Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: C10-18 triglycerides | C12-15 alkyl benzoate | C12-18 acid triglyceride | C18-36 acid triglyceride | C20-40 pareth-40 | cabbage rose extract | cactus flower extract | caffeic acid | caffeine | cajeputi oil | calamine | calcium ascorbate | calcium carbonate | calcium d-pantetheine-s-sulfonate | calcium gluconate | calcium pantetheine sulfonate | calcium pantothenate | calcium silicate | calendula extract | Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil | Calophyllum tacamahaca | Camellia kissi oil | Camellia oleifera | Camellia sasanqua oil | Camellia sinensis | camphor | cananga extract | Cananga odorata | candelilla wax | Cannabis sativa L. oil | canola oil | caprylic/capric triglyceride | capsaicin | capsicum | capsicum oleoresin | caramel | carbomers | carbopol | cardamom | carmine | carnauba wax | carnauba wax | carnitine | carnosic acid | carnosine | carnosol acid | carob fruit extract | carrageenan | carrot extract | carrot oil | Carthamus tinctorius oil | carvone | Carya illinoensis oil | casein | Cassia angustifolia seed | castile soap | castor oil | catalase | Caulerpa taxifolia extract | cedarwood | Cedrus atlantica bark extract | celandine | Celastrus paniculatus | cell-communicating ingredients | cellulose | Centaurea cyanus | Centella asiatica | Centipeda cunninghami extract | cephalin | cera alba | cera microcristallina | Ceramide 1 | Ceramide 3 | Ceramide 6-II | ceramides | Ceratonia siliqua gum | ceresin | Cereus grandiflorus extract | ceteareth-20 | cetearyl alcohol | cetearyl ethylhexanoate | cetyl acetate | cetyl alcohol | cetyl dimethicone | cetyl esters | cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1- dimethicone | chamomile | chaparral extract | charcoal | chaste tree fruit extract | chaulmoogra oil | chayote extract | chicory extract | China clay | chitosan | chloasma | chlorella | chlorhexidine | chlorophene | chlorphenesin | chocolate | cholecalciferol | cholesterol | choline | chondroitin sulfate | Chondrus crispus | chromium hydroxide green | chromium oxide green | chrysanthemum extract | Chrysanthemum parthenium extract | Cichorium intybus | Cimicifuga racemosa root extract | Cinchona succirubra bark extract | Cinnamomum camphora | Cinnamomum | cinnamon | Cistus ladaniferus oil | citric acid | citrulline | Citrullus colocynthis | Citrus amara | Citrus aurantifolia | Citrus aurantium | Citrus aurantium extract | Citrus medica limonium | clary oil | clay | Clematis vitalba | Clintonia borealis extract | clove leaf | clove oil | clover blossom | clover leaf oil | cobalt gluconate | cocamide DEA and MEA | cocamidopropyl betaine | cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine | cocoa butter | cocoa extract | cocoglycerides | coconut | coconut oil | Cocus nucifera | Codium tomentosum extract | coenzyme Q10 | Coffea arabica extract | Cola acuminata seed extract | Coleus barbatus | collagen | collagen amino acid | colloidal oatmeal | colloidal silver | colostrum | coltsfoot | comfrey extract | Commiphora myrrha extract | Commiphora wightii extract | coneflower | Conium maculatum | Copaifera officinalis | copper gluconate | copper peptides | copper sulfate | Corallina officinalis extract | coriander | corn glycerides | corn oil | cornflower | cornmint | cornstarch | Cornus extract | corticosteroids | Corylus americana | Corylus avellana | costus root | coumarin | counter-irritant | Cranberry Seed Extract | Cranberry Seed Oil | Crataegus monogina extract | Crithmum maritimum | cucumber extract | Cucumis sativus extract | Curcuma longa root | curcumin | Cyamopsis tetragonoloba | cyanocobalamin | Cyanopsis tetragonalba | Cyanotis arachnoidea extract | Cyatheaceae extract | cyclamen aldehyde | cyclohexasiloxane | cyclomethicone | cyclopentasiloxane | Cymbopogon citrates | Cymbopogon martini | Cynara scolymus | Cyperus rotundus extract | cysteine | cystine | cystosine | cytochrome | cytokines | C 18-36 Acid Triglyceride | Caffeine (Green Coffee) | Calendula Officinalis (Calendula) Flower Extract | Calendula Officinalis (Calendula) Flowers | Camellia Oleifera Seed Oil | Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extract | Cananga Odorata (Ylang Ylang) Flower Oil | Cannabis Sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil | Caprooyl Tetrapeptide-3 | Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (Coconut) | Caprylyl Glycol | Carnosine (L) | Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil | Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide | Castor Isostearate Beeswax Succinate | Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola) Extract | Cera Alba (Beeswax) | Cereus Grandiflorus (Cactus) Flower Extract | Cetearyl Alcohol | Cetearyl Glucoside | Cetearyl Olivate | Cetyl Alcohol (Coconut) | Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract | Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Oil | Chlorophyll (L) | Chlorophyll (Plant) | Chlorophyllin | Cholecalciferol | Cholesteryl Stearate/Carbonate Complex | Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Bark Extract | Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Leaf Oil | Citral | Citric Acid | Citronellol | Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime) Oil | Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Fruit Extract | Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Sweet Orange) Oil | Citrus Aurantium ssp. Amara (Neroli) Oil | Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Seed Extract | Citrus Grandis (Red Grapefruit) Peel Oil | Citrus Grandis (Red Grapefruit) Peel Oil | Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon Zest) Peel | Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Fruit Extract | Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Fruit Oil | Citrus Paradisi (Pink Grapefruit) Peel Oil | Citrus Paradisi (White Grapefruit) Peel Oil | Citrus Reticulata (Red Mandarin) Leaf Oil | Citrus Sinensis var. Sanguina (Blood Orange) Oil | Citrus Tangerina (Tangerine) Peel Oil | Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine | Coco-Caprylate/Caprate | Cocos Nucifera (Coconut Cream) Fruit | Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil | Coffea Arabica (Green Coffee) Leaf/Seed Extract | Collagen (Marine Oligopeptides) | Collinsonia Canadensis (Stone Root) Extract | Cucumis Melo (Melon) Fruit Extract | Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract | Cucurbita Pepo (Fermented Pumpkin Juice) | Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Fruit Extract | Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Seed Oil | Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Wine | Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin | Curcuma Longa (Turmeric) Root Extract | Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (Guar Bean) Gum | Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) | Cyclodextrin | Cymbopogon Martini (Palmarosa) Oil | Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Lemongrass) Oil |Calamus extract | Cardamom seed extract | Cabbage extract | Camellia extract | Camellia oil | Chestnut shell extract | Caviar extract | Chamomile extract | Chamomile water | Celandine extract | Chlorella extract | Cinnamon extract | Clematis root extract | Cnidium fruit extract | Cnidium rhizome extract | Coconut extract | Codonopsis extract | Coffee bean extract | Cordyceps mushroom extract | Coriander extract | Corydalis root extract | Clove extract | Chaga extract | Chung Sang Bang Pung Tang | Cornbind root extract(HD) | Chil Sun Dan | Cherry extract | Chrysophanic BDR 11,12 | Cocoa extract | Cocoa powder | Caltrop fruit extract | Chinese cucumber root extract | Coltsfoot flower extract | Chaste tree berry extract | Cocklebur fruit extract |
C10-18 triglycerides:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.See glyceryl ester.
C12-15 alkyl benzoate:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
C12-18 acid triglyceride:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
C18-36 acid triglyceride:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
C20-40 pareth-40:A mixture of polyethylene glycols of various molecular weight that can function as a stabilizing agent, solubolizer, and surfactant.
cabbage rose extract:Highly fragrant substance that can be a skin irritant.
cactus flower extract:There is little information about this plant extract when applied topically, but it may be a skin irritant that causes itching and skin pustules (Sources: Botanical Dermatology Database,http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/BotDermFolder/BotDermC/CACT.html; and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
caffeic acid:Potent antioxidant that may have some anticarcinogenic properties (Sources: Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters, June 2002, pages 1567~570; and Nutrition and Cancer, 1998, volume 32, number 2, pages 81~5).
caffeine:One of a group of alkaloids called methylxanthines. It is a substance with a high tannin content, which constricts skin and can cause irritation. When consumed in coffee, caffeine can be a strong diuretic, but there is no evidence that this effect can result when caffeine is applied to skin (so it would not have the effect of "flushing away" fluid in tissues around the eyes that can accumulate as you sleep). However, there is research that caffeine can have anticancer benefits when consumed along with green or black tea (adding caffeine to the decaffeinated versions of the teas did not work as well as using the caffeinated versions of the teas) (Source: Cancer Research, July 1997, pages 2623~629). Whether there is any correlation between the effects of consuming caffeine and its effects when applied topically on skin is unknown.
cajeputi oil:See Melaleuca cajeputi oil.
calamine:Preparation of zinc carbonate, colored with ferric oxide (a form of rust). Zinc carbonate is considered a counter-irritant and is used to reduce itching.See counter-irritant.
calcium ascorbate:One form of vitamin C; others include ascorbic acid, L-ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, and magnesium ascorbyl phosphate. There is very little research concerning its health benefits, either topically or orally, in regard to its antioxidant benefits. See Ester-C.
calcium carbonate:Chalk; used as an absorbent in cosmetics.
calcium d-pantetheine-s-sulfonate:See calcium pantetheine sulfonate.
calcium gluconate:Calcium is an essential mineral for the body. A small amount of research shows it to be a good anti-inflammatory and healing agent when applied topically (Source: Annals of Emergency Medicine, July 1994, pages 9~3).
calcium pantetheine sulfonate:A small amount of in vitro research shows this to have melanin-inhibiting properties (Source: Pigment Cell Research, June 2000, pages 165~71).
calcium pantothenate:Also known as pantothenic acid.See pantothenic acid.
calcium silicate:See silicate.
calendula extract:Common Name:Pot marigold, Calendula;INCI Name:Calendula officinalis flower extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Antioxidant, Anti-allergy.Derived from the plant commonly known as pot marigold; there is little research showing it to have any effect on skin, though it may have antibacterial and antioxidant properties for skin.
Calophyllum inophyllum seed oil:See tamanu oil.
Calophyllum tacamahaca:Source of a plant oil that has emollient and antimutagenic properties (Source: Phytochemistry, October 2001, pages 571~75).
Camellia kissi oil:See Camellia sasanqua oil.
Camellia oleifera:See green tea.
Camellia sasanqua oil:Plant extract that has emollient properties for skin. There is a small amount of research showing it to have anti-inflammatory properties as well (Source: Phytochemistry, May 1998, pages 301~05).
Camellia sinensis:See green tea.
camphor:Aromatic substance obtained from the wood of a southeast Asian tree, Cinnamomum camphora, or manufactured synthetically. When applied to the skin it produces a cooling effect and dilates blood vessels, which can cause skin irritation and dermatitis with repeated use (Sources: British Journal of Dermatology, November 2000, pages 923~29; and Clinical Toxicology, December 1981, pages 1485~498).See counter-irritant.
cananga extract:Fragrance used in cosmetics; it can be a skin irritant, much like ylang-ylang.
Cananga odorata:See ylang-ylang.
candelilla wax:Derived from candelilla plants; used as a thickening agent and emollient to give products such as lipsticks or stick foundations their form.
Cannabis sativa L. oil:See hemp seed oil.
canola oil:Plant lipid that has barrier-repair and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: British Journal of Dermatology, February 1996, pages 215~20).See natural moisturizing factors.
caprylic/capric triglyceride:Derived from coconut, and considered to be a good emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
capsaicin:Component of capsicum. When used topically, capsaicin can prevent the transmission of pain. It is also a potent topical irritant and can trigger dermatitis. See capsicum.
capsicum:A large group of plants consisting primarily of the pepper family, including chili peppers and paprika. These are used as counter-irritants to relieve muscle aches. Capsicum and substances derived from it can cause allergic reactions or skin irritation and should never be applied to abraded skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com). See counter-irritant.
capsicum oleoresin:Fatty resin derived from capsicum plants. It can be a skin irritant and should not be applied to abraded skin. See capsicum.
caramel:Natural coloring agent.
carbomers:Thickening agents used primarily to create gel-like formulations.
cardamom:Plant of the ginger family, used as fragrance in cosmetics. Terpene is one of its major constituents, which can be a skin irritant and sensitizer.
carmine:Natural red color that comes from the dried female cochineal beetle. It is sometimes used to color lip gloss, lipsticks, and other cosmetics.
carnauba wax:Vegetable wax that has a hard, firm texture; it is used in cosmetics as a substantial thickening agent.
carnauba wax:A natural, hard wax obtained from the leaves of palm trees. Used primarily as a thickening agent, but can also have film-forming and absorbent properties.
carnosic acid:Component of rosemary that is considered a potent antioxidant (Sources: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, June 2002, pages 1293~303; and Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, March 2002, pages 1845~851).
carnosine:Composed of amino acids, it has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. There is some research showing it to have antiglycation properties (Source: Life Sciences, March 2002, pages 1789~799).
carnosol acid:See carnosic acid.
carob fruit extract:May have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, January 2002, pages 373-377).
carrageenan:Seaweed gum used in cosmetics as a thickening agent with water-binding properties.
carrot extract:Carrot extract.INCI Name:Daucus carota sativa (Carrot) root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.Can have antioxidant properties (Source: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, November 2001, pages 501~08), but whether it can have that effect when applied topically on skin is not known.
carrot oil:Emollient plant oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors.
Carthamus tinctorius oil:See safflower oil.
carvone:Essential oil used as a flavoring agent and fragrance component in cosmetics. It can be a significant skin sensitizer or allergen (Sources: Planta Medica, August 2001, pages 564~66; and Contact Dermatitis, June 2001, pages 347~56).
Carya illinoensis oil:See pecan oil.
casein:Substance derived from milk protein that may have some antioxidant properties when applied topically, although the research for this is limited (Source: International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, July 1999, pages 291~96).
Cassia angustifolia seed:May have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Fitoterapia, March 2001, pages 221~29).
castile soap:Uses olive oil instead of animal fat, but that can still be drying to skin.
castor oil:Vegetable oil derived from the castor bean. It is used in cosmetics as an emollient, though its unique property is that when dry it forms a solid film that can have water-binding properties. It is rarely associated with skin irritation or allergic reactions but it can have a slightly sticky feel on skin.
catalase:Enzyme that decomposes hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen and that has significant antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, April 2002, pages 618~25).
Caulerpa taxifolia extract:See algae.
cedarwood:Fragrant plant extract. There is evidence that cedarwood oil is allergenic and can cause skin irritation. There is also a small amount of research showing it produces tumors on mouse skin (Sources: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
Cedrus atlantica bark extract:Fragrant oil that can be a skin irritant.
celandine:Extract from the plant Chelidonium majus that has some amount of research showing it to have antiviral properties. There is no research showing it have benefit when applied topically.
Celastrus paniculatus:Shrub native to India. It may have antioxidant properties, although the research for this has been on animal models or in vitro (Source: Phytomedicine, May 2002, pages 302~11).
cell-communicating ingredients:Medical journals refer to these as cell signaling substances ut cell communicating is more descriptive of what they do in relation to skin care. Cell-communicating ingredients, theoretically, have the ability to tell a skin cell to look, act, and behave better, more like a normal healthy skin cell would, or to stop other substances from telling the cell to behave badly or abnormally. They complement antioxidants because as helpful as antioxidants are, they can stop free-radical damage altogether, and they definitely can correct years of unprotected or poorly protected sun exposure. Damage of this nature causes abnormal skin cells to be produced. Instead of normal, round, even, and completely intact skin cells being regenerated, when damaged cells form and reproduce they are uneven, flat, and lack structural integrity. As a result of these deformities and inherent fragility, the cells behave poorly. Examples of cell-communicating ingredients include niacinamide, adenosine triphosphate, and retinol, as well as tretinoin, the active ingredient in prescription products such as Renova, Retin-A, and Tazorac, and possibly peptides. (Sources: Microscopy Research and Technique, January 2003, pages 107~14; Nature Medicine, February 2003, pages 225~29; Journal of Investigative Dermatology, March 2002, pages 402~08; International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, July 2004, pages 1141~146; Experimental Cell Research, March 2002, pages 130~37; Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, September-October 2002, pages 316~20; and www.signaling-gateway.org). See antioxidant and peptide.
cellulose:The primary fiber component of plants. Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and to bind other ingredients together.
Centaurea cyanus:See cornflower.
Centella asiatica:Herb that may appear on labels as asiatic acid, hydrocotyl, or gotu kola. It has antibacterial, anti-psoriatic, and wound-healing properties (Sources: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, May-June 2000, pages 227~34; Phytomedicine, May 2001, pages 230~35; and Contact Dermatitis, October 1993, pages 175~79).
Centipeda cunninghami extract:Derived from an Australian plant commonly known as sneezeweed or old man's weed. It has been used by aborigines for burns, wounds, and skin infections. The only research confirming the effectiveness of this plant extract as an anti-inflammatory, is from the company that owns the patent for its use.
cephalin:A phospholipid. See fatty acid and natural moisturizing factors.
cera alba:Beeswax; used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.
cera microcristallina:See petrolatum.
Ceramide 1:See ceramides.
Ceramide 3:See ceramides.
Ceramide 6-II:See ceramides.
ceramides:Naturally occurring skin lipids (fats) that are major structural components of the skin's outer structure (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, November 2001, pages 1126~136). Ceramides are necessary for the skin's water-retention capacity as well as cell regulation (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, September-October 2001, pages 261~71).
Ceratonia siliqua gum:See carob fruit extract.
ceresin:Derived from clay, it is a waxy ingredient used as a thickening agent in cosmetics. It can be sensitizing for some skin types.
Cereus grandiflorus extract:See cactus flower extract.
ceteareth-20:Fatty alcohol that is used to thicken cosmetics and keep ingredients mixed together and stable.
cetearyl alcohol:Fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other ingredients. Can be derived naturally, as in coconut fatty alcohol, or synthetically.
cetearyl ethylhexanoate:See cetearyl alcohol.
cetyl acetate:A mixture of cetyl alcohol and acetic acid (see both) used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient.
cetyl alcohol:Fatty alcohol used as an emollient, emulsifier, thickener, and carrying agent for other ingredients. Can be derived naturally, as in coconut fatty alcohol, or synthetically. It is not an irritant and is not related to SD alcohol or ethyl alcohol.
cetyl dimethicone:A silicone polymer that functions as skin conditioning agent. See silicone.
cetyl esters:Synthetic wax used as a thickening agent and emollientt.
cetyl PEG/PPG-10/1- dimethicone:A silicone that functions as a skin-conditioning agent and emulsifier. See silicone.
chamomile:Herb that has research showing it to have anti-irritant, soothing, and antioxidant properties (Sources: www.herbmed.org; European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, October-December 1999, pages 303~08; and Planta Medica, October 1994, pages 410~13).
chaparral extract:There is conflicting research about its efficacy as an anticancer agent, though it does contain a component that has antioxidant properties (Source: Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, January 1995, pages 6~2; and www.healthwell.com/healthnotes/). When ingested, it may cause liver toxicity (Sources: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, June 1999, pages 157~61; Archives of Internal Medicine, April 1997, pages 913~19; and www.quackwatch.com/01QuackeryRelatedTopics/OTA/ota04.html). Topically it can have antimicrobial properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 1996, pages 175~77).
charcoal:Baked wood that is mainly carbon. One teaspoonful of Activated Charcoal USP has a surface area of more than 10,000 square feet, which gives charcoal unique absorption properties. It also can disinfect wounds.
chaste tree fruit extract:One research report says, "In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial reported in the British Medical Journal (January 20, 2001), German researchers assigned 170 women diagnosed with PMS to a daily [oral] dose of Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree) extract or to placebo for three menstrual cycles. The women assessed themselves before and after treatment on measures of irritability, mood, anger, headache, bloating, and breast fullness. Clinicians evaluated symptom severity and treatment effects. More than half of the women taking chaste tree fruit extract (popularly known as chasteberry)compared to slightly less than one-quarter of those on placebo ad a 50% or greater improvement in PMS symptoms (with the exception of bloating)" (Source: Harvard Women's Health Watch newsletter, May 2001). There is no evidence that it can have any effect on skin.
chaulmoogra oil:Once the treatment for leprosy worldwide due to its antimicrobial properties (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, February 2000, pages 1433~437). It can be a skin irritant.
chayote extract:See Sechium edule extract.
chicory extract:Has antioxidant properties and may also have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research, October 2001, pages 431~36 and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
China clay:See kaolin.
chitosan:Derived from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, and crabs. It is used widely in pharmaceuticals as a base in formulations. There is also extensive research showing it can be effective in wound healing, as well as having antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties (Sources: Biomaterials, November 2001, pages 2959~966; International Journal of Food Microbiology, March 2002, pages 65~2; and Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, August 2001, pages 1047~067). See mucopolysaccharide.
chlorhexidine:Topical antiseptic, it can cause irritation (Source: Toxicology in Vitro, August-October 2001, pages 271~76).
chlorophene:Used as a preservative in cosmetics.
chlorphenesin:An alcohol used as a preservative in cosmetics.
chocolate:See cocoa extract.
cholecalciferol:Technical name for vitamin D. See vitamin D.
cholesterol:A phospholipid (a type of human or animal fat) used in cosmetics as a stabilizer, an emollient, and a water-binding agent. See natural moisturizing factors.
choline:Part of the vitamin B complex and a constituent of many other biologically important molecules, such as acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) and lecithin.
chondroitin sulfate:See glycosaminoglycans.
Chondrus crispus:Form of red seaweed. See algae and carrageenan.
chromium hydroxide green:An earth mineral used as a coloring agent/additive and permanently listed (as of 1977) by the FDA for use in cosmetic products.
chromium oxide green:See chromium hydroxide green.
chrysanthemum extract:Common Name:Chrysanthemum extract;Chrysanthemum, Mother's daisy;INCI Name:Chrysanthemum morifolium flower extract.Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant, Anti-allergy.Can have anti-inflammatory benefit for skin.
Chrysanthemum parthenium extract:See feverfew extract.
Cichorium intybus:Source of a plant extract with antioxidant properties (Source: Archives of Pharmaceutical Research, October 2001, pages 431~36). See chicory extract.
Cimicifuga racemosa root extract:See black cohosh.
Cinchona succirubra bark extract:In folk medicine, it is used topically as an astringent, bactericidal, and anesthetic effect. There is no research supporting any of its uses for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com).
Cinnamomum camphora:See camphor.
cinnamon:Can have antimicrobial properties (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology, January 2002, pages 27~1) and can also be a skin irritant.
Cistus ladaniferus oil:See Labdanum oil.
citric acid:Derived from citrus and used primarily to adjust the pH of products to prevent them from being too alkaline.
citrulline:Amino acid involved in the formation of the amino acid, arginine. Citrulline has been identified in the surface layers of human skin (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, April 2000, pages 701~05). There is no research showing it to have benefit when applied topically. However, like all amino acids, it most likely has water-binding properties. See amino acid and natural moisturizing factors.
Citrullus colocynthis:Bitter apple; considered a skin irritant.
Citrus amara:See orange blossom.
Citrus aurantifolia:See lime.
Citrus aurantium:See orange blossom.
Citrus aurantium extract:Bitter orange extract. It can have antioxidant properties when eaten (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, December 1999, pages 5239~244); however, used topically its methanol content makes it potentially irritating for skin.
Citrus medica limonium:See lemon.
clary oil:Used as fragrance, and can be a skin irritant or sensitizer.
clay:See bentonite and kaolin.
Clematis vitalba:Plant that may have antifungal properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, February 2002, pages 155~63) and may also be a skin sensitizer.
Clintonia borealis extract:There is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin (Source: Phytotherapy Research, February 2002, pages 63~5).
clove leaf:See clove oil.
clove oil:Potent skin irritant and inflammatory when used repeatedly (Sources: IFA nternational Federation of Aromatherapists, www.int-fed-aromatherapy.co.uk; Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com; and Contact Dermatitis, March 2002, pages 141~44).
clover blossom:Contains eugenol, which can be a skin sensitizer and cause photosensitivity.
clover leaf oil:See clover blossom.
cobalt gluconate:Element found in trace amounts in tissues of the body. While cobalt plays a vital role in the formation of some body systems, there is no evidence it serves any purpose topically on skin, though it may act as an antioxidant.
cocamide DEA and MEA:See alkyloamides and diethanolamine.
cocamidopropyl betaine:Considered one of the more gentle surfactants used in skin-care products.See surfactant.
cocamidopropyl hydroxysultaine:Mild surfactant. See surfactant.
cocoa butter:Oil extracted from cocoa beans, used as an emollient and with properties similar to those of all nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors.
cocoa extract:Can have potent antioxidant properties (Sources: Experimental Biology and Medicine, May 2002, pages 321~29; and Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, July 2001, pages 3438~442).
cocoglycerides:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
coconut:Has degreasing and cleansing properties, which is why detergent cleansing agents are frequently derived from coconut oil. See surfactant.
coconut oil:Non-volatile plant kernel oil that has emollient properties for skin.
Cocus nucifera:See coconut oil.
Codium tomentosum extract:See algae.
coenzyme Q10:Only a handful of studies have shown coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to have any effect on wrinkles (Sources: Biofactors, September 1999, pages 371~78; and Zeitschrift f Gerontologie und Geriatrie, April 1999, pages 83~8). However, neither of these studies was double-blind or placebo-controlled, so there is no way to tell whether other formulations could net the same results. There is also research showing that sun exposure depletes the presence of CoQ10 in the skin (Source: Journal of Dermatological Science Supplement, August 2001, pages 1). This isn't surprising, because lots of the skin's components become diminished upon exposure to the sun. But whether or not taking CoQ10 supplements or applying them to skin stops or alters sun damage is not known.
Coffea arabica extract:Coffea arabica is the coffee plant, and there is research showing coffee extract to have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, June 2002, pages 3751~756).
Cola acuminata seed extract:See kola nut.
Coleus barbatus:Member of the mint family; can be a skin irritant. See counter-irritant.
collagen:A major component of skin that gives it structure. Sun damage causes collagen in skin to deteriorate. Collagen is derived from animal sources but plant derivatives that act like collagen (pseudo-collagen) are also used. In any form, collagen is a good water-binding agent. Collagen in cosmetics, regardless of the source, has never been shown to have a direct effect on producing or building collagen in skin.
collagen amino acid:Amino acids hydrolyzed from collagen. These have good water-binding properties for skin. See amino acid and natural moisturizing factors.
colloidal oatmeal:See oatmeal.
colloidal silver:Refers to ground-up silver suspended in solution. See silver.
colostrum:The clear/cloudy "pre-milk" that female mammals secrete prior to producing milk. Colostrum contains immunoglobulins (disease resistance factors). While there is a small body of evidence indicating that adult consumption of colostrum may have disease-fighting potential, this is hardly substantiated, and there is no known benefit when colostrum is applied topically to skin. The only study that does exist showed colostrum to have no wound-healing function on skin (Source: Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, June 1985, pages 617~22).
coltsfoot:According to The PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines and Healing Therapies and a German Commission E Monograph, coltsfoot is potentially carcinogenic due to its pyrrolizidine alkaloid content and is not recommended for repeated use on skin.
comfrey extract:Several studies have shown that comfrey extract can have carcinogenic or toxic properties when taken orally. Whether those properties translate to topical application of the extract is unknown, but its alkaloid content makes it a potential skin irritant (Sources: Chemical Research in Toxicology, November 2001, pages 1546~551; and Public Health Nutrition, December 2000, pages 501~08).
Commiphora myrrha extract:See myrrh.
Commiphora wightii extract:Has been shown to have cytotoxic components that may have a toxic effect on skin cells (Source: Phytochemistry, April 2001, pages 723~27).
Conium maculatum:Also known as poison hemlock. When taken orally all parts of hemlock, including seeds, flowers, and fruits, are considered toxic and poisonous. Death has resulted after ingestion of hemlock. Prompt medical attention is advised after ingestion of hemlock. There is no research showing it to have any effect when applied topically on skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
Copaifera officinalis:See balsam.
copper gluconate:Copper is an important trace element for human nutrition. The body needs copper to absorb and utilize iron, and copper is also a component of the powerful antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase. Copper supplements have been shown to increase superoxide dismutase levels in humans (Source: Healthnotes Review of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, www.healthnotes.com). The synthesis of collagen and elastin is in part related to the presence of copper in the body, and copper is also important for many other processes. For example, there is research showing that copper is effective for wound healing (Sources: Journal of Clinical Investigation, November 1993, pages 2368?376; and Federation of European Biochemical Sciences Letter, October 1988, pages 343?46). However, wound healing is the result of many biophysical processes that have nothing to do with wrinkling. See superoxide dismutase.
copper peptides:See copper gluconate.
copper sulfate:Chemical effective for topical wound healing (Source: American Journal of Physiology Heart Circulation and Physiology, May 2002, pages 1821~827). However, wound healing is the result of many biophysical processes that have nothing to do with wrinkling.
Corallina officinalis extract:See algae.
coriander:Herb and spice plant, the source of a fragrant component; it can be a potential skin irritant (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com). It may also have some antibacterial and antifungal properties, but these properties have not been established for topical use on skin (Source: Journal of Food Protection, July 2001, pages 1019~024).
corn glycerides:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
corn oil:Emollient oil with properties similar to those of other nonfragrant plant oils (Source: British Journal of Dermatology, June 1994, pages 757~64).
cornflower:Can have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, December 1999, pages 235~41).
cornmint:Also known as wild mint; it can be a skin irritant. See counter-irritant.
cornstarch:Starch obtained from corn and sometimes used as an absorbent in cosmetics instead of talc. However, when cornstarch becomes moist, it can promote fungal and bacterial growth (Source: www.radiation-oncology.com/homecare/html/skin_13.htm).
Cornus extract:See dogwood.
Corylus americana:See hazelnut oil.
Corylus avellana:See hazelnut oil.
costus root:Has anti-inflammatory properties (Source: European Journal of Pharmacology, June 2000, pages 399~07), but there is research showing that it can also inhibit the immune response (Source: Phytochemistry, January 2002, pages 85~0).
coumarin:Organic compound found in plants and derived from the amino acid phenylalanine. It creates the fragrance found in fresh-mowed hay. More than 300 coumarins have been identified from natural sources, especially green plants. These varying substances have disparate pharmacological, biochemical, and therapeutic applications. However, simple coumarins are potent antioxidants (Sources: Journal of Natural Products, September 2001, pages 1238~240; Chemistry and Physics of Lipids, December 1999, pages 125~35; and General Pharmacology, June 1996, pages 713~22).
counter-irritant:Ingredients such as menthol, peppermint, camphor, and mint are considered counter-irritants (Sources: Archives of Dermatologic Research, May 1996, pages 245~48; and Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 Food and Drugs, Revised as of April 1, 2001, CITE: 21CFR310.545, www.fda.gov). Counter-irritants are used to induce local inflammation for the purpose of relieving inflammation in deeper or adjacent tissues. In other words, they substitute one kind of inflammation for another, which is never good for skin. Irritation or inflammation, no matter what causes it or how it happens, impairs the skin's immune and healing response (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, November-December 2000, pages 358~71). And although your skin may not show it, or doesn't react in an irritated fashion, if you apply irritants to your skin the damage is still taking place and is ongoing, so it adds up over time (Source: Skin Research and Technology, November 2001, pages 227~37).
Cranberry Seed Extract:The extract of the cranberry fruit. Natural components known as proanthocyanidins are responsible for this extract antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com).
Cranberry Seed Oil:Derived from the seed of this red berry, the oil (which is not red) has potent antioxidant ability due to it being a rich source of polyphenols (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, November 2, 2005, pages 8,485,491). See antioxidant.
Crataegus monogina extract:See hawthorn extract.
Crithmum maritimum:Extract of algae that has weak antioxidant properties (Source: Planta Medica, December 2000, pages 687~93).
cucumber extract:Cucumber extract,INCI Name:Cucumis sativus (Cucumber) fruit extract;Property:soothing.Claims of cucumber having anti-inflammatory or soothing properties are anecdotal, as there is no research supporting this contention.
Cucumis sativus extract:See cucumber extract.
Curcuma longa root:See turmeric.
curcumin:Potent antioxidant that can be effective in wound healing (Source: Journal of Trauma, November 2001, pages 927~31). See turmeric.
cyanocobalamin:See vitamin B12.
Cyanopsis tetragonalba:Form of guar gum. See guar gum.
Cyanotis arachnoidea extract:There is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin.
Cyatheaceae extract:Derived from a neotropic plant; an extract that has no research showing it to have benefit for skin.
cyclamen aldehyde:Synthetic fragrant component in products; it can be a skin irritant.
cyclomethicone:Silicone with a drier finish than dimethicone. See silicone.
Cymbopogon citrates:See lemongrass.
Cymbopogon martini:See geranium.
Cynara scolymus:See artichoke extract.
Cyperus rotundus extract:From the plant also known as nut grass and xiang fu. There is no research establishing this plant to have any benefit for skin. In a small number of animal experiments it has been shown, when administered orally, to have anti-inflammatory properties.
cysteine:See amino acid.
cystine:See amino acid.
cystosine:Component of DNA that carries genetic information to the cell. See DNA.
cytochrome:Protein found in blood cells that, with the aid of enzymes, serves a vital function in the transfer of energy within cells. There are three types of cytochromes, indicated by A, B, or C, with cytochrome C being the most stable. However, because cytochromes require a complex process that is triggered by a sequence of other components in order to be effective in their function of cellular respiration, they serve no function alone on skin.
cytokines:Diverse, potent, and extremely complex chemical messengers secreted by the cells of the immune system. They stimulate the production of other substances to help protect the body. Cytokines encourage cell growth, promote cell activation, direct cellular traffic, and destroy target cells including cancer cells. Interleukins, transforming growth factor, and interferon are types of cytokines. It is also important to point out that cytokines can also cause unwanted, potentially serious side effects (Sources:www.medlineplus.com; and the National Cancer Institute, www.nci.nih.gov or www.cancer.gov). Even the notion that skin-care products can directly affect cytokine production in some way to change the appearance of skin is a scary thought, given that cosmetic ingredients are not tested for safety the way pharmaceuticals or drugs are.
C 18-36 Acid Triglyceride:source: Vegetable Derived.Alternative to carabuna wax, replenishes lipids and promotes ceramide vitality.
Caffeine (Green Coffee):source: Green Coffee Beans.Stimulant that promotes circulation and increases blood flow, anti-inflammatory, vasorestrictor resulting in reduced redness and puffiness.
Calendula Officinalis (Calendula) Flower Extract:source: Calendula Flower.Improves circulation, rich in flavonoids and saponins that promote healing and repair, acts as an anti-inflammatory, prevents tissue degeneration, heightens the metabolism of proteins and collagen during the healing process.
Calendula Officinalis (Calendula) Flowers:source: Calendula Flower.Extracted from the marigold flower it balances the skin and reduces irritation. Therapeutic benefits similar to aloe vera.
Camellia Oleifera Seed Oil:source: Camellia Seeds.Antioxidant and skin brightener; a deeply penetrating light oil which gives skin a beautiful texture and glow; prevents wrinkles, spots, freckles, and acne.
Camellia Sinensis (Green Tea) Leaf Extract:source: Green Tea.Rich in polyphenols such as EGCG that prevent free radical damage and tumor formation, reduces inflammation, inhibits destructive enzymes that break down healthy collagen fibers (improves firmness / elasticity), provides photo-protective benefits.
Cananga Odorata (Ylang Ylang) Flower Oil:source: Ylang Ylang Essential Oil.Effectively works to alleviate conditions associated with over active oil production, a popular remedy in treating oily and impure skin types, slows oil production.
Cannabis Sativa (Hemp) Seed Oil:source: Hemp Seeds.Rich in Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids to re-moisturize and improve barrier function, restores the recycling of Vitamin E while providing antioxidant protections.
Caprooyl Tetrapeptide-3:source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).A bio-mimetic (mimic the body’s natural response) tetrapeptide which boosts the production of key components at the dermal/epidermal junciton including collagen VII, laminin-5 and fibronectin for optimal skin structural support. Clinically proven to provide outstanding reduction of the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles after only 28 days. Skin looks smoother, firmer and more even for a younger rested look.
Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride (Coconut):source: Coconut.Increases the skins permeability to encourage thorough penetration of active ingredients, enhances lipid barrier function, improves spreadability.
Caprylyl Glycol:source: Coconut.A component of an eco-friendly broad spectrum preservative with bactericidal actions exhibiting skin hydrating benefits.
Carnosine (L):source: Amino Acid.A naturally occurring amino acid that acts as a “super” antioxidant to protect from lipid peroxidation, promotes skin rejuvenation and anti-aging actions.
Carthamus Tinctorius (Safflower) Seed Oil:source: Safflower Seeds.Rich in essential fatty acids that regulate moisture retention for deep moisturizing capabilities, provides slip and glide for comfortable application.
Cassia Angustifolia Seed Polysaccharide:source: Indian Senna Plant Seeds.Water soluble polysaccharide that provides extended moisture and promotes cell regeneration.
Castor Isostearate Beeswax Succinate:source: Beeswax.A castor oil derived copolymer that moisturizes and increases wear time.
Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola) Extract:source: Gotu kola.Antioxidant, improves collagen content, renews collagen related to weakened connective tissues, prevents scar tissue formation by slowing down excessive collagen production at wound sites, stimulates circulation and the oxygenation of skin tissues. Exhibits strong anti-inflammatory properties.
Centella Asiatica Meristem (Gotu Kola) Stem Cell Culture.source: Gotu Kola.Stem cells efficiently inhibits hyaluronidase up to 90% protecting natural levels of hyaluronic acid to maintain healthy levels of skin hydration, tone, firmness and elasticity. Useful in the control of inflammation and blood vessel tone and permeability due to ability to inhibit certain components responsible for the inflammation response. Improves collagen content related to weakened connective tissues, prevents scar tissue formation by slowing down excessive collagen production at wound sites, and stimulates circulation and the oxygenation of skin tissues. Gotu Kola is used in Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases and in dermatology for the healing of wounds, burns and varicose ulcers.
Cera Alba (Beeswax):source: Honeycombs.Anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bactericidal, germicidal, & skin softening. Emulsifier. Helps lock in skins own natural moisture, and creates a protective, long lasting barrier against elements as opposed to petroleum waxes, which strip skin of its natural moisture.
Cereus Grandiflorus (Cactus) Flower Extract:source: Cactus Flower.Hydrates and re-mineralizes the skin, antioxidant.
Cetearyl Alcohol:source: Coconut.Non-drying emulsifier, moisturizer, and emollient effective for water-in-oil/oil-in-water formulas.
Cetearyl Glucoside:source: Sugar Compound from Coconut.An emulsifier that is also used to aid the skin in moisture retention.
Cetearyl Olivate:source: Olive Oil.An emulsifier derived from olive oil to soften and smooth skin.
Cetyl Alcohol (Coconut):source: Coconut.Natural alcohol acts as a carrier agent and emollient.
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract:source: German Camomille Flower.One of the oldest remedies in existence, used as a skin emollient, anti-inflammatory, and relieving botanical. Exhibits antioxidant and skin soothing properties. Reputed to bring down swelling and pain in the skin and mucous membranes. Also calms eczema and allergic reactions. Soothes and restores traumatized skin, contains azulene which reduces inflammation, rich in polyphenols and phytochemicals, strengthens capillary walls.
Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Oil:source: German Camomille Flower.Exhibits anti-inflammatory, skin-soothing and antibacterial properties.
Chlorophyll (L):source: Blue Green Algae.Purifies and detoxifies the skin.
Chlorophyll (Plant):source: Plant.Purifies and detoxifies the skin.
Chlorophyllin:source: Blue Green Algae.Derivative of chlorophyll, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antioxidant, stimulates cell growth in wound healing.
Cholecalciferol:source: Blue Green Algae.Vitamin D3 produced naturally in the skin through exposure to the sun, aids in absorption and normalization of calcium and phosphorus levels promoting healthy tissue growth.
Cholesteryl Stearate/Carbonate Complex:source: Vegetable.Component of natural chiral cholesterol esters, provides both preventative and corrective actions to moisturize and improve the skin’s overall quality.
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Bark Extract:source: Cinnamon.Antioxidant, rich in polyphenols that assist in tissue repair.
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum (Cinnamon) Leaf Oil:source: Cinnamon.Acts as a topical analgesic to soothe skin irritations, provides antiseptic and astringent benefits, provides antibiotic actions to reduce the spread of infection, stimulates circulation.
Citral:source: Naturally Occuring Component of Essential Oil (Lemongrass).Essential oil that provides therapeutic effects while also providing a natural fresh scent in the product, astringent, liposolvent and clarifying.
Citric Acid:source: Citrus fruits.Slows oxidation process, Naturally adjusts the pH of products, improves brightness and coloration while mildly reducing wrinkles.
Citronellol:source: Naturally Occuring Component of Essential Oil (Rose).Provides regenerative essential oil benefits while naturally scenting a product.
Citrus Aurantifolia (Lime) Oil:source: Lime Essential Oil.A natural essential oil that cleanses oily skin and purifies the pores, naturally scents products.
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Fruit Extract:source: Multifruit Sugar Complex.Naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids to help promote smoother, younger looking skin by increasing the rate of cell renewal. Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying. Exhibits astringent and tightening properties while relieving congestion and limiting excess sebum (oil).
Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Sweet Orange) Oil:source: Orange Peel Oil.Soothing and astringent properties.
Citrus Aurantium ssp. Amara (Neroli) Oil:source: Neroli Essential Oil.Antiseptic, bacteriacide, emollient, aromatherapeutic, provides MMPi protection against protein metabolizing enzymes.
Citrus Grandis (Grapefruit) Seed Extract:source: Grapefruit Seeds.Possess antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-fungal properties.
Citrus Grandis (Red Grapefruit) Peel Oil:source: Red Grapefruit.Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying, astringent and tightening, relieves congestion and limits excess oil.
Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon Zest) Peel:source: Lemon.Astringent, antioxidant, provides brightening effects by inhibiting melanin synthesis, rich in limonene which reduces abnormal cell growth, provides antibacterial effects.
Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Fruit Extract:source: Lemon.Naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids to help promote smoother, younger looking skin by increasing the rate of cell renewal. Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying. Exhibits astringent and tightening properties while relieving congestion and limiting excess sebum (oil).
Citrus Medica Limonum (Lemon) Fruit Oil:source: Lemon.Anti-inflammatory, soothes the skin and normalizes oil balance.
Citrus Paradisi (Pink Grapefruit) Peel Oil:source: Pink Grapefruit.Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying, astringent and tightening, relieves congestion, limits excess oil.
Citrus Paradisi (White Grapefruit) Peel Oil:source: White Grapefruit.Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying, astringent and tightening, relieves congestion, limits excess oil.
Citrus Reticulata (Red Mandarin) Leaf Oil:source: Red Mandarin.A citrus evergreen tree derivative that is rich in protective terpenes that reduce cellular damage.
Citrus Sinensis var. Sanguina (Blood Orange) Oil:source: Blood Orange.Rich in terpenes that provide antioxidant actions.
Citrus Tangerina (Tangerine) Peel Oil:source: Tangerine.Promotes a radiant, glowing complexion. Exhibits astringent and soothing properties.
Cocamidopropyl Hydroxysultaine:source: Coconut Fatty Acids.Provides natural gentle cleansing without causing dryness or irritation.
Coco-Caprylate/Caprate:source: Coconut Oil.A mixture of esters from coconut oil that provide lubrication and anti-microbial properties.
Cocos Nucifera (Coconut Cream) Fruit:source: Coconut.Rich in vitamins, minerals and fatty acids, normalizes lipid barriers, smooths and softens the skin, high Vitamin E content acts as an antioxidant and moisturizes the skin, provides filmogenic protections.
Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Oil:source: Vitamin B12.Water soluble B-vitamin, synthesizes DNA, modulates energy release, maintains healthy nerve cells.Deeply penetrating moisturizer and anti-oxidant. Excellent skin moisturizing delivery system; carries the benefits of other ingredients into the skin. Beneficial for dehydrated, itchy, and sensitive skin. Wont clog pores.
Coffea Arabica (Green Coffee) Leaf/Seed Extract:source: Green Coffee Beans.Antioxidant, analgesic, anti-viral action, anti-dermatitis, and cancer prevention. Topical application of caffeine can decrease the thickness of subcutaneous fat.
Collagen (Marine Oligopeptides):source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).Assists in renewing skin cells, provides repairing actions, encourages elasticity, promotes anti-wrinkle actions, mineralizing and strengthening.
Collinsonia Canadensis (Stone Root) Extract:source: Stone Root.Strengthens the structure and functions of capillaries to improve blood flow, vitamin assimilation and circulation.
Cucumis Melo (Melon) Fruit Extract:source: Melon.Rich in Vitamin C, beta-carotene and anthocyanins that prevent collagen cross linkages.
Cucumis Sativus (Cucumber) Fruit Extract:source: Cucumber.Provides soothing and cooling effects to ease irritated skin, has been shown to be moisture-binding, moisture-regulating with softening properties, anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic, bleaching effects, and improves flavonoid protections, nourishes the skin.
Cucurbita Pepo (Fermented Pumpkin Juice):source: Pumpkin.Anti-aging, infuses the skin with phytochemicals and fortifying compounds that strengthens cellular responses, accelerates exfoliation processes. When pumpkin juice is fermented, it makes the nutrients more bio-available, and creates more enzymes. This fermentation process creates incredible nutrients for the skin.
Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Fruit Extract:source: Pumpkin.Potent antioxidant rich in enzymes, iron, zinc, vitamins C and K. Infuses the skin with phytochemicals and fortifying compounds that strengthens cellular responses, accelerates exfoliation processes.
Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Seed Oil:source: Pumpkin.Antioxidant, lipid balancing oil that infuses the skin with phytochemicals that prevent disease while lipids normalize the lipid barrier to protect from infection.
Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin) Wine:source: Pumpkin.Anti-aging, infuses the skin with phytochemicals and fortifying compounds that strengthens cellular responses, accelerates exfoliation processes. When pumpkin juice is fermented, it makes the nutrients more bio-available, and creates more enzymes. This fermentation process creates incredible nutrients for the skin.
Cucurbita Pepo (Pumpkin):source: Pumpkin.Antioxidant, infuses the skin with phytochemicals and fortifying compounds that strengthens cellular responses, accelerates exfoliation processes.
Curcuma Longa (Turmeric) Root Extract:source: Turmeric.Strengthens the capillaries through vaso-tonic actions, relieves inflammation, provides antioxidant protection.
Cyamopsis Tetragonoloba (Guar Bean) Gum:source: Guar Bean.Used as emulsifier and thickener.
Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12):source: Vitamin B12.Water soluble B-vitamin, synthesizes DNA, modulates energy release, maintains healthy nerve cells.
Cyclodextrin:source: Plant Starch.An oligosaccharide from plant starch that improves surface hydration and smoothness.
Cymbopogon Martini (Palmarosa) Oil:source: Palmarosa.Balances hydration levels and moisturizes the skin, helping to prevent wrinkles. Keeps skin elastic and supple by stimulating cell regeneration and rejuvenation. Also balances production of sebum while aiding with broken veins, acne, dermatitis and prevents scar formation.
Cymbopogon Schoenanthus (Lemongrass) Oil:source: Lemongrass Essential Oil.Normalizes oil production, stimulates cell regeneration and is effective against scarring, acne and dermatitis. Antioxidant, anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and aromatherapeutic properties.
Calamus extract:Common Name:Calamus, Sweet flag, Myrtle flag, Flagroot;INCI Name:Acorus calamus root extract;Property:Cleansing, Anti-inflammation, Hair loss prevention, Hair growth.
Cardamom seed extract:Common Name:Bastard cardamom, Chin kousha, Malabar cardamom, Tavoy cardamom;INCI Name:Amomum xanthioides seed extract;Property:Skin regeneration.
Cabbage extract:Common Name:Cabbage, Red Cabbage, White Cabbage;INCI Name:Brassica oleracea capitata (Cabbage) leaf extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration, Soothing.
Camellia extract:Common Name:Camellia;INCI Name:Camellia japonica seed extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Camellia oil:Common Name:Camellia;INCI Name:Camellia japonica seed oil;Property:Anti-atopy.
Chestnut shell extract:Common Name:Chestnut shell;INCI Name:Castanea sativa (Chestnut) shell extract;Property:Antioxidant, Whitening, Protein synthesis, Anti-acne, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Caviar extract:Common Name:Caviar;INCI Name:Caviar extract;Property:Moisturizing, Nourishing, Protein synthesis.
Chamomile extract:Common Name:German camomile, Kamille;INCI Name:Chamomilla recutita (Matricaria) flower extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Soothing, Anti-inflammation, Cleansing.
Chamomile water:Common Name:German camomile, Kamille;INCI Name:Chamomilla recutita (Matricaria) flower water;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Soothing, Anti-inflammation.
Celandine extract :Common Name:Celandine, Garden celandine, Greater celandine;INCI Name:Chelidonium majus extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant, Anti-microbe.
Chlorella extract:Common Name:Chlorella;INCI Name:Chlorella vulgaris extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Nourishing, Moisturizing
Cinnamon extract:Common Name:Cinnamon;INCI Name:Cinnamomum cassia bark extract;Property:Whitening, Anti-microbe, Sebum control.
Clematis root extract:Common Name:Wei ling xian, Clematis root;INCI Name:Clematis chinensis root extract;Property:Antioxidant.
Cnidium fruit extract:Common Name:Monnier's snow parsley, She chuang zi;INCI Name:Cnidium monnieri fruit extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Skin regeneration, Anti-itching.
Cnidium rhizome extract:Common Name:Jih chiung, Cheonkung, Cnidium;INCI Name:Cnidium officinale root extract;Property:Enhancing blood circulation, Whitening.
Coconut extract:Common Name:Coconut, Coconut Palm, Cocotero;INCI Name:Cocos nucifera (Coconut) fruit extract;Property:Moisturizing, Skin regeneration.
Codonopsis extract:Common Name:Chuan dang, Man sam, Codonopsis, Dang shen, False ginseng;INCI Name:Codonopsis tangshen root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Coffee bean extract:Common Name:Coffee bean;INCI Name:Coffea arabica (Coffee) seed extract;Property:Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
Cordyceps mushroom extract:Common Name:Vegetable worm, Plant worm, Cordyceps mushroom;INCI Name:Cordyceps sinensis extract;Property:Soothing, Anti-inflammation.
Coriander extract:Common Name:Chinese Parsley, Cilantro, Coriander;INCI Name:Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) fruit,leaf extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Antioxidant.
Corydalis root extract:Common Name:Yan hu suo;INCI Name:Corydalis turtschaninovii root extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant.
Clove extract:Common Name:Clove, Zanzibar redhead;INCI Name:Eugenia caryophyllus (Clove) flower extract;Property:Skin regeneration.
Chaga extract:Common Name:Chaga mushroom, Tchaga;INCI Name:Inonotus obliqua (Mushroom) extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Chung Sang Bang Pung Tang:Common Name:Siler / Schizonepeta / Cape jasmine / Goldthread / Forsythia / Bai zhi / Mint / Bitter orange / Baloon flower / Cheonkung / Skullcap / Licorice;INCI Name:Ledebouriella seseloides root extract / Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract / Gardenia florida flower extract / Coptis japonica root extract / Forsythia suspensa fruit extract / Angelica dahurica root extract / Mentha arvensis leaf extract / Poncirus trifoliata fruit extract / Platycodon grandiflorum root extract / Cnidium officinale root extract / Scutellaria baicalensis root extract / Glycyrrhiaza glabra (Licorice) root extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Anti-acne, Anti-inflammation.
Cornbind root extract(HD):Common Name:Chinese Cornbind, Chinese Knotweed, Fleeceflower;INCI Name:Polygonum multiflorum root extract;Property:Hair dye;Soothing, Anti-inflammation, Grey hair prevention.
Chil Sun Dan:Common Name:Knotweed / Ginseng / Foxglove / Snake's beard / Chinese asparagus / Poria / Fennel;INCI Name:Polygonum multiflorum root extract / Panax ginseng root extract / Rehmannia glutinosa root extract / Ophiopogon japonicus root extract / Asparagus cochinchinensis root extract / Poria cocos extract / Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) seed extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Antioxidant.
Cherry extract:Common Name:Black Cherry, Wild Cherry;INCI Name:Prunus serotina (Wild cherry) fruit extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Antioxidant.
Chrysophanic BDR 11,12:Common Name:Rhubarb / Sheeps sorrel;INCI Name:Rheum palmatum root extract / Rumex acetosella extract;Property:Anti-atopy, Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Cocoa extract:Common Name:Cocoa, Cacao;INCI Name:Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) extract;Property:Moisturizing, Skin regeneration.
Cocoa powder:Common Name:Cocoa, Cacao;INCI Name:Theobroma cacao (Cocoa) fruit powder;Property:Antioxidant.
Caltrop fruit extract:Common Name:Caltrop;INCI Name:Tribulus terrestris fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Chinese cucumber root extract:Common Name:Chinese cucumber, Chinese snakegourd;INCI Name:Trichosanthes kirilowii root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe, Skin regeneration.
Coltsfoot flower extract:Common Name:Coltsfoot, Clayweed;INCI Name:Tussilago farfara (Coltsfoot) flower extract;Property:Soothing.
Chaste tree berry extract:Common Name:Chaste tree ;INCI Name:Vitex trifolia fruit extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.See chastetreefruitextract.
Cocklebur fruit extract:Common Name:Cocklebur, Burweed;INCI Name:Xanthium strumarium fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
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