Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: N6-furfuryladenine | N-acetyl-L tyrosine | NaPCA | Narcissus poeticus wax | Nardost achys jatamaus | natto gum | natural ingredients | natural moisturizing factors | neem extract or oil | Nelumbo nucifera | neopentanate | neopentyl glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate | Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate | neptune kelp extract | neroli | neroli oil | nettle extract | niacin | niacinamide | niaouli oil | nicotinamide | nicotinic acid | Nigella sativa seed extract | nitrogen | nitrosamines | nonacnegenic | noncomedogenic | nonoxynols | nordihydroguaiaretic acid | nylon-12 | Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) | Nonapeptide-1 | Noni root extract |Nettle extract |NH-PPT III |
N6-furfuryladenine:Technical name for kinetin. See kinetin.
N-acetyl-L tyrosine:See tyrosine.
NaPCA:See natural moisturizing factors and sodium PCA.
Narcissus poeticus wax:Fragrant flower extract that can cause irritation and dermatitis (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
Nardost achys jatamaus:See spikenard.
natto gum:Fermentation product of soy protein. It may be a potent antioxidant (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 2002, pages 3592~596).
natural ingredients:The FDA has tried to establish official definitions and guidelines for the use of certain terms such as "natural" and "hypoallergenic," but its regulations were overturned in court. That means that cosmetics companies can use these terms on ingredient labels to mean anything they want, with the result that it almost always means nothing at all. The term "all-natural" has considerable market value in promoting cosmetic products to consumers, but a close look at an ingredient label reveals that the plant extracts make up only a small percentage of the product. Plus, when a plant is added to a cosmetic, preserved, and stabilized with other ingredients, it loses its natural qualities (Source: FDA Consumer magazine, May-June 1998, revised May 1998 and August 2000).
natural moisturizing factors:One of the primary elements in keeping skin healthy is making sure the structure of the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is intact. That structure is defined and created by skin cells that are held together by the intercellular matrix. The intercellular matrix is the "glue" or portar?between skin cells that keep them together. It helps prevent individual skin cells from losing water and creates the smooth, non-flaky appearance of healthy, intact skin. The components that do this are often called natural moisturizing factors (NMFs) or ingredients that mimic the structure and function of healthy skin. While the oil and fat components of skin prevent evaporation and provide lubrication to the surface of skin, it is actually the intercellular matrix along with the skin's lipid content that gives skin a good deal of its surface texture and feel.
The intercellular matrix is the skin first line of defense against water loss. When the lipid and NMF content of skin is reduced, we experience surface roughness, flaking, fine lines, and a tight, uncomfortable feeling. The longer the skin's surface layer (stratum corneum) is impaired, the less effective the skin intercellular matrix becomes (Sources: Skin Research and Technology, August 2000, pages 128~34; and Dermatologic Therapy, Volume 17, Supplement 1, 2004, pages 43-48). Moreover, the skin's healing process is impaired. NMFs make up an expansive group of ingredients that include amino acids, ceramides, hyaluronic acid, cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycosphingolipids, urea, linoleic acid, glycosaminoglycans, glycerin, mucopolysaccharide, and sodium PCA (pyrrolidone carboxylic acid). Ingredients that mimic the lipid content of skin are apricot oil, canola oil, coconut oil, corn oil, jojoba oil, jojoba wax, lanolin, lecithin, olive oil, safflower oil, sesame oil, shea butter, soybean oil, squalane, and sweet almond oil, which can all be extremely helpful for making dry skin look and feel better.
All of the skin's supporting NMFs and lipids are present in the intercellular structure of the epidermis, both between skin cells and in the lipid content on the surface of skin. When any of these ingredients are used in skin-care products, they appear to help stabilize and maintain this complex intercellular-skin matrix. Although none of these very good NMFs and lipids can permanently affect or change skin, they are great at temporarily keeping depleted skin from feeling dry and uncomfortable. More important, all of these ingredients, and many more, can help support the intercellular area of the skin by keeping it intact. This support helps prevent surface irritation from penetrating deeper into the skin, works to keep bacteria out, and aids the skin's immune/healing system. Selecting moisturizers of any kind with NMFs (whether they are labeled as being antiaging, antiwrinkle, serums, lotions, or sunscreens) allows your skin to do its job of repairing and regenerating itself without the impedances brought on when skin is suffering from dryness and excess irritation (Sources: Clinical Geriatric Medicine, February 2002, pages 103-120; Progressive Lipid Research, January 2003, pages 1-36; Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, November 2002, pages 587-594; Contact Dermatitis, June 2002, pages 331-338; Journal of Investigative Dermatology, May 1996, pages 1096-1101; British Journal of Dermatology, November 1995, pages 679-685; Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, September-October 2004, pages 207-213; Free Radical Research, April 2002, pages 471~77; and Journal of Lipid Research, May 2002, pages 794~04).
neem extract or oil:From leaves of the neem tree; it has potential toxic effects, although it has also been shown to have antimicrobial properties (Sources: Life Sciences, January 2001, pages 1153~160; Journal of Ethnopharmacology, August 2000, pages 377~82; Phytotherapy Research, February 1999, pages 81~3; and Mutation Research, June 1998, pages 247~58).
Nelumbo nucifera:See lotus seed extract.
neopentanate:Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
neopentyl glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate:Used as an emollient and thickening agent.
Neopentyl Glycol Diheptanoate:A mixture of neopentyl glycol (a film-forming agent and solvent) and heptanoic acid (a fatty acid made from grapes), the compound functions as a non-aqueous skin-conditioning agent and thickener.
neptune kelp extract:See algae.
neroli:See orange blossom.
neroli oil:Fragrant plant oil; it can be a skin irritant and sensitizer.
nettle extract:May have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Healthnotes Review of Complementary and Integrative Medicine,www.healthwell.com/healthnotes/Herb/Nettle.cfm).
niacinamide:Also called vitamin B3, niacin, and nicotinic acid, this water-soluble ingredient is stable in the presence of heat and light. Topical application of niacinamide has been shown to increase ceramide and free fatty acid levels in skin, prevent skin from losing water content, as well as stimulate micro-circulation in the dermis (Sources: British Journal of Dermatology, September 2000, pages 524~31; and Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, April 2004, page 88). 2% niacinamide was shown in one small study to be more effective than petrolatum (Vaseline) for reducing water loss from skin and increasing its hydration levels (Source: International Journal of Dermatology, March 2005, pages 197-202). Procter Gamble, whose Olay skin-care line sells several products with niacinamide, published a double-blind study involving 50 women. The subjects used a product containing 5% niacinamide (whether that amount is included in Olay niacinamide products was not mentioned) for a period of 12 weeks. Results included an improvement in the appearance of wrinkles, skin discolorations, less redness, a reduction in sallowness, and improved elasticity (Source: Dermatologic Surgery, July 2005, pages 860-865). Another study seconded PG findings that niacinamide is a helpful ingredient to address skin discolorations. It appears that topical niacinamide has an inhibitory effect on the transfer of melanosomes to skin cells, thus it can interrupt the process that causes irregular pigmentation to form (Source: Experimental Dermatology, July 2005, pages 498-508).
In addition to niacinamide growing reputation as an excellent barrier repair and skin lightening agent, some existing animal studies and in vitro studies on human fibroblasts (cells that produce connective tissue such as collagen) have demonstrated that niacinamide may have a mitigating effect on skin tumors (Source: Nutrition and Cancer, February 1997, pages 157~62). Fewer studies exist to examine niacinamide anti-acne properties. An older study compared a gel containing 4% niacinamide with the prescription acne medicine Clindamycin and found it works just as well as the prescription, but without the risk of antibiotic resistance (Source: International Journal of Dermatology, June 1995, pages 434-437).
Perhaps even more important is the potential for niacinamide as a cell-communicating ingredient (Sources: Journal of Radiation Research, December 2004, pages 491-495; British Journal of Dermatology, October 2003, page 681; and Journal of Dermatological Science, volume 31, 2003, pages 193-201). See cell-communicating ingredients
niaouli oil:Extracted from a plant related to melaleuca. It has properties similar to those of tea tree oil, making it a possible topical disinfectant. It is a weak antibacterial agent (Source: Pharmazie, June 1999, pages 460~63), but it can also be a potent skin irritant (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com). See tea tree oil.
nicotinic acid:See niacinamide.
Nigella sativa seed extract:May have anti-inflammatory and immune-enhancing properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, June 2001, pages 45~8). It can also be a skin sensitizer and there is little research showing it to have benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
nitrogen:Used as a propellant for products by the cosmetics industry; it can generate free-radical damage and cause cell death (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development, April 2002, pages 1007~019).
nitrosamines:Can be formed in cosmetics when amines (such as DEA, MEA, or TEA) are combined with a formaldehyde-releasing preservative (bronopol or quaternium-15, among others). Nitrosamines are known for their carcinogenic properties. There is controversy as to whether or not this poses a real problem for skin given the small concentrations that are used in cosmetics and the question of whether nitrosamines can even penetrate skin. See formaldehyde-releasing preservative.
nonacnegenic:Term used by the cosmetics industry to lead consumers to believe they are using a product that will not cause their skin to break out. However, "nonacnegenic" is not regulated in any manner by the FDA and, therefore, is used indiscriminately by cosmetics companies without any substantiation or proof of claim (Source: www.fda.gov).
noncomedogenic:Term meant to indicate that a product will not clog pores. This term is not regulated by the FDA or any other organization, so a cosmetics company can make this claim regardless of proof or substantiation of any kind (Source: www.fda.gov).
nonoxynols:Used as mild surfactants. See surfactant.
nordihydroguaiaretic acid:Component of some plants that has been shown to have anticancer properties for skin and may also protect the skin from sun damage (Sources: British Journal of Cancer, April 2002, pages 1188~196; Molecular Carcinogenesis, June 2002, pages 102~11; and Biochemical Pharmacology, March 2002, pages 1165~176).
nylon-12:Powder substance that is used as an absorbent and thickening agent.
Niacinamide (Vitamin B3):source: Vitamin B3.Improves oxygenation and ingredient absorption by stimulant actions that increase circulation and detoxification processes, assists in the utilization of B vitamins. .
Nonapeptide-1:source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).Biomimetic peptide (mimics body’s natural response) shown to reduce hyperpigmentation by preventing activation of tyrosinase and blocking melanin synthesis. .
Noni root extract:Common Name:Noni, Indian mulberry;INCI Name:Morinda citrifolia extract;Property:Skin regeneration.
Nettle extract:Common Name:European Nettle, Stinging Nettle;INCI Name:Urtica dioica (Nettle) extract;Property:Protecting scalp.
NH-PPT III:Common Name:Water/ Lecithin / Jojoba oil / Glycerin / Cetostearyl alcohol / Polysorbate 59 / Panthenol / Black sesame / Black soybean / Black rice;INCI Name:Water / Lecithin / Simmondasia chinensis (Jojoba) seed oil / Glycerin / Cetostearyl alcohol / Polysorbate 60 / Panthenol / Sesamum indicum (Sesame) seed extract / Glycine soja (Soybean) seed extract / Oryza sativa (Rice) extract;Property:Protecting scalp, Others, Nourishing.
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