Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: Acacia farnesiana extract | Acacia senegal | Accutane | acerola fruit extract | acetic acid | acetone | acetyl carnitine HCL | acetyl glucosamine | acetyl glyceryl ricinoleate | acetyl hexapeptide-3 | acetyl tributyl citrate | acetylated castor oil | acetylated hydrogenated cottonseed glyceride | acetylated lanolin | acetylated lanolin alcohol | acetylated palm kernel glycerides | Achillea millefolium | acid | acne soap | acrylate | Acrylates Copolymer | acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer | Actaea racemosa | active ingredient | adenine | adenosine triphosphate | adipic acid/neopentyl glycol/trimellitic anhydride copolymer | advanced glycation endproduct | Aerocarpus santalinus | Aesculus hippocastanum | agar | AGE | age spot | AHA | Ahnfeltia concinna extract | ahnfeltia extract | Ajuga turkestanica extract | alanine | Alaria esculenta | albumin | Alchemilla vulgaris | alcloxa | alcohol | Aleurites fordii oil | alfalfa extract | algae | algin | alginic acid | aliphatic hydrocarbon | alkaline | alkanet extract | Alkanna tinctoria extract | alkyloamides | allantoin | all-trans retinoic acid | almond oil | almond oil PEG-6 esters | Aloe barbadenis | aloe extract | aloe juice | aloe vera | alpha bisabolol | alpha glucan oligosaccharide | alpha hydroxy acid | alpha lipoic acid | alpha-tocopherol | Alpinia Officinarum root extract | alteromonas ferment extract | Althaea rosea | Althea officinalis | alumina | aluminum chlorohydrate | aluminum magnesium silicate | aluminum powder | aluminum silicate | aluminum starch octenylsuccinate | aluminum sulfate | amino acid | aminobutyric acid | aminomethyl propanediol | aminomethyl propanol | ammonium chloride | ammonium laureth sulfate | ammonium lauryl sulfate | amniotic extract or fluid | amodimethicone | amyl cinnamate | amyl salicylate | amyris oil | Anacyclus pyrethrum | Anacystis nidulans extract | Ananas sativus fruit extract | andiroba oil | andrographolide | Angelica polymorpha sinensis root extract | anisaldehyde | anise | annato extract | Anthemis nobilis flower extract | Anthyllis vulnera | antibacterial | anti-inflammatory | anti-irritant | antioxidant | aorta extract | apple cider vinegar | apricot kernel | apricot kernel oil | arachidic acid | arachidonic acid | arachidyl alcohol | arachidyl propionate | Arachis hypogaea extract | arbutin|Arctium lappa| Arctostaphylos uva ursi leaf | argan oil | Argania spinosa kernel oil | Argania spinosa oil | arginine | Argireline | arnica extract | arrowroot | artemia extract | Artemisia absinthium extract | Artemisia annua | Artemisia vulgaris | artichoke extract | Ascophyllum nodosum | ascorbic acid | ascorbyl glucosamine | ascorbyl glucoside | ascorbyl methylsilanol pectinate | ascorbyl palmitate | asiatic acid | asparagine | Asparagopsis armata extract | Asparagus officinalis stem extract | aspartic acid | Aspergillus/Aspidosperma quebracho ferment | Astaxanthin | Astaxanthin Extract | Astragalus membranaceus | Astragalus sinicus | atharanthus roseus | ATP | Avena sativa | Avens extract | avobenzone | avocado oil | awapuhi | Ayurveda | Azadirachta indica | azelaic acid | Azelex | azuki beans | azulene | Acanthopanax Senticosus (Eleuthero) Root Extract |Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Extract |Acetyl Hexapeptide-8 |Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2 |Acetyl Tetrapeptide-5 |Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi) Fruit Extract |Aesculus Hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) Bark Extract |Agave Tequilana (Blue Agave) Leaf Extract |Aleurites Moluccana (Kukui) Seed Oil |Allantoin |Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice Powder |Aminoguanidine HCL |Ananas Sativus (Pineapple) Fruit Extract |Ananas Sativus (Pineapple) Stem Powder |Anthemis Nobilis (Chamomile) Flower Extract |Anthemis Nobilis (Chamomile) Flower Oil |Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Powder* (Blue Green Algae) |Aqua (Water) |Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil |Arginine (L) |Arnica Montana Flower Extract |Ascophyllum Nodosum Extract |Ascorbic Acid |Ascorbic Acid from Apple |Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate [Ascorbyl Palmitate (L)] |Aspalathus Linearis (Rooibos) Extract |Astaxanthin |Azelaic Acid |Agaricus extract |Agrimony extract |Asparagus root extract |Atractylodes extract |Ayur Kapha Complex |AHA extract |Anise extract |AMT Shield |Ayur Pitta Complex |Avocado extract |Amur cork tree bark extract |Aspen bark extract |Antiacne-SP4 |Apricot extract |Apricot kernel extract |Apple extract |Ayur Vata Complex |Anthonin |Arbor vitae leaf extract |Adenosome |
Acacia farnesiana extract:A fragrant extract from a type of acacia tree. There is no research showing it to have any benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).See gums.
Acacia senegal:Herb that can have anti-inflammatory properties, but that is used primarily as a thickening agent.See gums.
Accutane:Generic name: isotretinoin. A prescription-only drug derived from vitamin A, and which is taken orally. It essentially stops the oil production in sebaceous glands (the oil-producing structures of the skin) and literally shrinks these glands to the size of a baby's. This prevents sebum (oil) from clogging the hair follicle, mixing with dead skin cells, and rupturing the follicle wall to create an environment where a bacterium (Propionibacterium acnes) can thrive, which can result in pimples or cysts. Normal oil production resumes when treatment is completed, and the sebaceous glands slowly begin to grow larger again, but rarely as large as they were before treatment. "Because of its relatively rapid onset of action and its high efficacy with reducing more than 90% of the most severe [acne] inflammatory lesions, Accutane has a role as an effective treatment in patients with severe acne that is recalcitrant to other therapies" (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, November 2001, Supplemental pages 188~94). However, Accutane is controversial for many reasons, principally because of its most insidious side effect: It has been proven to cause severe birth defects in nearly 90% of the babies born to women who were pregnant while taking it. Other commonly reported, although temporary, side effects of Accutane include dry skin and lips, mild nosebleeds (your nose can get really dry for the first few days), hair loss, aches and pains, itching, rash, fragile skin, increased sensitivity to the sun, headaches, and peeling palms and hands. More serious, although much less common, side effects include severe headaches, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, changes in mood, depression, severe stomach pain, diarrhea, decreased night vision, bowel problems, persistent dryness of eyes, calcium deposits in tendons, an increase in cholesterol levels, and yellowing of the skin.
acerola fruit extract:Acerola contains vitamin C (See vitamin C). However, the dry acerola fruit and powder are unlikely to be a good source of vitamin C because much of the vitamin C is destroyed during the drying and processing.(Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).Common Name:Acerola, Barbados Cherry, West Indian Cherry, Cereza, Cerisier, Semeruco;INCI Name:Malpighia glabra (Acerola) fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant.
acetic acid:Acid found in vinegar, some fruits, and human sweat. It can be a skin irritant and drying to skin, though it also has disinfecting properties.
acetone:Strong solvent that removes nail polish.
acetyl carnitine HCL:See L-carnitine.
acetyl glucosamine:Amino acid sugar and the primary constituent of mucopolysaccharides and hyaluronic acid. It is an agent that has good water-binding properties for skin. In large concentrations it can be effective for wound healing. There is research showing that chitosan (which is composed of acetyl glucosamine) can help wound healing in a complex process (Cellular-Molecular-Life-Science, February 1997, pages 131~40; and Biomaterials, June 2001, pages 1667~673). However, that is a few generations removed from the tiny amount of acetyl glucosamine used in cosmetics. Further, there is no research demonstrating that wrinkles are related to wounds. See L-carnitine.
acetyl glyceryl ricinoleate:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
acetyl hexapeptide-3:Is a synthetically derived peptide that has been showing up in dozens of skin care and makeup products, especially those claiming to have a muscle-relaxing effect similar to Botox injections. Claims typically have to do with preventing muscle contractions when making facial expressions, thus reducing the appearance of expression lines. The company selling acetyl hexapeptide-3 (trade name Argireline), Centerchem (www.centerchem.com), is based in Spain. According to their Web site, "Argireline works through a unique mechanism which relaxes facial tension leading to a reduction in superficial facial lines and wrinkles with regular use. Argireline has been shown to moderate excessive catecholamines release." I strongly doubt that any of that is true because there isn't a shred of published research substantiating any part of it. However, even if it were vaguely true, that would not be good news for your body because you wouldn't want a cosmetic ingredient without any safety data, efficacy documentation, or independent research messing around with your catecholamines. Catecholamines are compounds in the body that serve as neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, adrenaline, and dopamine. Epinephrine is a substance that prepares the body to handle emergencies such as cold, fatigue, and shock. A deficiency of dopamine in the brain is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. None of that sounds like something you want a cosmetic to inhibit or reduce.
We don not know the long-term adverse effects of applying acetyl hexapeptide-3 to skin. If it really worked to relax facial muscles, it would work all over the face (assuming you are using the products as directed). If all the muscles in your face were relaxed from topical application of acetyl hexapeptide-3, you have sagging, not youthful, skin. To date, there have been no further substantiated, peer-reviewed studies proving acetyl hexapeptide-3 is a viable alternative to or replacement for Botox injections. For all the fear espoused by companies featuring this peptide in their works like Botox?products, there is considerably more efficacy, usage, and safety documentation available for Botox.
Despite claims being made for acetyl hexapeptide-3 (argireline), there is a clinical study revealing that this ingredient is not even remotely as effective as Botox in reducing wrinkles (Source: www.cremedevie.com/clinical_details.htm; International Journal of Cosmetic Science, October 2002). It is also interesting to note, that even Botox when applied topically on skin has no impact on the skin or muscles in any way shape or form! (Source: Cosmetic Dermatology, July 2005, pages 521-524.) See peptide.
acetyl tributyl citrate:Related to citric acid and used as a plasticizer, most commonly in nail polish and nail-hardening products. See citric acid.
acetylated castor oil:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
acetylated hydrogenated cottonseed glyceride:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
acetylated lanolin:Emollient derived from lanolin.See lanolin.
acetylated lanolin alcohol:An ester of lanolin alcohol uses as an emollient and occlusive agent. An ester is a compound formed from an alcohol and an acid with the elimination of water, and are common among cosmetic ingredients.
acetylated palm kernel glycerides:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
Achillea millefolium:See yarrow extract.
acid:Anything with a pH lower than 7 is acid bove 7 is alkaline. Water has a pH of 7. Skin has an average pH of 5.5.
acne soap:Soaps that often contain very irritating ingredients in addition to harsh cleansers that, especially when combined with other acne treatments, can super-irritate the skin. There is no reason to overclean the skin, because breakouts have nothing to do with how clean your skin is! A study reported in Infection (March-April 1995, pages 89~3) demonstrated that "in the group using soap the mean number of inflammatory [acne] lesions increased? Symptoms or signs of irritation were seen in 40.4% of individuals?" Furthermore, if the acne cleanser does contain antibacterial agents, the benefit would be washed down the drain.
acrylate:See film-forming agent.
Acrylates Copolymer:See film-forming agent.
acrylates/C10-30 alkyl acrylate crosspolymer:See film-forming agent.
Actaea racemosa:See black cohosh.
active ingredient:The active ingredients list is the part of an ingredient label that must adhere to specific regulations mandated by the FDA. Active ingredients must be listed first on an ingredient label. The amount and exact function of each active ingredient is controlled and must be approved by the FDA. Active ingredients are considered to have a pharmacological altering effect on skin, and these effects must be documented by scientific evaluation and approved by the FDA. Active ingredients include such substances as sunscreen ingredients, skin-lightening agents, and benzoyl peroxide. See inactive ingredient.
adenine:Component of DNA that carries genetic information to the cell. See DNA.
adenosine triphosphate:An organic compound from adenosine, which is formed by the hydrolysis of yeast nucleic acids. All living things need a continual supply of energy in order to function. Animals obtain their energy by oxidizing foods, plants obtain energy by using chlorophyll to trap sunlight. However, before the energy can be implemented, it must first be changed into a form that the organism can readily use. This special form, or carrier of energy, is the molecule adenosine triphosphate (ATP). In humans, ATP serves as the major energy source within the cell to drive a number of biological processes such as protein synthesis. The cell breaks down ATP by hydrolysis to yield adenosine diphosphate (ADP), which is then further broken down to yield adenosine monophosphate (AMP). Research into topically applied adenosine triphosphate is just beginning, but it appears to have strong potential as a cell-communicating ingredient and as an inflammation modulator (Sources: The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Volume 124, Issue 4, April 2005, pages 756-763; Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, Volume 8, Issue 2, March-April 2004, pages 90-96).
adipic acid/neopentyl glycol/trimellitic anhydride copolymer:A synthetic polymer. See film-forming agent.
advanced glycation endproduct:Advanced glycation endproducts, also known as AGEs, are caused by the body's major fuel source, namely glucose. This simple sugar is essential for energy, yet it also can bind strongly to proteins (the body's fundamental building blocks) and form abnormal structures (AGEs) that progressively damage tissue elasticity. Once AGEs are generated, they begin a process that prevents many systems from behaving normally by literally causing tissue to cross-link and become hardened (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, March 14, 2000, pages 2809?813). The theory is that by breaking these AGE bonds you can undo or stop the damage they cause. There are studies showing aminoguanidine and carnosine to be AGE inhibitors that can prevent glucose cross-linking of proteins and the loss of elasticity associated with aging and diabetes, but many other substances are potential candidates as AGE inhibitors as well. One study examined over 92 substances and 29 of them showed some degree of inhibitory activity, with 9 compounds proving to be 30 to 40 times stronger than aminoguanidine (Source: Molecular Cell Biology Research Communications, June 2000, pages 360~66). AGE and free-radical damage may be inextricably linked (Sources: European Journal of Neuroscience, December 2001, page 1961; and Neuroscience Letters, October 2001, pages 29?2), but none of this has been shown to have relevance when it comes to topical application of these substances when they are included in cosmetics.
Aerocarpus santalinus:See red sandalwood.
Aesculus hippocastanum:See horse chestnut.
AGE:See advanced glycation endproduct.
age spot:There is no such thing as an "age spot."The skin can develop brown patches for many reasons, but the characteristic small ones on the hands, arms, and face are caused by sun damage. These are possibly indications of precancerous conditions and should be watched carefully for changes. See melasma.
AHA:Acronym for alpha hydroxy acid. AHAs are derived from various plant sources or from milk. However, 99% of the AHAs used in cosmetics are synthetically derived. In low concentrations (less than 3%) AHAs work as water-binding agents. At concentrations over 4% and in a base with an acid pH of 3 to 4, these can exfoliate skin cells by breaking down the substance in skin that holds skin cells together. The most effective and well-researched AHAs are glycolic acid and lactic acid. Malic acid, citric acid, and tartaric acid may also be effective but are considered less stable and less skin-friendly; there is little research showing them to have benefit for skin.
AHAs may irritate mucous membranes and cause irritation. However, AHAs have been widely used for therapy of photodamaged skin, and also have been reported to normalize hyperkeratinization (over-thickened skin) and to increase viable epidermal thickness and dermal glycosaminoglycans content. A vast amount of research has substantially described how the aging process affects the skin and has demonstrated that many of the unwanted changes can be improved by topical application of AHAs, including glycolic and lactic acid (Sources: Cutis, August 2001, pages 135~42; Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, July 2000, pages 280~84; American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, March-April 2000, pages 81~8; Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, May-June 1999, pages 111~19; Dermatologic Surgery, August 1997, pages 689~94 and May 2001 pages 1; Journal of Cell Physiology, October 1999, pages 14~3; and British Journal of Dermatology, December 1996, pages 867~75).
Ahnfeltia concinna extract:See algae.
ahnfeltia extract:See algae.
Ajuga turkestanica extract:The only research about this plant indicates that it may have anabolic steroid properties (Source: Eksperimental'naya i Klinicheskaya Farmakologiya [from a Russian scientific journal], May 1997, pages 41~4). There is no other research showing this to be of benefit for skin.
alanine:See amino acid
Alaria esculenta:See algae.
albumin:Found in egg white, and can leave a film over skin. It can constrict skin temporarily, which can make it look smoother temporarily, but it can also cause irritation and is not helpful for skin.
Alchemilla vulgaris:Plant with antimicrobial properties. Its high tannin content can cause skin irritation (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, July 2000, pages 307~13).
alcloxa:More technically known as aluminum chlorhydroxy allantoinate, alcloxa has constricting properties that can be irritating for skin.
alcohol:A group of organic compounds that have a vast range of forms and uses in cosmetics. In some benign forms they are glycols used as humectants that help deliver ingredients into skin. When fats and oils (See fatty acid) are chemically reduced, they become a group of less-dense alcohols called fatty alcohols that can have emollient properties or can become detergent cleansing agents. When alcohols have low molecular weights they can be drying and irritating. The alcohols to be concerned about in skin-care products are ethanol, denatured alcohol, ethyl alcohol, methanol, benzyl alcohol, isopropyl, and SD alcohol, which can be extremely drying and irritating to skin (Sources: "Skin Care from the Inside Out and Outside In," Tufts Daily, April 1, 2002; eMedicine Journal, May 8, 2002, volume 3, number 5, www.emedicine.com; Cutis, February 2001, pages 25~7; and Contact Dermatitis, January 1996, pages 12~6).
Aleurites fordii oil:Oil from the Polynesian tung tree. May have antimicrobial properties for skin (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, November 1995, pages 23~2).
alfalfa extract:Can be an antioxidant in skin-care products (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, January 2001, pages 308~14).
algae:Algae are very simple, chlorophyll-containing organisms, in a family that includes more than 20,000 different known species. A number of these have been used for drugs, where they can work as anticoagulants, antibiotics, antihypertensive agents, blood cholesterol reducers, dilatory agents, insecticides, and anti-tumorigenic agents. In cosmetics, algae are used as thickening agents, water-binding agents, and antioxidants. Some algae are also potential skin irritants. For example, the phycocyanin found in blue-green algae has been suspected of allergenicity and of causing dermatitis on the basis of patch tests (Source: Current Issues in Molecular Biology, January 2002, pages 1~1). Other forms of algae, such as Irish moss and carrageenan, contain proteins, vitamin A, sugar, starch, vitamin B1, iron, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, and calcium. These are all useful as sources for skin care, either as emollients or antioxidants (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, February 2002, pages 840~45). However, the claims that algae can stop or eliminate wrinkling, heal skin, or provide other elaborate benefits are completely unsubstantiated.
algin:Brown algae. See brown algae and algae.
alginic acid:Obtained by treating dry seaweed with acid to create a very thick, gelatin-like substance. It is used as a thickening agent in cosmetics. See algae.
aliphatic hydrocarbon:Hydrocarbon contained in natural gas and mineral oils. It is a synthetic fluid with varying properties that range from solvent to slip agent. See slip agent and solvent.
alkaline:Anything with a pH higher than 7 is alkaline; below 7 is acid. Water has a pH of 7; skin has an average pH of 5.5. Skin irritation can be caused by products with a pH of 8 or over (Sources: eMedicine Journal, January 7, 2002, volume 3, number 1, www.emedicine.com; Cutis, December 2001, Supplemental pages 12~9; and Contact Dermatitis, April 1996, pages 237~42). Also, research indicates that the bacterium that causes acne, Propriobacterium acnes, proliferates when the skin is more alkaline (Sources: Infection, March-April 1995, pages 89~3; and Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, September 1994, pages 321~30).
alkanet extract:See Alkanna tinctoria extract.
Alkanna tinctoria extract:There is research showing this extract to have antiviral and antibacterial properties (Sources: Planta Medica, August 1997, page 384, and January 1979, pages 56~0). However, information on some Web sites about hepatitis C has shown that this extract is toxic to the liver when consumed (Sources: HCV Advocate, www.hcvadvocate.org/HERBS.pdf; and Hepatotoxic Herbs, http://home.caregroup.org/clinical/altmed/interactions/Herb_Groups/Hepatotoxic.htm).
alkyloamides:Identified on skin-care product labels as DEA (See diethanolamine), triethanolamine (TEA), and MEA (monoethanolamine), these are used primarily for their foaming ability in shampoos, but can also be used as thickening or binding agents. They can be skin irritants. In addition, alkyloamides contain a free amine that can combine with formaldehyde-releasing preservatives in cosmetics, and there is concern that they may form carcinogens.
allantoin:By-product of uric acid extracted from urea and considered an effective anti-irritant.
all-trans retinoic acid:Active ingredient in Retin-A and Renova. See also tretinoin.
almond oil:Oil extracted from the seeds of almonds and used as an emollient. See natural moisturizing factors.
almond oil PEG-6 esters:Used as emollient and thickening agents in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
Aloe barbadenis:See aloe vera.
aloe extract:See aloe vera.
aloe juice:See aloe vera.
aloe vera:Common Name:Aloe, Aloe vera, Barbados aloe, Curacoa aloe;INCI Name:Aloe barbadensis leaf extract;Activities:Soothing, Anti-inflammation, Moisturizing, Anti-microbe.There is no real evidence that aloe vera (Aloe barbadenis) helps the skin in any significant way. An article in the British Journal of General Practice (October 1999, pages 823~28) stated that "Topical application of aloe vera is not an effective preventative for radiation-induced injuries? Whether it promotes wound healing is unclear? Even though there are some promising results, clinical effectiveness of oral or topical aloe vera is not sufficiently defined at present." There is research indicating that isolated components of aloe vera, such as glycoprotein, can have some effectiveness for wound healing and as an anti-irritant (Sources: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, December 1999, pages 3~7; Free-Radical Biology and Medicine, January 2000, pages 261~65; and British Journal of Dermatology, October 2001, pages 535~45). In pure form, aloe vera's benefits on skin are probably its lack of occlusion and the refreshing sensation it provides.
alpha bisabolol:See bisabolol.
alpha glucan oligosaccharide:Used as an emollient and has water-binding properties. See mucopolysaccharide.
alpha hydroxy acid:See AHA.
alpha lipoic acid:An enzyme that, when applied topically on skin, can be a very good antioxidant. While studies of alpha lipoic acid do exist, none of them has been carried out on people, and none have been double-blind or placebo-controlled to evaluate its effect on wrinkling (Source: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, October 2001, pages 578~82). Most of the research has been done on human dermal fibroblasts in vitro (test tube) in cell-culture systems. In vitro results are interesting, but it's not known if the results translate to human skin. These models do mimic human skin, but something that mimics human skin is still not the same as living skin. There is research showing that alpha lipoic acid, when taken orally, can have benefit in preventing cellular damage via its antioxidant properties (Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, April 2002, pages 133~66). Again, whether all that translates to the effect on skin is unclear. It is clear from the research that alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant, but this isn't the only one and to date, there is no best one. See antioxidant.
alpha-tocopherol:See vitamin E.
Alpinia Officinarum root extract:May have antioxidants properties (Source: Mutation Research, May 2001, pages 135-150).
alteromonas ferment extract:Alteromonas is a gram-negative bacteria found in seawater. It may have water-binding properties for skin, but there is scant research supporting this.
Althaea rosea:See mallow.
Althea officinalis:Latin name for the marshmallow plant. See mallow.
alumina:Aluminum oxide, used as an abrasive, thickening agent, and absorbent in cosmetics.
aluminum chlorohydrate:Chemically a salt, and used in antiperspirant preparations. It can be extremely irritating on abraded skin.
aluminum magnesium silicate:Salt that has absorbent properties.
aluminum powder:A metallic element used as a coloring agent. It is composed of finely ground particles of aluminum. Permanently listed (since 1977) by the FDA as a safe coloring additive.
aluminum silicate:Salt that has absorbent and abrasive properties.
aluminum starch octenylsuccinate:Powdery thickening agent, absorbent, and anticaking agent used in cosmetics.
aluminum sulfate:Topical disinfectant and a typical ingredient in deodorants. It can be a skin irritant.
amino acid:Fundamental constituents of all proteins found in the body, such as: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, cystine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine. Some of these amino acids can be synthesized by the body; others, the essential amino acids, must be obtained from protein in the diet. In skin-care products, these types of ingredients work primarily as water-binding agents, and some have antioxidant properties and wound-healing abilities as well. However, these substances cannot affect, change, or rebuild wrinkles. Whether the protein in a skin-care product is derived from an animal or a plant, the skin can't tell the difference. See protein and natural moisturizing factors.
aminobutyric acid:Amino acid that has water-binding properties for skin and may be an anti-inflammatory. It supposedly also increases growth hormone when taken orally, but the only support for this is a single obscure study that was conducted more than two decades ago in fewer than 20 subjects, and the results have yet to be replicated by other scientists.
aminomethyl propanediol:Used to adjust pH in cosmetics.
aminomethyl propanol:Used in cosmetics at levels of 1% or below to adjust pH.
ammonium chloride:Alkaline salt used as a pH balancer in skin-care products; it is not used in concentrations that would be problematic for skin.
ammonium laureth sulfate:Can be derived from coconut; used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent and is considered to be gentle and effective. See surfactant.
ammonium lauryl sulfate:Can be derived from coconut; used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent and is considered to be gentle and effective. See surfactant.
amniotic extract or fluid:There is some research showing pure concentrations of amniotic fluid (human) to have some benefit for wound healing (Sources: Journal of Hand Surgery, American, March 2001, pages 332-339 and Cornea, September 1996, pages 517-524). However, there is no research showing amniotic fluid to be effective for wrinkles or other skin care needs or when diluted in cosmetic formulations.
amyl cinnamate:Fragrant component.
amyl salicylate:Fragrant component.
amyris oil:A fragrant oil. It has no other known benefit for skin.
Anacyclus pyrethrum:See pellitory.
Anacystis nidulans extract:See algae.
Ananas sativus fruit extract:See pineapple extract.
andiroba oil:Extracted from the Brazilian mahogany tree; it has anti-inflammatory properties (Source: www.rain-tree.com/andiroba.htm).
andrographolide:Component of Andrographis paniculata, an herb common to India and China. It has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology, January 2002, pages 399-406).
Angelica polymorpha sinensis root extract:See dong quai.INCI Name:Angelica gigas root extract, Angelica acutiloba root extract;Activity:Anti-inflammation, Enhancing blood circulation, Anti-dandruff.
anisaldehyde:Synthetic fragrance used in cosmetics.
anise:Also known as aniseed; it can have potent antioxidant and antibacterial properties (Source: Phytotherapy Research, February 2002, pages 94-95), but its fragrant component makes this a potential skin irritant and it can cause photosensitivity (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
annato extract:Natural plant colorant derived from the flesh surrounding the seed of Bixa orellana, a shrub native to South America; it produces a deep yellow-orange to red color.
Anthemis nobilis flower extract:See chamomile.
Anthyllis vulnera:There is no research showing this plant to have any benefit for skin.
antibacterial:Any ingredient that destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria, particularly in the case of bacteria that cause blemishes.
anti-inflammatory:Any ingredient that reduces certain signs of inflammation, such as swelling, tenderness, pain, irritation, or redness.
anti-irritant:Any ingredient that reduces certain signs of inflammation, such as swelling, tenderness, pain, itching, or redness.
antioxidant:Describes the function a specific ingredient can have on skin to reduce the effects of free-radical damage. Free-radical damage can be caused by the presence of oxygen or any compound that contains an oxygen molecule (such as carbon monoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide), sunlight, and pollution. Any substance that impedes or slows free-radical damage by preventing the oxidative action of molecules is referred to as an "antioxidant." Many vitamins have antioxidant properties, including vitamins A, C, and E, as do amino acids such as methionine, L-cysteine, and L-carnitine; enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and ecatalase; and coenzymes such as alpha lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10. Other antioxidant compounds include glutathione and methylsufonylsulfate.
So what do free-radical damage and antioxidants have to do with wrinkles or skin damage? No one is exactly sure, but, theoretically, when free-radical damage originates from natural environmental factors and fails to be cancelled out by antioxidant protection, then wrinkles appear. If we don't get enough antioxidant protection, either from our own body's production, from dietary sources, or from other sources (including antioxidants we put on our skin), free-radical damage continues unrestrained, causing cells to break down and impairing or destroying their ability to function normally. Free-radical damage destroys collagen and other skin components. There are problems, however, with the hope that stopping free-radical damage with antioxidants can protect your skin, and these problems are that free-radical damage is constant and extensive. How could you ever use enough antioxidants to stop it? How much is needed? How much oxygen, sunlight, or pollution can you really keep away from all skin cells, or even some skin cells? How fast do the antioxidants you apply to your skin get used up? Do they last 20 minutes, one hour, two hours, or more on the skin? At this time, no one knows the answers to any of these questions for sure. Major investigations are currently under way in this fascinating area of human aging (intrinsic aging) and sun damage (extrinsic aging), factors that most unquestionably influence wrinkling. However, even though many respected researchers are working on this issue, the research is still in its infancy, and suggesting anything beyond that is sheer fantasy. See free-radical damage.
aorta extract:Obtained from hearts of animals. It is supposed to have rejuvenating properties for skin, but this has never been proven in research of any kind. Much like any part of a human or animal body, the heart tissue is a source of proteins, amino acids, and other water-binding agents for skin. Because of the concerns regarding Mad Cow Disease, ingredients like these are best avoided in skin-care products.
apple cider vinegar:See vinegar.
apricot kernel:A seed that, especially when finely ground, is a natural exfoliant.
apricot kernel oil:An emollient plant oil pressed from the seeds of apricots, and similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors.
arachidic acid:Derived from peanut oil and used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
arachidonic acid:Produced from phospholipids and fatty acids. There is research showing that this is potentially unsafe and mutagenic when used topically, though more study is needed to decide this conclusively (Sources: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, May 2002, pages 799~07; and Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology, and Oncology, 2002, volume 21, number 2, pages 183~91).
arachidyl alcohol:Waxy substance used as a thickening agent and emollient in cosmetics.
arachidyl propionate:Waxy substance used as a thickening agent and emollient in cosmetics.
Arachis hypogaea extract:Extract of the plant commonly known as the peanut. It can have emollient and anti-inflammatory properties for skin, though peanut allergy is one of the five most frequent food allergies in children and in adults (Source: Allergy, 2002, volume 57, supplemental number 72, pages 88~3).
arbutin:Hydroquinone derivative isolated from the leaves of the bearberry shrub, cranberry, blueberry, and most types of pears. Because of arbutin's hydroquinone content, it can have melanin-inhibiting properties (Sources: Analytical Biochemistry, June 2002, pages 260~68, and June 1999, pages 207~19; Pigment Cell Research, August 1998, pages 206~12; and Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, February 1996, pages 765~69). Although the research describing arbutin's effectiveness is persuasive (even if almost all of the research has been done on animals or in vitro), concentration protocols have not been established. That means we just don't know how much arbutin it takes to have an effect in lightening the skin. Moreover, most cosmetics companies don't use arbutin in their products because there are Shiseido-owned patents controlling its use in skin-care products for skin lightening. To get around this problem, many cosmetics companies use plant extracts that contain arbutin, such as bearberry. There is limited research, mostly animal studies or in vitro, showing that the plant extracts that contain arbutin have any impact on skin. Whether or not these extracts are effective in the small amounts present in cosmetics has not been established. See hydroquinone.
Arctium lappa:See burdock root.
Arctostaphylos uva ursi leaf:See bearberry.
argan oil:Derived from the nuts of the argania tree; it is an emollient oil (similar to peanut oil) that may have anti-inflammatory properties, but there is no research supporting that claim.
Argania spinosa kernel oil:See argan oil.
Argania spinosa oil:See argan oil.
arginine:Amino acid that has antioxidant properties and can be helpful for wound healing (Sources: Journal of Surgical Research, June 2002, pages 35~2; Nitric Oxide, May 2002, pages 313~18; and European Surgical Research, January-April 2002, pages 53~0).See amino acid.
Argireline:See acetyl hexapeptide-3.
arnica extract:Extract from the plant Arnica montana. It is repeatedly stated in all herbal journals used for the compilation of this dictionary that arnica should not be applied to abraded skin because it is a significant skin irritant. The PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines Healing Therapies says: "Repeated contact with cosmetics containing arnica can cause itching, blisters, ulcers, and dead skin." (Other Sources: IFA international Federation of Aromatherapists; and www.int-fed-aromatherapy.co.uk). It is also associated with a high incidence of skin sensitization (Source: American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, June 1996, pages 94~9).
arrowroot:Thickening agent; it has no known benefit for skin.
artemia extract:See algae.
Artemisia absinthium extract:See mugwort extract.
Artemisia annua:See mugwort extract.
Artemisia vulgaris:See mugwort extract.
artichoke extract:May have antioxidant benefits for skin (Sources: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 2002, pages 3458~464; and Free Radical Research, August 2001, pages 195~02).
Ascophyllum nodosum:Form of seaweed. See algae.
ascorbic acid:Form of vitamin C that has antioxidant properties (Sources: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 2002, number 505, pages 113~22; and Journal of Investigative Dermatology, February 2002, pages 372~79) and anticancer properties when taken orally (Source: Cancer Detection and Prevention, 2000, volume 24, number 6, pages 508~23). It can be difficult to stabilize in formulations (Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, October 1999, pages 233~41). Its acid component is considered a skin irritant.
ascorbyl glucosamine:Form of vitamin C that has little research showing it to have the antioxidant or skin-lightening properties of other forms of vitamin C. The only study that does exist showed it to be ineffective for skin lightening (Source: Dermatology, 2002, volume 204, number 4, pages 281~86).
ascorbyl glucoside:Form of vitamin C combined with glucose. It can function as an antioxidant, though only minimal research substantiates this.
ascorbylmethylsilanolpectinate:Form of vitamin C that is considered stable and functions as an antioxidant and thickening agent. See vitamin C.
ascorbyl palmitate:Stable and nonacidic form of vitamin C that is effective as an antioxidant (Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, September 1999, pages 661~65).
asiatic acid:See Centella asiaticae.
asparagine:See amino acid.
Asparagopsis armata extract:Derived from seaweed.See algae.
Asparagus officinalis stem extract:There is no research showing asparagus extract to have any benefit for skin.
aspartic acid:See amino acid.
Aspergillus/Aspidosperma quebracho ferment:Fungus compound that is considered problematic for health (Sources: Current Opinion in Microbiology, August 2002, page 386; and Annual Review of Microbiology, July 2002, http://micro.annualreviews.org/cgi/content/abstract/012302.160625v4). Aspidosperma quebracho is the bark of a tree that has no known benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com). There is no research showing that the combination of Aspergillus and Aspidosperma quebracho can have any benefit for skin.
Astaxanthin:See Astaxanthin Extract.
Astaxanthin Extract:A carotenoid (carotene pigment) found in plants, algae, and fish, particularly salmon. It functions as an antioxidant. It has a strong ability to destroy unstable oxygen molecules (Source: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research, Volume 65, Issue 2, 1995, pages 79-86). Preliminary research suggests that Astaxanthin may be able to prevent the oxidative damage to skin after exposure to UVA radiation (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Eighth Edition, 2006, page 88). See antioxidant.
Astragalus membranaceus:Scientific name for the Chinese herb Huang-Qi, also known as milk vetch. See milk vetch.INCI Name:Astragalus membranaceus root extract;Property:Anti-dandruff, Anti-itching, Anti-inflammation.
Astragalus sinicus:See milk vetch.
atharanthus roseus:See Madagascar periwinkle.
ATP:See adenosine triphosphate.
Avena sativa:Oat plant. Oat extract can have anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, March-April 2002, pages 120~24).
Avens extract:Derived from the geum plant family; can be a skin irritant due to its tannin and eugenol content.
avobenzone:Synthetic sunscreen ingredient (also known as Parsol 1789 and butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane) that can protect against the entire range of the sun's UVA rays (Sources: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology, Photomedicine, August 2000, pages 147-155; and International Journal of Pharmaceutics, June 2002, pages 85-94). See UVA and Paula's article, Avobenzone: Stable or Unstable?.
avocado oil:Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors.
awapuhi:English name for wild ginger. See ginger extract.
Ayurveda:Alternative health practice historically developed in India. The term "Ayurveda" is based on two Sanskrit words: ayu, meaning life, and veda, meaning science. According to an article in the Indian Journal of Experimental Biology (May 2000, pages 409~14), the Ayurvedic system of treatments believes that the "living system is made of panch-mahabuta, in the form of vata, pitta and kapha at the physical level and satwa, raja and tama at the mental level. This covers the psychosomatic constitution and [is] commonly known as the Tridosh theory. The imbalance in these body humours [mechanisms] is the basic cause of any type of disease manifestation." Another interpretation of Ayurvedic theory, in Alternative Therapies Health Medicine (March 7, 2001), noted that "The body is composed of 3 body doshas, 3 mental doshas, 7 dhatus, and malas. The harmony among the body doshas of vata (nervous system), pitta (enzymes), and kapha (mucus) and the gunas, or mental doshas (which are human attributes: satogun [godly], rajas [kingly], and tamas [evil]), constitutes health, and their disharmony constitutes disease. The management of illness requires balancing the doshas back into a harmonious state through lifestyle interventions, spiritual nurturing, and treatment with herbo-mineral formulas based on one's mental and bodily constitution." There is no research showing how or if Ayurvedic principles of any kind can affect skin (though I assure you they do not prevent sun damage hat, at least, is certain).
Azadirachta indica:See neem extract.
azelaic acid:Trade name Azelex; a component of grains such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is effective for a number of skin conditions when applied topically in a cream formulation at a 20% concentration. For the most part, azelaic acid is recommended as an option for acne treatment, but there is also some research showing it to be effective for the treatment of skin discolorations. For example, "The efficacy of 20% azelaic acid cream and 4% hydroquinone cream, both used in conjunction with a broad-spectrum sunscreen, against melasma was investigated in a 24-week, double-blind study with 329 women. Over the treatment period the azelaic acid cream yielded 65% good or excellent results; no significant treatment differences were observed with regard to overall rating, reduction in lesion size, and pigmentary intensity. Severe side effects such as allergic sensitization or exogenous ochronosis were not observed with azelaic acid" (Source: International Journal of Dermatology, December 1991, pages 893~95). However, other research suggests that azelaic acid is more irritating than hydroquinone mixed with glycolic acid or kojic acid (Source: eMedicine Journal, www.emedicine.com, November 5, 2001, volume 2, number 11). Azelaic acid is a consideration for skin lightening if you have had problems using hydroquinone along with tretinoin. See hydroquinone,tretinoin.
Azelex:See azelaic acid.
azuki beans:Legumes ground and used as abrasives in scrub products.
azulene:Chamomile extract used primarily as a coloring agent in cosmetics. It can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Sources: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, September 2001, pages 486~87; andBiochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 1996 volume 92, number 3, pages 361~64).See chamomile.
Acanthopanax Senticosus (Eleuthero) Root Extract:Anti-inflammatory, improves cellular immunity, exhibits anti-viral properties.
Acer Saccharum (Sugar Maple) Extract:Naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids to help promote smoother, younger looking skin by increasing the rate of cell renewal. Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying. Exhibits astringent and tightening properties while relieving congestion and limiting excess sebum (oil)
Acetyl Hexapeptide-8:A neuropeptide that is proven to reduce up to 30% - the depth of the wrinkles in the face caused by the contraction of the muscles of facial expression, especially around the eyes and the forehead and mouth region. This amino acid chain works by inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters which relax facial muscle contractions without the paralyzing of facial muscles.
Acetyl Tetrapeptide-2:A biomimetic peptide designed to compensate for the natural loss of thymoproietin (youth protein), stimulating the creation macrophages and Langerhans cells (part of the immune response system) and reinvigorating the epidermis’ ability to regenerate. These two modes of action lead to a reinforced defense system and promote epidermal restructuring.
Acetyl Tetrapeptide-5:Stimulates detoxification processes to eliminate excess fluid retention and blood stagnation, regulates peripheral bloodflow to reduce the appearance of dark circles and bruising, provides anti-inflammatory effects to reduce edema and stagnant blood flow, alleviates dark circles and puffiness in the eye area, provides decongesting action.
Actinidia Chinensis (Kiwi) Fruit Extract :Rich in phytonutrients, minerals, vitamins C and E. Contains alpha linolenic acid which helps skin retain moisture.
Aesculus Hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) Bark Extract:Supports blood circulation, wound healing support, anti-inflammatory, inhibits enzymes that catalyze structural break down resulting in beneficial effects on the appearance and texture of the skin
Agave Tequilana (Blue Agave) Leaf Extract:Exhibits skin soothing properties, especially beneficial to ease the discomfort of a sun burn. Historically used to clear blemishes, soothe itches and maintain healthy skin.
Aleurites Moluccana (Kukui) Seed Oil:Antioxidant and 'molecular band-aids' exhibiting effective reduction in skin's redness. Provide pro-active shielding to make skin less susceptible to sun damage, as well as aiding in sun-post damage healing process.
Allantoin:Source:Roots of Comfrey.Assists in tissue growth, provides anti-irritant action to relieve sensitivities. Protects from UV damage. Possesses moisturizing, healing, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and antioxidant properties.
Aloe Barbadensis Leaf Juice Powder:Assists in pain relief and reducing inflammation, re-hydrates and improves the skin’s natural UV absorption capabilities.
Aminoguanidine HCL:source: Vegetable Source, usually Turnips, Mushrooms or Rice Hulls.Chealates oxygen free radicals to reduce damage from reactive species, maintains healthy collagen structures and improves the resistance of extra-cellular matrix compounds from breakdown, anti-aging,inhibits cross-linking of collagen by preventing glucose cross linking that causes wrinkles, improves cellular immunity and prevents DNA damage.
Ananas Sativus (Pineapple) Fruit Extract:source: Pineapple.Purifies and moisturizes, provides anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory actions, reduces the cohesion of corneocytes (exfoliates), improves elasticity and suppleness. Contains bromelain; an enzyme that promotes blood circulation and cleansing.
Ananas Sativus (Pineapple) Stem Powder:source: Pineapple.Purifies and moisturizes, provides anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory actions, reduces the cohesion of corneocytes (exfoliates), improves elasticity and suppleness. Contains bromelain; an enzyme that promotes blood circulation and cleansing.
Anthemis Nobilis (Chamomile) Flower Extract:source: Roman Camomille Flower.Excellent in the treatment of acne, redness and inflammation, soothes and restores traumatized skin, contains azulene which reduces inflammation, rich in polyphenols that assist in skin healing and reducing capillary fragility, phenols provide additional healing and skin clarification (relieves congestion).
Anthemis Nobilis (Chamomile) Flower Oil:source: Roman Camomille Flower.Rich in alpha-bisobolol, soothes and restores calm to the skin, relieves rashes and eczema, anti-inflammatory actions .
Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Powder* (Blue Green Algae):source: Blue Green Algae.Hydrates and normalizes dehydrated skin, remineralizes skin tissues with Oligo elements that fortify and strengthen the skin.
Aqua (Water) :source: Distilled Water.Affects the base texture of a formula, hydrates the skin.
Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil:source: Moroccan Argan Fruit.Tree indigenous to South Morocco, rich in poly-unsaturated fatty acids (including linoleic acid, omega-6) and natural tocopherols, nourishing, regenerating and protective. Excellent anti-free radical effect for a preventive anti-ageing effect. Nourishes dry skin by helping to restore the skin barrier. A seboregulator for greasy skin imparting an extraordinary softness and silky feel.
Arginine (L):source: Amino Acid.Amino acid that promotes wound healing support, improves cellular immunity, detoxifies aging agents from the skin, prevents lipid peroxidation, gaurds against skin wrinkling and loss of firmness.
Arnica Montana Flower Extract:source: Arnica Flower.Acts as a stimulant to improve cellular respiration and circulation, highly anti-inflammatory, provides pain relief associated with skin irritations .
Ascophyllum Nodosum Extract:source: Seaweed - Ascophyllum Nodosum Brown Algae.A marine plant-based extract shown to reduce pigment of synthesized melanin. Stimulates cellular renewal, encouraging the elimination of melanin migrating it towards the stratum corneum. Provides protection against free radicals while defending cellular membranes.
Ascorbic Acid:source: Citrus.Water Soluble active form of Vitamin C. Antioxidant, strengthens collagen, assists in brightening, provides anti-wrinkle effects / smoothes skin texture, heals wounds, prevents scarring.
Ascorbic Acid from Apple:source: Apples.Water Soluble active form of Vitamin C. Antioxidant, strengthens collagen, assists in brightening, provides anti-wrinkle effects / smoothes skin texture, heals wounds, prevents scarring.
Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate [Ascorbyl Palmitate (L)] :source: Fat Soluble Vitamin C Ester.Referred to as a super C antioxidant, promotes tissue firmness and brightening while reducing visible wrinkles, encourages collagen synthesis.
Aspalathus Linearis (Rooibos) Extract:source: Rooibos.Antioxidant, soothes and repairs damaged skin, promotes anti-allergic activities, excellent for sensitive and allergic skin conditions.
Astaxanthin:source: Volcanic Seaweed from the Ocean.A carotenoid that is derived from oceanic sources (volcanic seaweed), protects Collagen and prevents cross-linkages, boosts the effects of beta carotene and Co Enzyme Q10, provides intensive antioxidant actions.Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Azelaic Acid:source:Potatoes.Inhibits tyrosinase activity to reduce pigmentation spotting related to breakouts, treats mild to moderate acne (both inflammatory and comedonal), reduces bacteria growth in the follicles, scavenges free radicals.
Agaricus extract:Common Name:Agaricus mushroom,INCI Name:Agaricus blazeii extract,Activities:Antioxidant, Anti-atopy, Anti-itching.
Agrimony extract:Common Name:Churchsteeples, Agrimony, Cocklebur, Harvest-lice;INCI Name:Agrimonia eupatoria extract;Activities:Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation, Anti-acne.
Asparagus root extract :Common Name:Chinese asparagus, Shiny asparagus;INCI Name:Asparagus cochinchinensis root extract;Property:Skin regeneration.
Atractylodes extract:Common Name:Atractylodes;INCI Name:Atractyloides japonica rhizome extract;Property:Anti-microbe.
Ayur Kapha Complex:Common Name:Camomile / Oregano / Marjoram;INCI Name:Chamomilla recutita (Matricaria) flower extract / Origanum vulgare flower extract / Origanum majorana leaf extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
AHA extract:Common Name:Orange / Lemon / Apple;INCI Name:Citrus aurantium dulcis (Orange) fruit extract / Citrus medica limonum (Lemon) fruit extract / Pyrus malus (Apple) fruit extract;Property:Peeling, Softening.
Anise extract:Common Name:Chinese star anise, Star anise, Anise, Ba jiao hui xian;INCI Name:Illicium verum (Anise) fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-microbe.
AMT Shield:Common Name:Elecampane / Dogwood / Snow parsley;INCI Name:Inula helenium extract / Cornus officinalis fruit extract / Cnidium monnieri fruit extract;Property:Anti-microbe.
Ayur Pitta Complex:Common Name:Jasmine / Rosemary / Hibiscus;INCI Name:Jasminum officinale (Jasmine) flower extract / Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) leaf extract / Hibiscus sabdariffa flower extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Avocado extract:Common Name:Avocado, Alligator pear, Aguacate, Avocat;INCI Name:Persea gratissima (Avocado) fruit extract;Property:Anti-inflammation.
Amur cork tree bark extract:Common Name:Amur cork tree, Huang po;INCI Name:Phellodendron amurense bark extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-microbe.
Aspen Bark extract:Common Name:American aspen, Aspen, Quaking aspen, Trembling aspen;INCI Name:Populus tremuloides bark extract;Property:Skin regeneration.
Antiacne-SP4:Common Name:Purslane / Fishwort / Rhubarb / Honeysuckle;INCI Name:Portulaca oleracea extract / Houttuynia cordata extract / Rheum palmatum root extract / Lonicera japonica (Honeysuckle) flower extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-acne.
Apricot extract:INCI Name:Prunus armeniaca (Apricot) fruit extract;Property:Whitening.
Apricot kernel extract:INCI Name:Prunus armeniaca (Apricot) kernel extract;Property:Anti-acne, Anti-atopy, Softening, Whitening.
Apple extract:INCI Name:Pyrus malus (Apple) fruit extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Softening.
Ayur Vata Complex:Common Name:Sage / Basil / Lavender;INCI Name:Salvia officinalis (Sage) leaf extract / Ocimum basilicum (Basil) flower,leaf,stem extract / Lavandula angustifolia (Lavender) flower extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Anthonin:Common Name:Black sesame / Black soybean / Black rice;INCI Name:Sesamum indicum (Sesame) seed extract / Glycine soja (Soybean) seed extract / Oryza sativa (Rice) extract;Property:Antioxidant, Protein synthesis.
Arbor vitae leaf extract:Common Name:Arbor vitae, Northern white cedar;INCI Name:Thuja occidentalis leaf extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Adenosome:Common Name:Liposome containing 2% of Adenosine with the membrane of lipid base;INCI Name:Water , Propylene glycol , Butylene glycol , Lecithin , Adenosine , Glycerin , Hydrogenated lecithin , 1,2-Hexanediol , Methylparaben.
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