was forced to disguise himself to be able to compete in the sport that he loved so much. If anyone had discovered that he was king, he would not have been able to compete and fight against other fighters because of the respect and regard the Thai people hold to their king.
Prachao Sua so loved the sport that he made his two sons, the crown princes of Thailand, to study MuayThai, sword fighting and wrestling skills. It was during this period that the Department of Royal Boxing was founded and responsible for finding and recruiting the best men possible to fight as entertainment for royalty and to become guards in the royal court called Thani Lir or "Chosen Guards." These Royal guards were also the instructors for the Royalty in combat and MuayThai. Even during the Ayyuthaya era, Thailand continued to war with neighboring countries Cambodia and Burma.
The Thonburi Era:
After many years of war, the period known as the Thonburi Era began to bring peace and reconstruction to the kingdom. Muay Thai training became mostly for military training for wars or service in the Thai military. It was during this era of peace that MuayThai began to take a competitive form as training camps across the country would compete against each other by offering their best fighters for competition. The fights were very hard and the foundation of rules had yet to be written, so most fights continued unabated until a clear winner was left standing.
The Ratanakosin Era:
MuayThai had become a national fighting art by the time of the reign of Rama I. MuayThai was an important part of celebrations, festivals and events across the country. During this period, MuayThai rules and regulations for fights were introduced. Each round was given a length of time measured by a coconut with a small hole that would float in water. The round lasted as long as it took the coconut to fill with water and sink to the bottom of the barrel. There was still no limit to the number of rounds in each fight, so fighters battled until only one was left standing or one fighter gives up.
Reign of RAMA I:Pra Puttha Yord Fa Chulaloke
At an early age, King Rama I began his training in MuayThai boxing. His interest was keen in the sport and often he would travel to watch matches and fights throughout his kingdom. In 1788, two brothers, that legend tells came from France, traveled to the kingdom in search of boxing or fighting competition. One of the young men was a fighter of some renown and had fought for prizes and money in several other countries on their trip. He asked for a match for prizes against a Thai boxer. When the King heard that the brother wanted to fight Thai-style, he consulted with Pra Raja Wangbowon, the head of the royal boxing ministry. It was agreed upon for a bet of 4000 baht (50 changs). The fight would be held at the Grand Palace at the temple of the emerald Buddha. The ring of 20 X 20 meters was constructed for the fight.
At first it seemed the fighter from France was too much for the smaller but quicker Thai. And after a while, the foreigner began to tire and seemed about to lose. The older brother jumped hastily into the ring to try and help his brother and thereby breaking the rules. The incident caused a riot and fighting broke out between the foreigners and the Thai guards and spectators. Disgraced by their actions, the two brother left Thailand a few days later.
Muay Kaad Chuek:
During the Ayuthaya era came the introduction of Muay Kaad Chuek. That is the use of unrefined hemp wrappings to protect the fingers and wrists. A length of around 20 metres was enough to bind one hand. The use of Muay Kaad Chuek quickly spread, as a bound fist is tougher, stronger and better protected against injury than an unbound one. It is said that before a contest fighters immersed their fists in water. This would cause the binding to harden when it dried, making it capable of producing serious injury. Some people go further and claim that fighters dipped their hands in glue and ground glass. Such a contest would certainly have made a gory sight! To this day an annual Muay Kaad Chuek contest with Laos is held in Nong Khai near the NE border with Laos, on the Thai side of the Mekong River. A Muay Kaad Chuek contest with Burma is staged in the Mae Sot, western Thailand, during the Sonkran (Thai New Year) festivities (April 12-14). Boxers fight until knockout. If both competitors remain standing at the end of the bout a match is declared a draw.
Early Muay Thai training methods:
In the early days Muay Thai training equipment was found from nature. The smooth, slightly spongy nature of the trunk of a banana tree was found suitable for kicking practice. Repeatedly climbing out of water quickly improves stamina. Chopping the sea in front of your face assists in developing unblinking focus. Muay Thai trainees also used floating coconuts as targets and suspended limes for punching and avoidance practice.
A golden age for Thailand:
With the ascension of King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) in 1868 a golden age for Thailand was ushered in and the country developed rapidly. It was a time of great reform that set the nation on the road to becoming a modern society. Royal patronage of Muay Thai boxing continued, the country was at peace and a Muay Thai boom occurred. King Rama V constructed roads making travel to the capital, Bangkok, feasible. Muay Thai fighters who had proved themselves in the provinces were invited to the capital to fight.
Muay Thai Legends:
The son of poor rice farmers he was given to the temple as a child and raised by monks from whom he learnt the art of Muay Thai boxing. He grew up to become commander in chief of the army under the reign of King Taksin. He was a brave warrior and lifelong practitioner of Muay Thai boxing. In a famous instance he led his people into battle against Burmese invaders. He fought until his sword broke but continued the fight with his natural weapons, and emerged from battle victorious.
The Tiger King:
Phra Chao Suua (or the Tiger King) reigned during the Ayuthaya period. As a Prince he was a devoted practitioner of Muay Thai boxing. It is said that while he was King, he disguised himself as a peasant and went incognito to take part in Muay Thai contests. It is remarkable he did this, bearing in mind that the Thais hold their monarch to such high reverence. Physical interaction of this kind between a Thai King and his people would normally be unthinkable. During his reign he actively promoted Muay Thai contests at local fairs and festivals, and he encouraged people to study Muay Thai boxing.
Nai Kanom Tom:
It was the time of the fall of the ancient Thai capital of Ayuthaya (north of present-day Bangkok) in 1767 and the city was headed for destruction. Invading Burmese troops rounded up a group of Thai residents, among them a number of Muay Thai boxers. They were taken and kept as prisoners in Burma. Some time later in the Burmese City of Rangoon, the Burmese king organised a celebration in honour of the pagoda. He ordered a royal presentation of a boxing match between Thai and Burmese fighters. When Kanom Tom was matched with a Burmese fighter he immediately performed the Ram Muay ritual dance, baffling many of the onlookers. He was victorious to Knock Out, but the King thought his Burmese fighter had been distracted by the Ram Muay, so Nai Kanom Tom was instructed to face another opponent. It is said that Nai Kanom Tom defeated nine Burmese fighters in succession. After which no one dared to challenge him again. He is considered to be the first Muay Thai boxer to imprint the sport of Muay Thai boxing with dignity. Nai Kanom Tom is commemorated to this day by a statue in Ayuthaya. March 17 is believed to be the day he famously fought against the Burmese and is now recognised in Thailand as National Muay Thai Day.
Muay Thai has come a long way in the last 100 years. Because of the great national popularity, Muay Thai began to garner international exposure and recognition. In World War II, Thai soldiers were stationed overseas, and foreigners received their first good look at Muay Thai firsthand. Muay Thai was named by foreigners as Siam Boxing, as Thailand was formerly Siam. During WW II, the French labeled Muay Thai as "Le Sport Orient" or the fighting style of the orient. The Thai soldiers participating in the war would practice Muay Thai among themselves as soldiers from Europe and America watched with great interest. Until that time, Muay Thai was a cultural gem, hidden within this strange and wonderful culture of this country called Thailand.
Soldiers from abroad were so impressed of the Muay Thai fighting style that they asked the Thai soldiers to teach them the basics and traditions of Muay Thai. As Muay Thai became more popular, especially with an international interest, the rules began to change to become more inline with other governed sports like boxing. In the 1920's, the roots of modern Muay Thai were planted when rings were introduced replacing open courtyards.
The old-style horsehide, hemp rope, or leather bindings were replaced with gloves similar to boxing. In the past, fighters were known to soak their hemp rope bindings in a sticky resin and then dip their hands in crushed glass and ash that could attack the opponents eyesight. [As appeared in the movie "Kick boxer" starring Jean-Claude Van Dame] A hard-cover groin protector was also added for the fighters protection from brutal kicks and knees.
After the end of WW II, the first formal rules were introduced into the sport. Fights were divided into 5 rounds, and time limits were imposed on each round. Time was counted on a clock rather than the old style of a coconut shell with holes sinking completely in a barrel of water. Major stadiums for Muay Thai were constructed after the war in large cities [Bangkok, Sukothai, Chiang Mai] throughout the country as the popularity of Muay Thai grew. Lumpini Stadium in Bangkok is now almost considered "holy ground" to the multitudes of Thai fighters, and now many foreigners, trying to win a place on a fight card. A system of weight-classes, defined rules, and championships was devised in the years ahead as Muay Thai began to resemble boxing in style and organization.
Following WWII, Muay Thai was slightly reformed with a few rules to help protect the fighters. Gloves and groin protection must be worn, weight classes were implemented, fighters must fight in a restricted weight class and bouts are regulated with time limits: amateurs will fight three rounds of three minutes each and pros will fight five rounds. Amateurs and pros alike have two minutes of rest between rounds. A referee is in the ring with two judges on the outside.
A Thai fighter is allowed to use the "8 deadly limbs" of Muay Thai: the feet, knees, fists and elbows. He may attack nearly any target as long as the opponent is standing except for the groin. He may catch the opponents kick to immediately knock him off of his feet. He may also throw the opponent using limited throwing using twisting or pulling type throws and sweeps. He cannot throw with hip, shoulder or arm throws.
Today, the student of Thai boxing is immersed into the highly arduous training and colorful experience of Muay Thai. Thai fighters' training includes rope skipping, running up to 10 miles a day, punching and kicking either heavy bags or banana trees, swimming, elbowing, kicking and kneeing in the water, sparring and strength training.
Thai fighters are also usually handed down many of the rituals and superstitions of the art. A fighter usually wears arm bands around his biceps that either have magical charms written on them or are wrapped within them for good luck and to ward off evil spirits. A type of head band called a mongkon is given by the teacher when he is officially accepted as a member of the training camp. When the fighter enters the ring he shows reverence by bowing before entering and then walking the inside of ring while rubbing the ropes to "seal the ring" against the entering of evil spirits. Before the fight begins, the fighter sits on his knees, bows three times and performs a ritualistic dance that is unique to each camp. This dance is to show respect to ones teacher and his camp as well as to intimidate the opponent. Once the fight begins, a special Thai band plays traditional music during the fight to help the fighters keep up the tempo of the fight.
Muay Thai fighters often begin training when they are 6-8 years-old. They will begin fighting between 8-10 years of age and may have as many as 120-150 fights ( 3 times as many as a very active boxer ) before they are 24 years old. Muay Thai fighters do not generally have long careers because of starting at such an early age and how physically demanding the sport is on the fighters. Injuries are quite common in Muay Thai fights. From cuts and lacerations to the face and head to broken bones and severe sprains of muscles and ligaments, Muay Thai fighters deal with injuries their entire career. Muay Thai fighters are known for their ability to ignore pain and injury.
Today, the evolution of Muay Thai is finally reaping rewards and recognition. Muay Thai was recently accepted as an Olympic sport, and it is becoming quite popular in many countries throughout the world. Professional fighters in martial arts, K-1, and submission fighting all agree, Muay Thai is an essential part of being an all-around skilled fighter and having stand-up fighting skills. Muay Thai will continue to grow in popularity as new training camps and gyms open around the world.
How Hercules II.Muay Thai King.Natural Fighter Blend created?
Hercules II Muay Thai King.Natural Fighter Blend(M.T.K.) created base from Hercules I,provide sustained, balanced energy and to invigorate the whole mind and body.Especially Booste the Muscle growth naturally.
Hercules II M.T.K. is a fascinating newly developed herb formula especially for Fighters and Boxers,it based and extended from Hercules I Super Energy and Muscle Booster, except boosting muscle growth and bring you high energy,Hercules II generally upgrade your bones and muscles,help to prompt your bone stronger and not easy to broken during fighting,make your shinbone,forearm,shank,knees and elbows,wrist,anklebone,neck and nape stronger;speed up your body performance and celerity,boost your responses and reactivity,generally increase your patience,stamina for fighting;make your muscle more fit to fight,increase tonicity,nerviness,brawniness,musculature.
What is inside of Hercules II.Muay Thai King.Natural Fighter Blend?
Hercules II M.T.K. (A proprietary 100% natural formula) is comprised of multiple well-known and fully researched sports adaptogens suited for their synergistic balance and proven performance.Hercules II M.T.K.contains the most precious and expensive ingredients that can be found only at high-priced herbal products, including Horsetail herb,Oatstraw stem,Marshmallow root,Hops flowers,Epimedium leaf, Red sage root and other fascinating herbs.These herbs are traditionally used to support the structural system and bone/muscle systems.
Hercules II M.T.K. rely on science, not rumor. Fact, not fiction. With every Hercules II M.T.K. wake up call, your body will never stop ringing. You will turn one more rep into 3. Rest will no longer be an option. Your vessels will ignite, your muscles will inflate, and your abs will tear. Your body of old will fall, while an entirely new unrecognizable physique will begin to unfold. Imagine if you will the ability to send your muscles a signal that they are training even when you are not in the gym.
Hercules II M.T.K. formulated & aimed following:
1) Stronger and more Energy production.
2) Protect both your immune system and endocrine systems.
3) Boost and protect your shinbone,forearm,shank,knees and elbows,wrist,anklebone.
4) Speed up your body performance and celerity,boost your responses and reactivity.
5) Generally increase Stamina which considered as a key essence of Muay Thai fighting.
For sure and firmness,hard exercise and basic techniques necessary for this recipes to play its supplemental functions..
Differences of Hercules I and Hercules II:
Although there are big similarity both in phytochemical content and functions of Hercules I and Hercules II,yet the 2 of this spectrum are big difference,yet they both boost high level of energy and strong muscle.
Hercules I.Super Energy and Muscle Booster majorly focus on settlement of muscle fatigue and muscle disorders,.increases ATP/CP Synthesis and brings more energy,protecting your immune system,endocrine systems, muscle cell,neuron cell and Mitochondria from damage of stressors and most anabolic hormones,oxidative damage from oxygen free radicals,resisting fatigue and tolerating hypoxia,generally stimulate energy level and muscle mass.majorly applied for Chronic Fatigues and other fatigues, sportsman and athlete,and others to get rid of fatigues and delay aging.
Hercules II M.T.K.shares all the majority of functions from Hercules I.,yet Hercules II M.T.K. focused more attention on generally upgrade your bones system,muscles system and your general performance ability,help to prevent your bone loss,osteoporosis and fracture,make your shinbone,forearm,shank,knees and elbows,wrist,anklebone,neck and nape stronger,these bones are both key weapons of Muay Thai fighters,also soft spot need to be make strong and protect.Speed up your body performance and celerity,boost your responses and reactivity,generally increase patience,stamina for fighting;make your muscle more fit to fight,increase tonicity,nerviness,brawniness,musculature.Hercules II M.T.K. is majorly designed for valiant Fighters,Boxer,Warrior,Soldier and other fans of martial arts,So is the difference.
What Result Can i Expect? and What will Hercules I. do for me?
Hercules II M.T.K. scientifically shares all advantages and benefit of Hercules I brief as follows:
May be used safely by men and women,simple and easy to take.
Potentially Reshape the Body.Recover and bring you more Energy,Strong your muscle and bones.
Help Improve the Feeling of Overall Well-Being.Increases ATP Synthesis, Promotes Faster Energy Recovery, Reduces Fatigue, Improves Physical Function, Provides More Stamina.
Stimulate Energy Level:Stronger and more Energy production.Improves cellular energy,Stimulant-free energy blends specially formulated to invigorate your body muscle and awaken your mind.
Enhancing cellular oxygen uptake,benefits all the body systems,giving them more energy and vitality.
Shorten Recovery Time After Workouts.
Building muscles and improving physical performance,Increase Strength and Muscle Power.Muscle hardness and fullness.Help from Muscle relaxer and Muscle builder.Bring you greater muscle endurance togethor with muscle strength.
Boost ATP (adenosine triphosphate) level and CP(Creatine Phosphate) level in Mitochondria and muscle tissues.Release noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons.Boost production of epinephrine.
Protect both your immune system and endocrine systems from damage of stressors and most anabolic hormones, such as testosterone, growth hormone, IGF-1 and the thyroid hormones,lower catabolic hormone cortisol peaks during stress,strong adaptogens from Hercules I help prevent the blunting of anabolic hormones and inhibit the rise of catabolic hormones, ultimately leading to greater gains in muscle size and strength.
Tested for consistency, quality and potency,Equilibrium blend content and make sure every dose release same strong power.
Release accelerating power positive effects when taken continuously.
100% Pesticide and Herbicide Free,release detoxifying properties and detoxify epinephrine toxicity and other toxicities.
100% Natural herb blend and no added any synthetical chemicals,Contains no stimulants or addictive compounds such as Caffeine, Guarana, bitter orange or other harmful herbs.
For more benefits and more details of Hercules I,Pls Click here
Although Hercules II M.T.K. shares all the nice benefit from Hercules I,there are especially some more unique and particular potentialities and benefits from within:
Muscle K:M.T.K.focused more attention on generally upgrade your bones and muscles,make your muscle more fit to fight,increase muscle tonicity,nerviness,brawniness,help to bring you strong musculature.
Bone K:M.T.K.boost and protect your shinbone,forearm,shank,knees and elbows,wrist,anklebone,make them stronger,these bones are both key weapons of Muay Thai fighters,also soft spot need to be make strong and protect.the mechanism abstract its life both from ancient TCM recipes and modern osteological tips,depend on clinical support and prove no any negative effects,generally speaking, it show reliable and authentic effects for bone,control any pains from osteoporosis and other bone disease,increase bone density, reduce ratio of fracture,prompt recover,fast work on bones in 10 days,adjust bone metabolism and inner microcirculation,provide necessary nutritional support for healthy bone and strong bone growing.
Speed up your body performance and celerity,boost your responses and reactivity,these are necessary and unconditional dependence of fighters for survive and self protection from furious fighting.
Stamina K:M.T.K. Generally increase patience,stamina for fighting,Stamina is a key essence of Muay Thai fighting and decide the Final One except technique reasons.
Muscle for fight:Make your muscle more fit to fight,increase tonicity,nerviness,brawniness,musculature.
Hercules II M.T.K. is majorly designed for valiant Fighters,Boxer,Warrior,Soldier and other fans of martial arts,So is the difference.
Frequently Asked Questions?
FAQ.Are there any side effect of Hercules II M.T.K.?
While there are no side effects, it is recommended that you follow the dosage instructions and never take more than the recommended amount. Taking more than the recommended amount will not increase or speed up your results. If you have a medical condition that prevents you from taking supplements, you should first consult your doctor before taking the Hercules II M.T.K.
Hercules II M.T.K. is an all natural alternative blend,and is only made from the finest quality botanicals and phytochemicals available.Hercules II M.T.K. has been shown to be safe and effective as directed. Each and every herb used in Hercules I has been thoroughly tested both singularly and in combination to assure compatibility. No toxicity has been reported.
However, common sense caution dictates that the product should only be taken as suggested. Remember that most herbs and nutritional supplements are body-weight relational. Meaning that if one person weighs 125 lbs., that individual will require a lesser amount per day than a 200 lb. person.
FAQ.Who should use or try Hercules II M.T.K.?
This spice Hercules II M.T.K. is generally suggested to people groups of valiant Fighters,Boxer,Warrior,Soldier and other fans of martial arts.
Anyone who works out. Anyone who competes in sports. Anyone who currently has little or no energy. All those involved with outdoor activities. All those wishing to convert fat to muscle Anyone who wishes to use a natural alternative Do any of these sound like you?Requirements may vary and should be individualized. Always check with your health care provider before taking any dietary supplements.
FAQ.Period:How long i should taken the Hercules II M.T.K.?
We just recommend taking the formula for a proper period of 1 to 3 months for maximum effectiveness.Some men see impressive results within a few days or only 1 week. Some take a bit more days. The time it takes to see fascinating results depend on your body type, eating habits, overall health, genetics, life habits,sports and other factors. Regardless of your current condition and your clearly understand of the suggestions, we guarantee you'll see big improved results, only suggest you take it for a proper period you feel happy from your own point for we have a 100% confidence of this Nice Blend,We do not suggest you a limitative period.
FAQ.Are the result permanent of Hercules II M.T.K.?
Because Hercules II M.T.K. is an ingestible supplement blend, the results you see are permanent as long as you continue to take the recommended dosage. Once desired results are achieved, scale back dosage to a maintenance amount. This reduction in dosage will not compromise erection size or fullness, once desired results have been achieved. The longer,the Harder and More Sensitive comes to you.
FAQ.Dosage and directions:
For Adults,Take 1 dose amount daily before expending energy or workouts or 2 times per day for increased fat metabolism, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.As always check with your healthcare provider before taking any health supplement.
When used as directed, there should be no side effects. However, you need to exercise caution if you have high blood pressure, heart problems,serious kidney problems, anxiety and panic attacks. If you are currently taking any medications or are being treated for a medical condition please consult with your local doctor first.
FAQ.Warnings and Guide:
Discontinue use if you have an adverse reaction. For adult usage only. Keep out of reach of children.No contraindications with other drugs have been observed.
Do not exceed recommended dose.
Individuals with serious anxiety,manic or bipolar disorder should not use this blend.
If you have a bad reaction to product discontinue use immediately.
When using nutritional supplements,please inform your physician if you are undergoing treatment for a medical condition or if you are pregnant or lactating.
FAQ. Is Hercules II M.T.K. safe for children?:
A. To date, Hercules II M.T.K. has not been tested with children. It is generally suggested for individuals over the age of 18.
FAQ. Is Hercules II M.T.K. suitable for pregnant or nursing mothers?:
No. While clinical trials with Hercules II M.T.K. effectively portray its safety, few supplements are ever advocated for pregnant or nursing mothers. Please check with your healthcare provider before taking any health supplement.
WARNING: If you are pregnant, do not use without consulting your health care professional.
FAQ.Can a little blend really do all that? In a word, Yes!
Medical Doctors, Naturopathic Health Professionals and Sex Therapists,herbalist doctors approved by FDA both agree:
Transdermal technology is a highly accurate and effective way to administer pharmaceutical ingredients directly to the bloodstream, resulting in:
No dilution of potency,no nausea or side effects to the digestive system,continuous, time-released delivery,more accurate blood levels of desired ingredients.
Hercules I has it! Now this technology is available as the top formula for muscle boost,strong bone and more than prvent chronic fatigue and muscle fatigue.
FAQ.Can we be the distributor?
We have good policy for our Cooperator Friends.Hercules II M.T.K. is more than a blend!And the supplying conditions is proper reasonable economically!
Fighter Science:Muscle and Bone.
Although the number of muscle fibres does not increase, they become bigger and stronger. The blood supply to the muscle fibres also improves, which means that more blood and oxygen can be transported to and from the muscle than before. The enzymes that help convert energy stores to energy for muscle contraction also become more efficient. They make better use of the available oxygen supply, and produce less lactic acid, so the muscle tires less easily. Overall, the performance of the muscle improves.
Skeletal muscle is comprised of two main types of muscle fibers, red and white. This difference is best seen in birds. The breast muscle of those that fly looks red, while the breast muscle of those like the chicken that flies only in short bursts is paler, almost white. Human skeletal muscles contain mixtures of these two main fiber Types, I (red) and II (white): see picture below. Thin cross sections of human muscle can be 'stained' for various enzyme activities and viewed under the microscope.
Here the darker 'red' fibers (Type I) show higher activity of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase which is part of the 'respiratory chain' in mitochondria of all types of cells. (Another enzyme, succinic dehydrogenase, that delivers energy to the respiratory chain also 'stains', mainly Type I fibers.)
Type I fibers 'burn' mainly fatty acids for sustained muscle activity and these are the ones that, in carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT II) deficiency, are unable to produce the energy needed for muscular activity, and for replacement of the enzymes, structural proteins and other constituents that are continuously being degraded in the fibers, as in all cells.
In contrast type II ('white') muscle fibers use for energy glucose derived from their glycogen content and are specialized for doing short bursts of work like the 100 yard sprint. Note the amount of ATP available is limited since it is not stored except by made by being converted into creatine phosphate by the enzyme creatine kinase (CK). This small store of creatine phosphate is rapidly exhausted.Then white (Type II) fibers rely for a few minutes on anaerobic glycolysis with muscle glycogen as fuel without using oxygen. But as lactic acid accumulates and must be converted back to glucose / glycogen the "oxygen debt" must be paid back by deep, fast breathing.
Then the Type II fibers also start using oxygen for aerobic glycolysis to burn glucose more efficiently. However the energy yield from glucose/glycogen is relatively poor (1 kiloCalorie per gram). More on aerobic vs anaerobic metabolism. Exercise => muscle metabolism.
After the first 5-6 minutes of activity Type I (red) fibers start burning fatty acids (FAs) to meet the energy needs for sustained muscular 'work'. For this to occur the FAs must enter the mitochondria of the Type I fibers and this requires the participation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase I & II. When there is a deficiency of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II in the inner mitochondrial membrane, lipid accumulation is occasionally seen in a muscle biopsy (see picture 2) and sometimes there is also a proliferation of mitochondria.
However, skeletal muscle structure appears to be normal in about 50% of cases while muscle lipid is found in only 20% of patients. Other structural anomalies include atrophies or necrosis of type I muscle fibers. In fact, structural features may vary depending on the delay between the attack and the muscle sampling.
Types of bone
There are two different types of bone - cortical bone and trabecular bone. They are made up of the same types of cells and material, but they differ in their structure and how much of the tissue is calcified. Overall cortical bone makes up about 80% of the skeleton, and trabecular bone about 20%, but the proportions of these types of bone differ between different regions of the skeleton.
Cortical bone is thick and dense calcified tissue (80~90 % of the volume is calcified) that forms the outer surfaces of most bones and the shafts of the long bones. It has a low surface area to mass ratio and gives strength and structure to the skeleton.
Trabecular bone has a spongy appearance. It has a high surface area to mass ratio and is found mainly at the ends of long bones and in the spine and hip. Only 15¨C25 % of the volume is calcified, the rest of the space is occupied by blood vessels, connective tissue and bone marrow. The main function of trabecular bone is metabolism and is where most bone turnover occurs and where the bone is most vulnerable to osteoporosis.
What is Osteoporosis and Osteomalacia?
Osteoporosis is a brittle bone disease in which the bones lose their Mass causing the bones to get thinner and weaken. This increases the risk of bone breakage and fracture, and is therefore a major health concern throughout the world.
Osteoporosis is a bone disease characterized by a progressive loss and thinning of bone tissue. In order to understand this disease, it is important to learn more about our bones.Osteomalacia is a similar disease which usually results from vitamin D and/or phosphorus deficiency that causes the bones to weaken and bend, especially at the legs. In children this is known as rickets, please see the factsheet on Vitamins for more information.
Osteoporosis (which literally means 'porous bones') is defined by the World Health Organisation as "A progressive systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue, with consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility of fracture".
As we get older, some loss of bone mass is normal, but severe loss results in gaps in the structure of bone. As bone tissue is lost, the bones get thinner and become weak, brittle and break easily. All bones can be affected by osteoporosis but fractures are most common in the wrist, spine and hip. That is why bone measurements focus on these parts of the skeleton.
Osteoporosis is a major worldwide public health concern. It causes disability and premature death and is one of the main contributors to long-standing illness and incapacity. Research into the prevention of osteoporosis is of strategic relevance to the general population, government and industry.
In the UK, over 3 million people have osteoporosis, and 1 in 3 women and 1 in 12 men over the age of 50 years can expect to experience a fragility fracture due to osteoporosis. Similarly high fracture rates occur in Caucasian populations of northern Europe, the USA and Australasia. In other populations, such as those of Africa and China, the incidence is much lower. However, within all regions and ethnic groups, hip fracture incidence is increasing in parallel with increases in life expectancy. Internationally, more than 1.5 million hip fractures occur annually, and the global burden of fragility fractures is set to rise 4-fold by 2050.
We have shown that in China the incidence of hip fracture in people over 50 years of age is low compared to European countries, and that, unlike Europe, men and women are more equally affected. Our studies also indicate that fracture incidence is low in the Gambia.
The rapid changes occurring throughout the world away from traditional ways of life are associated with increases in the chronic diseases of affluence, including osteoporosis.
Traditional diets and lifestyles may hold the key to the future prevention of osteoporosis. Because our research integrates work in Cambridge, The Gambia and China, this enables us to addresses health issues of demographic transition and ethnic differences in fracture risk and incidence.
Whilst we do not study people with osteoporosis, our research is aimed at identifying nutrition and lifestyle strategies for optimal bone health to provide the scientific evidence on which nutritional policy and practice can be based to prevent this disease.
Bone is made up of collagen, a protein responsible for the tensile strength of bone, and minerals such as calcium which hardens the bony framework.The human skeleton has two different forms of bone.
1.Compact bone is the hard outer shell of bone. The bone is packed together into rows of rod-like cylinders to make this layer strong, hard, and smooth looking.
2.Spongy bone is the inner part of the bone and it is more delicate-looking than the outer bone. This bone has a honeycomb appearance formed by vertical and horizontal bars called trabeculae.
Diet and Bone Health:
It is well known that calcium and vitamin D are very important for bone health, and this forms the basis of nutrition policy.
There is emerging evidence that several other nutrients and food groups may play a key role in bone health. In addition to our work on calcium, vitamin D and vitamin K our studies address other priority areas of public health nutrition which are fruit and vegetables, salt and protein.
Differences in calcium handling and bone metabolism may play a key role in explaining inter-individual and ethnic differences in osteoporosis risk.
There are particular concerns that individuals with a low calcium intake may be at an increased risk of adverse effects on bone health, especially during growth and during pregnancy and lactation. Some of our studies involve investigating the effects of calcium supplementation in adolescents in the UK and in The Gambia, and in pregnant women in The Gambia. Furthermore, low calcium intakes are associated with high blood pressure and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy, and adaptation to a low calcium intake may predispose individuals to hypertension and diabetes.
There is no international consensus on recommended calcium intakes. This is partly because some recommendations focus on meeting physiological needs (such as for growth during infancy, childhood and adolescence, during pregnancy or for milk production during lactation) whereas others focus on optimising bone mineral density. There may also be genetic differences and differences in calcium requirements and in the ways in which the body uses calcium.
Although many foods contain calcium, not all are good sources because the calcium may not be well absorbed. Dairy products are rich sources of well-absorbed calcium. Fish consumed with the bones, pulses, cereals, nuts and seeds, dried fruit, and green vegetables also contain calcium. However, cereals and pulses also contain phytates that bind to the calcium and reduce its bioavailability. We have shown that in The Gambia and China, where fracture incidence is lower than in the UK, calcium intake is very low in Keneba (300-400 mg/d) and moderately low (400-600 mg/d) in Shenyang. These compare to intakes of about 800-1200 mg in the UK.
Like many non-dairy consuming populations in the developing world, rural Gambians have extremely low intakes of dietary calcium, compared to international recommendations. Our work in The Gambia aims to investigate the importance of calcium and related nutrients to bone health in developing countries.
Vitamin D has an important role in calcium absorption. Lack of vitamin D leads to impaired mineralisation of bone and the development of rickets in children. Vitamin D deficiency is also a risk factor for osteoporosis.
The action of the sun's ultraviolet rays on our skin results in the production of an inactive form of vitamin D (25OHD), which then circulates in the blood or is stored in the muscles and body fat. Increased PTH secretion results in the conversion of 25OHD to its active form 1,25(OH)2D, which plays an important role in calcium metabolism. We should be able to obtain about 90% of the vitamin D our bodies need from sunlight exposure. Only a few foods (oily fish, eggs, liver, butter, meat) naturally contain appreciable amounts of vitamin D.
Our work on the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) has shown that that the blood concentration of vitamin D (or 25OHD) is marginal in most age groups, especially in the winter, and older people and teenage boys are particularly vulnerable.
We are also examining vitamin D status and its relationship with PTH and bone mineral status in older adolescents.
In winter, there is less vitamin D synthesis, and so the stores built up during the previous summer and dietary intake are important. Seasonal variation in vitamin D status has been well recognised in the British population. It is more pronounced in Shenyang, which is situated in the north of China, where there are long, dark winters and there is limited exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D deficiency is common and calcium intake is low compared to international recommendations. However, osteoporotic fracture rates are much lower than in the UK. This is one of the reasons we are comparing ethnic differences in calcium handling and vitamin D metabolism in relation to bone health and fracture incidence in China, The Gambia and UK.
Vitamin K is required for the production of osteocalcin. There is growing evidence that a suboptimal vitamin K status may contribute to the causes of osteoporosis. We have found that the vitamin K intake and plasma vitamin K concentrations of older people in Shenyang, China are 2-3 times higher than in Cambridge due to a greater consumption of vegetables, particularly green leafy vegetables, and of soybean oil.
The proportion of osteocalcin present in the fully carboxylated form was also higher in Shenyang compared to Cambridge. Our ongoing studies are investigating the relationships of vitamin K status and osteocalcin carboxylation with bone measurements, vitamin D status and genetics.
Other aspects of diet and bone health:
We are conducting a study to evaluate the relationships between bone mineral status and bone metabolism and fruit and vegetable intake and plasma concentrations of vitamins A, E and carotenoids . This study is funded by the Food Standards Agency, in collaboration with the Micronutrient Status group and Population Nutrition Research (formerly Nutritional Epidemiology). Our investigations encompass three age groups: 16-18 year old boys and girls, 25-35 year old women and 65-75 year old men and women. This study will provide insight into the relative importance of fruit and vegetable intake for bone health in these age groups.
A high salt (sodium) intake may have adverse effects on calcium metabolism and bone loss because there is a direct relationship between the movement of sodium and calcium in the kidney and between urinary excretion of sodium and calcium.
In the short term, high intakes of animal protein may also increase the risk of bone loss through calcium excretion in the urine. However, an adequate supply of protein is essential for maintaining bone health and low protein diets may increase bone loss. More studies are needed to understand the consequences of this for skeletal health in the long term.
Our studies in the UK, The Gambia and China are giving us the opportunity to examine these possible relationships in more detail.
Maria explains to her friends that during childhood and the teen years, new bone is added to our skeleton faster than old bone is removed. This creates large, strong, dense bones.
Bone formation occurs at a faster rate than bone removal until peak bone mass is reached by age 35.
Bone mass is the total amount of bone in the body and it is important to know that nearly half of all the bone mass is formed during the teen years.
After age 35, bone removal exceeds bone formation. If bone removal occurs too quickly and replacement occurs too slowly osteoporosis develops.
To prevent osteoporosis, it is imperative to reach the maximum peak bone mass during the teen years. This is accomplished by increasing daily intake of calcium and participating in weight bearing activities.
Peak Bone Mass:
Mature adults contain about 1200 g of calcium in their skeleton. Peak bone mass is the maximum bone mass achieved by midlife. The age at which peak bone mass is achieved varies between different regions of the skeleton and different populations.
During childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, calcium, phosphorus and other minerals are added to bone as the skeleton grows. Rates of bone growth are highest in infancy and during the pubertal growth spurt.
Adolescence is a particularly critical period because the velocity of bone growth doubles and approximately 40% of the peak bone mass is laid down. At the end of puberty the epiphyses - places where bone is first laid down during growth, especially at the ends of long bones- fuse, and linear growth stops. However, bone mass continues to increase and by the age of about 20, 90-95% of peak bone mass is attained.
After peak bone mass is reached, bone mass starts to decline; minerals and the collagen matrix are removed more rapidly than new bone tissue is added. Men and women are affected differently. By old age, women have typically lost half of their trabecular and one-third of their cortical bone, whereas men typically lose one-third of trabecular bone and one-fifth of cortical bone.
In women, bone loss accelerates sharply for about 5 years around the time of the menopause. Losses average 1~2 % per year from cortical bone and 2~3 % per year from trabecular bone. These losses are a result of decreased oestrogen production in the body.
Bone mineral status in later life is a major determinant of osteoporotic risk and depends on peak bone mass and of subsequent age-related bone loss. Optimising peak bone mass is therefore important in reducing the risk of osteoporosis.
60~70 % of the variation in peak bone mass between individuals is related to genetics and about 30~40 % to environmental factors during fetal life, childhood and/or adolescence such as diet and physical activity.
There is increasing evidence that the origins of osteoporosis may lie in what happens during childhood and adolescence. The extent to which a change in bone mineral density in children and young adults, caused by a change in diet or lifestyle, can predict a change in fracture risk in later life is, as yet, unclear.
We are carrying out intensive community-based studies to investigate the factors that determine human bone development, peak bone mass and later fracture risk. Our studies are focused on populations in the UK, China and The Gambia and at different stages of the life cycle from infancy to old age.
We are conducting long-term studies in 280 adolescent boys and girls (initially aged 16-18 years) and 160 Gambian children aged (initially aged 8-12 years). Participants were all randomised, double-blind, to receive a calcium supplement (1000 mg Ca/d) or a placebo for 12-15 months.
Results so far show that in studies calcium supplementation produces an increase in the bone mineral content at the spine and hip. Calculations indicate that if maintained into later life, such increases would be expected to reduce the risk of osteoporosis by 10-30%. In our Gambian studies, calcium supplementation significantly increases bone mineral content of the forearm. In both Cambridge and The Gambia, bone turnover rate was reduced during the calcium supplementation period, which may have resulted in the gains in bone mineral. Follow-up studies in both populations are in progress to see if the bone mineral gains in calcium supplemented subjects are permanent.
Being physically active is important for strong bones and weight-bearing activities, such as brisk walking, running and climbing stairs, can help to increase peak bone mass.
Studies in adolescents have shown that girls have relatively sedentary lifestyles, whereas the boys are more physically active. The more active boys (more than 9 hours of physical activity per week) had significantly higher bone mineral status at the start of the study, compared to less active boys (less than 9 hours activity per week) and more mineral was added to their bones over a 15 month period. Positive relationships were observed between physical activity, particularly high impact activities, fitness and bone mineral content in boys and girls, especially in the hip and forearm .
Studies of older people have found that older people in Shenyang are much more physically active and this may partly explain why incidence of osteoporosis and fracture are much lower.
Heavier people typically have higher bone mass and underweight is a risk factor for lower bone mass. However, this does not mean that being overweight or obese is good for bones, because obesity has many adverse health consequences.
Bone and Calcium Metabolism:
The skeleton contains 99% of the body's calcium which is stored in bone as hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6 (OH)2]. In addition to this mineral component, the bone tissue matrix also contains type I collagen, a type of protein.
There are two different types of bone- cortical bone and trabecular bone. Cortical bone is denser and more calcified than trabecular bone and is found on the outside of bones and along the length of the long bones (i.e. the arms and legs). Trabecular bone is more spongy in appearance and it has a lower calcium content than cortical bone. It is primarily located at the ends of the long bones and in the spine. Trabecular bone has a higher turnover rate compared to cortical bone and it is more vulnerable to bone loss . As a result, the regions in the skeleton that have higher amounts of trabecular bone (e.g. the spine, femoral neck) are more susceptible to fracture later in life
The skeleton is continually renewed through a process known as remodelling; a sequence of events whereby old bone is replaced by new bone (bone turnover) . Modelling is the process by which bone growth occurs and where there is a higher rate of bone formation relative to bone loss.
Three types of cell produce and maintain bone.:
Osteoblasts (bone-forming cells) work at bone surfaces where they secrete osteoid (unmineralised collagen), modulate the crystallisation of hydroxyapatite and influence the activity of osteoclasts.
Osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells) are responsible for the resorption (destruction) of old worn out bone, which is necessary for the repair of bone surfaces and the remodelling of bone.
Osteocytes are osteoblasts which have become embedded within the mineralised regions of bone. They are involved in the sensing and translation of information about the internal bone environment.
During bone growth, formation is higher than breakdown. After peak bone mass is achieved, the rates of breakdown and formation are equal and bone mass is thought to remain constant. As we get older, the rate of breakdown increases and exceeds the rate at which bone is formed. Overall, bone is lost and the skeleton becomes more fragile and prone to fractures.
Markers of bone metabolism:
During the process of bone resorption and bone formation, several molecules (or biochemical markers) are released from bone into the blood and are excreted in the urine. By collecting blood and urine samples from our volunteers, we can measure these biochemical markers, which then tell us about rates of bone formation and resorption.
Markers of bone formation tell us about the activity of osteoblasts (the bone-forming cells). One of the markers we measure is osteocalcin, a protein produced by osteoblasts. Vitamin K is necessary to make osteocalcin in its fully functioning form. When the supply of vitamin K to bone is low, the osteocalcin molecules have fewer carboxylated side-chains, resulting in a reduced ability to bind to calcium.
We measure carboxylated and undercarboxylated osteocalcin because the degree of carboxylation is a useful index of vitamin K status, and a high ratio of undercarboxylated osteocalcin to carboxylated osteocalcin is a risk factor for osteoporosis. We also measure markers of newly formed collagen (P1NP (N-propeptide of type I collagen) and of bone mineralisation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase).
Bone resorption markers describe osteoclast activity and collagen breakdown. Breakdown products of collagen, which we measure, include deoxypyridinoline and pyridinoline and their associated peptides (NTX and CTX).
The skeleton acts as a metabolic reservoir of calcium and phosphate. The concentration of calcium in blood is maintained within narrow limits. Low concentrations are detected by calcium-ion sensing receptors on the parathyroid glands, leading to an increase in parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. PTH stimulates osteoclast activity and calcium is released from bone, along with bone matrix. PTH also acts on the kidney to decrease urinary calcium excretion and increase the production of 1,25(OH)2D from 25OHD. In turn, 1,25(OH)2D acts on the intestine to increase calcium absorption. This co-ordinated rapid reponse to fluctuations in the concentration of blood calcium means that it can be maintained at a constant concentration. Increases in blood calcium are reversed by calcitonin, which is secreted by the thyroid gland, and by negative feedback by 1,25(OH)2D on PTH secretion.
Because of the effects of PTH on bone metabolism, we are investigating the effects of variations in calcium intake and vitamin D status (25OHD) on PTH and 1,25(OH)2D in different population groups. We are also interested in the role of genotype on this relationship. Our research is providing important clues about the metabolic basis of cross-cultural differences in the incidence of osteoporosis.
Studies in Chinese people:
Shenyang Medical College, China, has been awarded ¡ê64K by The Nestle Foundation to collaborate with MRC Human Nutrition Research to investigate the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone metabolism in older people. PTH is a key hormone regulating bone metabolism through maintaining blood calcium concentrations in the body.
The new two-year study, led by HNR, will provide important information about whether increased parathyroid hormone secretion, induced by poor vitamin D status and low calcium intakes, has implications for bone health in older Chinese people. Ultimately, this project will lead to more detailed studies aimed at providing the evidence on which sustainable government policy and practice on osteoporosis prevention could be based.
Osteoporosis increases the risk of fracture, disability and premature death in older people. Bone loss and degeneration with ageing is the result of complex interactions of many factors, including diet (e.g. calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K), physical activity over the lifespan, genetic traits and hormone status.
Bone is continually being resorbed and formed, a process known as 'bone remodelling'. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (the 'active' form of vitamin D) are major hormones that influence bone remodelling and they are in turn influenced by calcium and phosphate.
Poor vitamin D status, low dietary calcium intake and an increase in PTH secretion, which these induce, increase the loss of calcium from bone. In older people, this can contribute to the development of osteoporosis. China is one of the fastest changing countries in the world. The increase of the elderly population and the rapid changes in lifestyle from traditional towards western ways are associated with increases in chronic diseases many of which are related to nutrition including osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease and stroke. Although osteoporotic fractures of the hip are relatively rare in mainland China compared with that in western countries currently, this is set to rise greatly in parallel with increases in life expectancy and changes in lifestyle. In Hong Kong, hip fracture rates have increased 3-fold over the last 30 years. Considering the size of the Chinese population, the implications for public health, for service provision and for economies are immense. The development of strategies to prevent osteoporosis and optimise bone health of older people in China are, therefore, critical research priorities.
In Shenyang, north-east China, older people have a poor vitamin D status at the end of the long, cold winters. This combined with a low calcium intake due to low consumption of dairy products is associated with high levels of PTH in the blood. Intriguingly, in spite of these high levels of PTH, we have not seen adverse effects of this hormone on bone in older people in Shenyang. This is in contrast to what we have found in older people in Cambridge, where high levels of PTH are associated with lower bone mineral. These findings suggest to us that the skeleton of Chinese people is 'resistant' to the effects of PTH.
In our new study we will work with our colleagues in Shenyang to test this hypothesis by conducting detailed investigations of the metabolic effects of PTH on bone.Studies will involve a series of PTH stimulation tests using an oral phosphate supplement in older volunteers. Studies carried out by other researchers have also shown that high levels of PTH are associated with high blood pressure, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Hypertension and stroke are major public health problems in China, so we will also be measuring blood pressure in the study.
Much of the variation in bone mineral mass and the incidence of osteoporosis can be ascribed to genetic differences. For example, 60-80% of the variance in peak bone mass is considered to be genetic. A range of genetic polymorphisms ¨C inherited differences within the genetic code ~ have been identified that may affect a person's predisposition to fracture or influence their response to dietary changes. Differences in genes may explain differences in nutrient requirements for bone health, response to calcium supplementation, and differences in the skeletal response to pregnancy, lactation and menopause.
We incorporate genetics into many of our studies by focussing on polymorphisms in selected candidate genes to see whether they can explain ethnic differences in fracture incidence.
Study of the relationships between the vitamin D receptor and collagen genes and the prevalence of hip fracture in women from different countries showed that the prevalence of the polymorphisms associated with increased fracture risk were lower in Africa and Asia than in northern European countries. This fits well with epidemiological studies of osteoporosis.
We are also investigating polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor gene, which is linked with osteoporotic fracture risk, as well as polymorphisms of the calcium sensing receptor and PTH receptor genes .
Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin. We are looking at polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein E gene because ApoE is a major component of lipoproteins and genetic variation may affect vitamin K transportation to, and utilisation by, bone.
We are also studying the genetic basis of the inter-individual variation in skeletal response to lactation by looking at polymorphisms in the genes for the receptors for vitamin D, oestrogen, prolactin and PTH. Lactation is a period of oestrogen depletion, so these studies may also provide insights into why some women lose large amounts of bone during the menopause.
Strong, healthy bone is continually maintained through the bone remodeling process. Bone remodeling has two phases: formation and resorption.
During formation, special cells called osteoblasts deposit new bone tissue to build strong bone.
This remodeling process can be compared to a brick layer that builds the framework of a house.
The brick layer uses materials such as cement, water, sand and brick to create a strong framework similar to the osteoblasts that need minerals and hormones to form new strong bone tissue.
During resorption, special cells called osteoclasts break down and remove old bone.
A demolition ball is used to break down old worn down buildings similar to the osteoclasts that break down and remove old bone.
Avoid the culprits!:
Smoking, drinking alcohol and caffeine found in coffee and soft drinks can accelerate bone loss and result in an increased susceptibility to osteoporosis.
How can we protect our bones?
Vitamin D: This vitamin, also known as the sunshine vitamin is very important in bone health as it regulates the amount of calcium that the bone can soak up making vitamin D essential for bone health. Our bodies can make this vitamin through exposing our skin to sunlight, so there is no recommended nutrient intake, just make time to get out in the sun in the summer months! On the other hand you might want to eat some foods containing vitamin D in the dark winter months. Some useful sources include eggs, oily fish and fortified cereals and margarine.
Vitamin D, the macromineral calcium, and weight bearing activities are key players in building strong bones.
Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that enables the body to use and absorb calcium and phosphorus. Vitamin D comes from the skin following direct exposure to sunlight and from the diet.
Calcium: Making sure you have enough calcium in your diet is essential for maintaining your bones structure and strength. The recommended nutrient intake is 800mg per day, which is equivalent to 3 ?glasses of semi-skimmed milk. However if you feel you are at particular risk of osteoporosis, you may wish to use the amount recommended stated on NHS direct of 1500 mg per day. The main dietary sources of calcium are milk and dairy products although fortified cereals and soy milk are also good for vegans.
Our body needs large amounts of the macromineral calcium to help maintain healthy bone. Calcium in bone acts to support the framework allowing bone to become strong and flexible. Foods that are rich in this important dietary requirement include milk, cheese, broccoli, cauliflower, and calcium-fortified foods.
Weight-bearing activities, such as brisk walking, stair climbing, hiking and dancing, put weight on the bones and cause new bone to form, making them stronger.
Exercising: Weight bearing exercises such as running, walking, dancing and yoga are great for building up your skeleton and keep your bones strong. Exercising for just 30 minutes at least three times a week can help keep your bones and body healthy.
No Smoking! Research has shown a direct relationship between smoking and a reduced bone density. This may be due to the effects of smoking itself or the lifestyle factors associated with people who smoke, but the advice is if you smoke, STOP!
Alcohol: Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol can cause a reduction in the amount of calcium your bones soak up. Limiting your intake to a maximum of 21 units per week for men and 14 units per week for women, along with a healthy lifestyle will help your bones to get all the nutrients they need to stay healthy. One unit is half a pint of ordinary strength lager or a small glass of wine, or a 25ml spirit measure.
Stamina and Physical performance.:
Stamina and Physical training programme
For the effective Muay Thai training programme, in order to get good result, the training should be done on every other day basis. The training session should not be organised every day because it will over use the body and exceed its potential. Training on alternate day basis will also help to recover body muscle of boxers to make sure that they are ready as well as has less chance to get severe injuries for the next training session.
Muay Thai training schedule
0500 Running for 5 Kilometres
0540 Short running for 50, 80, 100 metres 5-10 rounds
0600 Basic exercise such as dumbbell, barbells, rope jumping
0620 Perform shadow-boxing
0625 Briefed by trainer for new technique
0630 Heavy bag training (up to 5 rounds)
0800 Basic exercise without equipment
0810 Oil massage
0825 Brief by trainers about the training and get suggestion for improvements
1530 Running for 3 Kilometres, rope jumping and basic exercise without equipment
1600 Shadow boxing for 3 rounds
1620 Briefed by trainer for new technique
1630 Sparring 3 rounds
1650 Clinch work 3 rounds
1700 Soft heavy bag training
1720 Cool down basic exercise
1750 Brief by trainers about the training and get suggestion for improvements
These are only broad guideline of standard Muay Thai training. Camps may adjust their programme to fit individual boxer.
Muay Thai Basic Techniques:
In Earlier times Muay Thai consisted of an Arsenal of nine weapons - The Head, Fists, Elbows, Knees and Feet - collectively known as Na-wa-arud.
Modern Muay Thai no longer permits the use of the head in competition. However, there is still a formidable fighting force, capable of devastating an opponent, at the boxers' disposal.
Muay Thai is unique in that it uses all parts of the body, including the elbows and knees, for both training and competition.
Head - Slightly inclined, with the chin tucked protectively inside the shoulder line.
Eyes - Focused on the area of the opponents' navel or chest in order to assess their body and general movements.
Forearms - Both Used to protect the upper part of the trunk.
Shoulders - Slightly raised for protection.
Elbows - Not too far from the body, and not raised too high: Used to protect the body.
Body - Not stooped or stiff. Positioned sideways on to the opponent, presenting the smallest possible potential target. All vulnerable points securely protected.
Hands - Rounded into loosely clenched fists, and raised to protect the face.
Lead Fist (Mat Naa) - Less dextrous hand is raised to eyebrow level, the arm extended slightly to the front in the same direction as the foot.
Rear Fist ( Mat Lang) - More dextrous hand is raised to the level of the cheek, the palm is turned towards the cheek.
Lead Foot (Tao Naa) - Less dextrous foot, left foot if right handed, right foot if left handed - is positioned in front, and toes are pointed towards the opponent.
Rear Foot (Tao lang) - The most dextrous foot, right foot if right handed, left foot if left handed, is positioned at the rear,with the toes pointed to the side at an angle of 45?. The following covers basic Muay techniques and terminology. It is intended to supplement, not replace training.
Do Not plant the feet flat on the ground: - raise the heels slightly, and constantly shift body weight between the balls of the feet, following a natural sense of balance - and the rhythm of the fight music (Dontree Muay) if provided.
Legs - Both Bent a little at the Knees: Rather than being held completely straight.
The basic offensive techniques in Muay Thai use fists, elbows, shins, feet, and knees to strike the opponent. To bind the opponent for both offensive and defensive purposes, small amounts of stand-up grappling are used: the clinch.
The clinch is applied by holding the opponent either around the neck or around the body. In Western Boxing, the two fighters are separated when they clinch. Defensively, the concept of "wall of defense" is used, in which shoulders, arms and legs are used to hinder the attacker from successfully executing his techniques. Blocking is a critical element in Muay Thai and compounds the level of conditioning a successful practitioner must possess. Low and mid body roundhouse kicks are normally blocked with a raised shin.
Mid to high body strikes are blocked with the forearm, knee/shin. Roundhouse kicks to the mid section are often blocked/accepted by a slight rotation of the torso so that the attacking shin strikes the back quarter of the rib cage. Mid section roundhouse kicks can also be caught/trapped, allowing for a sweep or counter attack to the remaining leg of the opponent. Muay Thai is often a fighting art of attrition, where opponents exchange blows with one another. This is certainly the case with traditional stylists in Thailand, but is a less popular form of fighting in the contemporary world fighting circuit.
With the success of Muay Thai in mixed martial arts fighting, it has become the de facto martial art of choice for competitive stand-up fighters. As a result, it has evolved in order and incorporated much more powerful hand striking techniques used in westen style boxing, and the Thai style of exchanging blow for blow is no longer favorable. Note: when Muay Thai fighters compete against fighters of other styles (and if the rules permit it), they almost invariably emphasize elbow (sok) and knee (kao) techniques to gain a distinct advantage in fighting.
Two Muay Thai techniques were adopted by fighters from other martial arts: The Thai low kick and the Thai roundhouse kick. They are actually variations of the same kick, but hit at different heights. The low kick uses a rotational movement of the entire body to hit the opponent's outer thigh or side of knee with the shin. When not properly defended against, this technique often leads to the end of the fight, as the opponent has great difficulty standing after a few powerful low-kicks. The Thai roundhouse kick is also unique and was adapted for its efficiency. The kick is carried out with a straight leg and the entire body rotating from the hip, which is "locked" right before the leg makes contact to the opponent. At close ranges, Thai boxers strike with the shin; at longer ranges, the foot makes contact.
Some knee techniques ("kao")
-Kao Dode (Jumping knee strike) - the Thai boxer jumps up on one leg and strikes with that leg's knee.
-Kao Loi (Jumping or Flying knee strike) - the Thai boxer jumps up or takes step(s), springs up off one leg and in mid-air switches to the other knee to strike. A quite spectacular sight when it connects.
-Kao Tone (Straight knee strike) - the Thai boxer simply thrusts it straight upwards. According to one written source, this technique is somewhat more recent than Kao Dode or Kao Loi. Supposedly, when the Thai boxers fought with rope-bound hands rather than the modern boxing gloves, this particular technique was subject to potentially vicious cutting, slicing and sawing by an alert opponent who would block it or deflect it with the sharp "rope-glove" edges or sometimes by the glass glued onto the "rope-gloves". This explanation also holds true for some of the following knee strikes below as well.
-Kao Noi (Small knee strike) - the Thai boxer hits the inside upper thigh (above the knee) of the opponent when clinching. This technique is used to wear down the opponent or to counter the opponent's knee strike or kick.
Almost all techniques in Muay Thai use the entire body movement, rotating the hip with each kick, punch, and block. The rotation of the hips in Muay Thai techniques, and intensive focus on "core muscles" (such as abdominal muscles and surrounding muscles) is very distinctive and is what sets Muay Thai apart from other styles of martial arts.
During a competition, the participants perform a lengthy ritual and ceremony before the fight (wai khru ram muay). The ritual is both for religious reasons and as a stretching warm-up.
Claims: Information this web site presented is meant for Nutritional Benefit and as an educational starting point only, for use in maintenance and promotion good health in cooperation with a common knowledge base reference...Furthermore,it based solely on the traditional and historic use or legend of a given herb from the garden of Adonis. Although every effort has been made to ensure its accurate, please note that some info may be outdated by more recent scientific developments......
Pharmakon Warning: The order of knowledge is not the transparent order of forms and ideas,as one might be tempted retrospectively to interpret it; it is the antidote....(Dissemination,Plato's Pharmacy,II.The Ingredients:Phantasms,Festivals,and Paints;138cf. Jacques Derrida.).
And as it happens,the technique of imitation,along with the production of the simulacrum,has always been in Plato's eyes manifestly magical,thaumaturgical:......and the same things appear bent and straight to those who view them in water and out,or concave and convex,owing to similar errors of vision about colors, and there is obviously every confusion of this sort in our souls.And so scene painting (skiagraphia) in its exploitation of this weakness of four nature falls nothing short of witchcraft (thaumatopoia), and so do jugglery and many other such contrivances.(Republic X,602c-d;cf.also 607c).