Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: echinacea | Echium lycopsis extract | Echium lycopsis oil | EDTA | egg yolk | eicosapentaenioc acid | Elaeis guineensis | elastin | elderberry | elecampane | Emblica officinalis | emollient | emu oil | English ivy extract | Ensulizole | Enteromorpha compressa extract | enzymes | epidermal growth factor (EGF) | Epilobium angustifolium extract | Equisetum arvense | Equisetum hiemale extract | ergocalciferol | ergothioneine | Eriobotrya japonica | erucic acid | erythritol | erythropoietin (Epo) | erythrulose | escin | esculin | essential oils | Ester-C | estradiol | ethanol | ethoxydiglycol | ethyl acetate | ethyl alcohol | ethyl macadamiate | ethyl vanillin | ethylene glycol | ethylhexyl stearate | ethylparaben | etidronic acid | eucalyptus extract | eucalyptus oil | Eugenia aromatica | Eugenia caryophyllus | eugenol | Euglena gracilis | Eupatorium ayapana extract | Euphrasia officinalis | evening primrose oil | ex vivo | ext. DC | eyebright | Elaeis Guineensis (Palm) Oil | Equisetum Hiemale (Horsetail) Leaf/Stem Extract | Ergothioneine (L) | Erythrulose (Sugar) | Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Tribehenin, Sorbitan Isostearate, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide | Eugenia Caryophyllus (Clove) Leaf Oil | Eugenol | Euterpe Oleracea (Açai) Fruit Extract | Euterpe Oleracea (Acai) Fruit Oil | Eclipta extract | Eucalyptus extract | Elecampane extract | Edelweiss extract | Evening primrose seed extract | Eo Jeonn Sea Myun Yak | Elm bark extract |
echinacea:There are several types of echinacea plants but only Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida have been shown to have effectiveness. These may have antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties on skin (Source: Phytomedicine, April 2002, pages 249~53).
Echium lycopsis extract:Has a small amount of research showing it to have antibacterial properties (Source: Planta Medica, April 1982, pages 234~36).
Echium lycopsis oil:Emollient oil that also has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Phytochemistry, February 2000, pages 451~56).
EDTA:Abbreviation for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. It is a stabilizer used in cosmetics to prevent ingredients in a given formula from binding with trace elements (particularly minerals) that can exist in water and other ingredients to cause unwanted product changes such as texture, odor, and consistency problems. The technical term for this function is a chelating agent.
egg yolk:Egg yolk is mostly water and lipids (fats), especially cholesterol, which makes it a good emollient and water-binding agent for skin.
eicosapentaenioc acid:A fatty acid derived from salmon oil; it is a good emollient for skin. See fatty acid.
Elaeis guineensis:See palm oil.
elastin:Major component of skin that gives it flexibility. Sun damage causes elastin in skin to deteriorate. Elastin can be derived from both plant and animal sources and is used in cosmetics as a good water-binding agent. Elastin in cosmetics has never been shown to affect the elastin in skin or have any other benefit, though it most likely functions as a water-binding agent.
elderberry:Has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, July 2000, pages 51~0).
elecampane:Can be very irritating to the skin and can trigger allergic reactions (Source: Contact Dermatitis, October 2001, pages 197~04).
Emblica officinalis:See Indian gooseberry.
emollient:Supple, waxlike, lubricating, thickening agents that prevent water loss and have a softening and soothing effect on the skin. They can be natural, like plant oils; manufactured, like silicones; or processed from a natural substance, like mineral oil. The assortment of technical-sounding names for all these ingredients is nothing less than astounding. There are more of them than you can imagine. They range from cetearyl alcohol to isopropyl myristate, triglycerides, myristic acid, palmitic acid, PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil, glyceryl linoleate, cyclomethicone, dimethicone, hexyl laurate, isohexadecane, methyl glucose sesquioleate, decyl oleate, stearic acid, octyldodecanol, and thousands more. There are also more understandable or at least familiar "natural" versions of emollients, such as lanolin, hydrogenated plant oils, shea butter, and cocoa butter.
emu oil:The emu is a large, flightless bird indigenous to Australia, and emu oil has become an important component of the Australian economy. As a result there is research from that part of the world showing it to be a good emollient that can help heal skin. But there is no research showing it to have antiaging or antiwrinkling effects. A study published in the Australasian Journal of Dermatology (August 1996, pages 159~61) looked at the "Cosmetic and moisturizing properties of Emu oil ?assessed in a double-blind clinical study. Emu oil in comparison to mineral oil was found overall to be more cosmetically acceptable and had better skin penetration/permeability. Furthermore it appears that Emu oil in comparison to mineral oil has better moisturizing properties, superior texture, and lower incidence of comedogenicity, but probably because of the small sample size [number of people tested] these differences were not found to be statistically significant. Neither of the oils were found to be irritating to the skin." That's good, but it's hardly a reason to run out and by a product containing emu oil. Further, another study published in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (December 1998, pages 2404~407) concluded that applying emu oil on a fresh wound actually delayed wound healing. Emu oil's reputation is driven mostly by cosmetics company claims and not by any real proof that emu oil is an essential requirement for skin.
English ivy extract:Can be a skin irritant due to its stimulant and astringent (skin-constricting) properties (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
Ensulizole:A sunscreen agent, formerly known as phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid. Ensulizole is the new established name that must be used on sunscreen labels (Source: www.fda.gov). It is primarily a UVB protecting sunscreen agent providing only minimal UVA protection. Ensulizole scope is 290 to 340 nanometers whereas the UVA range is 320 to 400 nanometers (Source: United States Pharmacopeia (USP), http://www.uspdqi.org/pubs/monographs/sunscreen_agents.pdf). For complete UVA protection, it must be paired with avobenzone, titanium dioxide, or zinc oxide; outside of the US it can also be paired with Tinosorb and Mexoryl. Because ensulizole is water-soluble, it has the unique characteristic of feeling lighter on skin. As such, it is often used in sunscreen lotions or moisturizers whose esthetic goal is a non-greasy finish (Source: www.emedicine.com/derm/topic510.htm).
Enteromorpha compressa extract:Extract from a form of green algae. See algae.
enzymes:Whether in the form of papaya fruit or in a substance such as papain (a proteinase derived from unripe papaya) or bromelain (derived from pineapple), enzymes (proteases) have long been used in their pure form as exfoliants (Source: Burns, November 1999, pages 636~39). However, there is limited (if any) research showing that enzymes perform as well or are as stable as alpha hydroxy acids or beta hydroxy acid. There is one study showing forms of enzymes such as papain or bromelain to be effective in pure form for exfoliation (Source: Archives of Dermatological Research, November 2001, pages 500~07). New enzymes are now being put in skin-care products that are claimed to stimulate your skin's own biological processes that have slowed down because of age or sun damage. However, all enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalysts. They accelerate chemical reactions in a cell, reactions that would proceed minimally or not at all if enzymes weren't there. Most enzymes and a lot of different enzymes affect skin cells are finicky about how they interact. Sometimes it takes several enzymes to produce one chemical reaction. Some enzymes depend on the presence of smaller enzymes, called coenzymes, in order to function. It would take an exceptionally complicated process to stimulate enzyme activity in the skin. One tiny amount of an enzyme in a skin-care product won't turn on your skin's ability to make collagen or elastin. See AHA and salicylic acid.
epidermal growth factor(EGF):Stimulates cell division of many different cell types. Though there is research showing it to be helpful for wound and burn healing (Source: Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, March-April 2002, pages 116~25 and Journal of Dermatologic Surgery and Oncology, July 1992, pages 604?06). There is also research showing that its effect is no different then placebo and may not be effective (Source: Wounds, 2001, volume 13, number 2, pages 53~8 and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, August 1995, pages 251-254). It can have anti-inflammatory properties when applied to skin (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, January-April 1999, pages 79-84), though it can also promote tumor growth (Source: Journal of Surgical Research, April 2002, pages 175~82). See human growth factor.
Epilobium angustifolium extract:Derived from a plant commonly known as fireweed or willow herb. Can have antimicrobial (Source: Il Farmaco, May-July 2001, pages 345~48) and anti-irritant properties for skin (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, October 1999, pages 3954~962).source: Canadian Willow Herb.Effective against acne bacteria, anti-inflammatory, anti-irritant, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral, cleansing. Acts as a natural analgesic, mimics hydrocortisone to sooth discomfort.
Equisetum arvense:See horsetail extract.
Equisetum hiemale extract:See horsetail extract.
ergocalciferol:Technical name for vitamin D. See vitamin D.
ergothioneine:Component of animal tissue that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology, November 1999, pages 1043~053).
Eriobotrya japonica:See loquat extract.
erucic acid:Fatty acid.See fatty acid.
erythritol:Naturally occurring sugar found in plants and animals. Like all sugars, it has water-binding properties.
erythropoietin (Epo):Stimulates the growth of cells that carry oxygen throughout the body.See human growth factor.
erythrulose:Substance chemically similar to the self-tanning agent dihydroxyacetone. Depending on your skin color, there can be a difference in the color effect with erythrulose. However, dihydroxyacetone completely changes the color of skin within two to six hours, while erythrulose needs about two to three days for the skin to show a color change.
escin:Component of horse chestnut. It is considered therapeutically useful in the treatment of leg veins by protecting the elastic tissue of the vein (Sources: Lancet, 1996, volume 347, pages 292~94; and Archives of Dermatology, 1998, volume 134, pages 1356~360). However, the amount needed for this potential benefit is far greater than what is used in cosmetic formulations.
esculin:Component of horse chestnut, it is considered a toxin and not recommended for skin (Source: Clinical Pharmacology, 2002, http://cponline.hitchcock.org).
essential oils:See volatile oil.
Ester-C:Trade name for a combination form of vitamin C that contains mainly calcium ascorbate, but in addition contains small amounts of the vitamin C metabolites dehydroascorbic acid (oxidized ascorbic acid), calcium threonate, and trace levels of xylonate and lyxonate. In their literature, the manufacturers state that the metabolites, especially threonate, increase the bioavailability of the vitamin C in this product, and that they have performed a study in humans demonstrating the increased bioavailability of vitamin C in Ester-C. This study has not been published in a peer-reviewed journal. A small published study of vitamin C bioavailability in eight women and one man found no difference between Ester-C and commercially available ascorbic acid tablets with respect to the absorption and excretion of vitamin C (Source: The Bioavailability of Different Forms of Vitamin C, The Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, www.orst.edu/dept/lpi/ss01/bioavailability.html). There are studies showing Ester-C to have no differences when compared to ascorbic acid (Biochemical Pharmacology, June 1996, pages 1719~725).
estradiol:One of the three main forms of estrogen produced by the body; the other two are estrone and estriol. Estradiol is the most physiologically active form of estrogen. Many hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and birth control prescription drugs contain estradiol. Decreased production of estrogen by the ovaries can lead to symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats, vaginal dryness, urinary tract infections, depression, and irritability. With a physician's prescription, licensed pharmacists may compound a combination of natural estrogens. Whether or not natural estrogens are safe has not been well-researched.
Even though HRT can prevent associated problems with loss of estrogen in perimenopausal and menopausal women, it is no longer being prescribed without caution because of studies showing there to be an increased the risk of breast cancer, heart attacks, strokes, gallbladder disease and blood clots (source: Annals of Internal Medicine, www.acponline.org/journals /annals/hrt.htm).
Topically, according to the FDA (www.fda.gov), "The estrogen content of an OTC product, be it a drug or a drug as well as cosmetic, may not exceed 10,000 IU per ounce, and users must be directed to limit the amount of product applied daily so that no more than 20,000 IU of estrogen or equivalent be used per month. Some estrogen-containing products have been claiming to prevent or reduce wrinkles, treat seborrhea, or stimulate hair growth. The Advisory Review Panel on OTC Miscellaneous External Drug Products has concluded that there are inadequate data to establish the safety of these products and that they are ineffective and may therefore be misbranded, even if marketed as cosmetics without making medicinal claims?In a Final Rule, published in the Federal Register of September 9, 1993, 58 FR 47608, the FDA accepted this panel's recommendation and determined that all topically-applied hormone containing drug products for OTC human use are not generally recognized as safe and effective and are misbranded."
ethyl acetate:Compound made from acetic acid and ethyl alcohol, used as a solvent in nail polish and nail-polish removers. May irritate skin.
ethyl alcohol:See alcohol.
ethyl macadamiate:A mixture of fatty acids from macadamia nut oil. See See fatty acid and macadamia nut oil.
ethyl vanillin:A flavoring agent derived from vanilla. It has antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, April. 2004, pages 1872-1881).
ethylene glycol:See propylene glycol.
ethylhexyl stearate:See stearic acid.
etidronic acid:See alcohol.
eucalyptus extract:Can have antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties on the skin (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, January-February 2000, pages 60~4). It can also be a skin irritant, particularly on abraded skin (Sources: Clinical Experimental Dermatology, March 1995, pages 143~45; and www.alternativedr.com/conditions/ConsHerbs/Eucalyptusch.html). See counter-irritant.
eucalyptus oil:See eucalyptus extract.
Eugenia aromatica:See clove oil.
Eugenia caryophyllus:See clove oil.
eugenol:See clove oil and methyleugenol.
Eupatorium ayapana extract:May have antibacterial and antifungal properties (Source: Fitoterapia, April 2002, pages 168~70).
evening primrose oil:Can have anti-inflammatory and emollient benefits for skin (Sources: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, January-February 2002, pages 20~5; and Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, September 2001, pages 4502~507). However, whether or not evening primrose oil can mitigate certain symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown. "Trials of evening primrose oil have also had conflicting results; the two most rigorous studies showed no evidence of benefit" (Source: Journal of the American College of Nutrition, February 2000, pages 3~2). See gamma linolenic acid.
ex vivo:Describes a biological process or reaction taking place outside of a person or animal; it involves the extraction of cells from an animal or person and then testing these in a laboratory setting.
ext. DC:A type of coloring agent. According to the FDA (www.fda.gov), when Ext. DC is followed by a color, it means the color is certified as safe for use only in drugs and cosmetics to be used externally, but not around the eyes or mouth. It is not safe for foods.
eyebright:A plant; however, while the name sounds like it would be beneficial for the eye area, there are no studies demonstrating it to have any benefit for the eye area or skin. The information about this plant's effect on the skin or the eye is strictly anecdotal.
Elaeis Guineensis (Palm) Oil:source: Extracted from the Outer, Fibrous Pulp of the Oil Palm Fruit.Extracted from the outer, fibrous pulp of the fruit of the Oil Palm. Rich in lipids to assist in repairing the acid mantle of the skin, regulates healthy pH balance.
Equisetum Hiemale (Horsetail) Leaf/Stem Extract:source: Horsetail.Rebuilds connective tissues with rich levels of organic (vegetal) silica by linking collagen fibers. Improves cellular regeneration and increases collagen and elastin bio-synthesis. Exhibits wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties.
Ergothioneine (L):source: Amino Acid Naturally Found in Botaniclas such as Mushroom, Vege.Natural antioxidant and amino acid, prevents damage caused by UV radiation, recycles vitamin C, assures efficient energy production, inhibits tyrosinase.
Erythrulose (Sugar):source: Sugar.A high performance self tanning agent derived from plant keto-sugar that encourages an even, long lasting tanning effect, protects against UV damage while keeping the skin moist.
Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Tribehenin, Sorbitan Isostearate, Palmitoyl Oligopeptide:source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).A European peptide complex that is clinically proven to increase the lip's volume by 40% and decrease furrows over the course of 30 days.
Eugenia Caryophyllus (Clove) Leaf Oil:source: Clove Essential Oil.Stimulates tissue growth, relieves dark circles around the eyes, repairs damaged skin.
Eugenol:source: Naturally Occuring Component of Cinnamon and Clove Essential Oil.A powerful essential oil derived from Cinnamon and Clove that provides antiseptic and analgesic actions while assists the skin in improving its natural UV absorption to reduce environmental damage.
Euterpe Oleracea (Açai) Fruit Extract:source: Acai.Known as the “super berry”, rich in Vitamins B1, B2, B3, C and E. Antioxidant known to be over 30 times stronger than red wine. Detoxifies the skin, improves cellular regeneration and immunity while balancing healthy lipids.
Euterpe Oleracea (Açai) Fruit Oil:Rich in polyphenols, phytosterols and Omega 3 and 9 essential fatty acids, balances lipid activity, promotes skin repair and membrane stability. .
Eclipta extract:Common Name:Eclipta, False Daisy;INCI Name:Eclipta prostrata extract;Property:Protecting scalp, Hair loss prevention, Hair growth, Anti-dandruff, Grey hair prevention.
Eucalyptus extract:Common Name:Eucalyptus, Blue gum, Tasmanian blue gum;INCI Name:Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Anti-acne.
Elecampane extract:Common Name:Elecampane, Elecampagne, Enula, Helenio, Helenium, Horseheal, Induzotu, Wild Sunflower;INCI Name:Inula helenium extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.
Edelweiss extract:Common Name:Edelweiss, Leontopodio;INCI Name:Leontopodium alpinum flower,leaf extract;Property:Antioxidant, Sun block.
Evening primrose seed extract:Common Name:Evening primrose, King's cureall;INCI Name:Oenothera biennis (Evening primrose) seed extract;Property:Moisturizing, Anti-atopy, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Eo Jeonn Sea Myun Yak:Common Name:Glutinous rice / Hyacinth orchid / Peppervine / Kobon / Cheonkung / Wild ginger / Spikenard / Honey locust / Bai zhi / Sandalwood / Bai zhu / Poria / Lignum aloe / Paper mulberry;INCI Name:Oryza sativa (Rice) extract / Bletilla striata root extract / Ampelopsis japonica root powder / Angelica tenuissima root extract / Cnidium officinale root extract / Asarum sieboldi root extract / Nardostachys chinensis root extract / Gleditsia australis seed extract / Angelica dahurica root extract / Santalum album (Sandalwood) wood extract / Atractyloides macrocephala root extract / Poria cocos extract / Aquilaria agallocha stem extract / Broussonetia kazinoki root extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Cleansing.
Elm bark extract:Common Name:Elm;INCI Name:Ulmus davidiana root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation.
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