Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: oak root extract | oatmeal | oatmeal soap | octinoxate | octisalate | octocrylene | octyl methoxycinnamate | octyl palmitate | octyl salicylate | octyl stearate | octyldodecanol | octyldodecyl myristate | octyldodecyl neopentanoate | o-cymen-5-ol | Oenothera Biennis Oil | oleic acid | oleic/linoleic triglyceride | oleths | olibanum extract | olive oil | olive oil PEG-6 esters | Opuntia ficus-indica extract | orange blossom | Orbignya martiana | Orbignya oleifera | orchid | oregano | Origanum majorana | Origanum vulgare flower extract | ornithine | Orobanche cernua extract | Orobanche rapum extract | orris root | Ortho Tri-Cyclen | Oryza sativa oil | oryzanol | osmanthus | oxybenzone | oxygen | oxygenated water | ozokerite | Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil | Olea Europaea (Olive) Leaf Extract | Opuntia Ficus-Indica (Cactus) Stem Extract | Opuntia Tuna (Prickley Pear) Fruit Extract | Origanum Vulgare (Oregano) Leaf Extract | Oryza Sativa (Rice Peptide) Extract | Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Oil | Okra extract | Onion extract |Organic-7 |Oat extract |O Ki Dan | Orange extract |Ok yong San extract |Ok Seol Go |Olive extract | Ophiopogon root extract |Orchid extract |Oregano extract |Ok Yong Seo Si San | O Ji Tang |O Sam Complex |O Dan Bang |
oak root extract:May have antibacterial properties on skin but can also be a skin irritant.
oatmeal:Can have anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, March-April 2002, pages 120~24).
oatmeal soap:Soap containing oatmeal and supposed to be better at absorbing oil and soothing sensitive skin than other soaps or bar cleansers. There are studies demonstrating that oatmeal can have anti-irritant properties. How that translates into a bar cleanser is unknown, but the benefits are probably nonexistent given the amount of time the oatmeal is actually on the skin and the presence of other irritating ingredients. Plus, when rubbed over the skin the pieces of oat particles can be scratchy and irritate some skin types. See oatmeal (above).
octinoxate:See octyl methoxycinnamate.
octisalate:Technical name for the active sunscreen ingredient octyl salicylate (also known as ethylhexyl salicylate). See octyl salicylate.
octocrylene:Sunscreen agent that protects skin from the UVB range of sunlight (Sources: www.photodermatology.com/sunprotection.htm; and Skin Therapy Letter, 1997, volume 2, number 5, www.dermatology.org/skintherapy)..
octyl methoxycinnamate:Sunscreen agent used to protect skin primarily from the sun's UVB rays (Sources: www.photodermatology.com/sunprotection.htm; and Skin Therapy Letter, 1997, volume 2, number 5, www.dermatology.org/skintherapy). .
octyl palmitate:Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
octyl salicylate:Sunscreen agent used to protect skin primarily from the sun's UVB rays (Sources: www.photodermatology.com/sunprotection.htm; and Skin Therapy Letter, 1997, volume 2, number 5, volume 2, number 5, www.dermatology.org/skintherapy).
octyl stearate:Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
octyldodecanol:An emulsifier and opacifying agent, used primarily as a thickener in moisturizers because of its lubricating and emollient properties.
octyldodecyl myristate:The mixture of octyldocecanol (a thickener) and myristic acid that forms a new compound used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient. See myristic acid.
octyldodecyl neopentanoate:A skin-conditioning agent and emollient.
o-cymen-5-ol:Preservative used in cosmetics. See preservatives.
Oenothera Biennis Oil:See evening primrose oil.
oleic acid:A fatty acid used as a surfactant and thickening agent. See fatty acid, surfactant, and thickening agent.
oleic/linoleic triglyceride:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
oleth:Mild surfactants. See surfactant.
olibanum extract:See frankincense extract.
olive oil:Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils. The concept of olive oil having antiaging properties stems from some evidence that diets high in olive oil may help prevent heart disease (Sources: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, January 2002, pages 72~1; and Lipids, November 2001, pages 1195~202, and Supplemental pages S49~52). There are also a small number of animal tests showing that topically applied olive oil can protect against UVB damage (Sources: Carcinogenesis, November 2000, pages 2085~090; Journal of Dermatological Science, March 2000, Supplemental pages S45~50). It does seem that olive oil is a good antioxidant and assuredly it's a good moisturizing ingredient, but research shows similar results for other oils as well. See natural moisturizing factors.
olive oil PEG-6 esters:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester and olive oil.
Opuntia ficus-indica extract:Extract from the Indian fig or prickly pear cactus that has a small amount of research showing it to have wound-healing properties (Source: Fitoterapia, February 2001, pages 165~67) and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Archives of Pharmacal Research, February 1998, pages 30~4).
orange blossom:Fragrant extract that can also be a skin irritant.
Orbignya martiana:See babassu oil.
Orbignya oleifera:See babassu oil.
orchid:Fragrant extract that can be a skin irritant.
oregano:Has potent antibacterial and antifungal properties, but can also be a skin irritant (Source: Journal of Food Protection, July 2001, pages 1019~024).
Origanum majorana:See marjoram.
Origanum vulgare flower extract:See oregano.
ornithine:Primary component of arginine (an amino acid) that shares many of the biopharmacologic effects of arginine, which include enhanced wound healing, particularly with regard to collagen synthesis, when taken orally. (Sources: Journal of Surgical Research, June 2002, pages 35~2; Nitric Oxide, May 2002, pages 313~18; and European Surgical Research, January-April 2002, pages 53~0). Whether ornithine has that effect when applied topically is not known.
Orobanche cernua extract:May have antibacterial properties (Source: Journal of Basic Microbiology, volume 39, number 5-6, pages 377~80).
Orobanche rapum extract:May have antioxidant properties (Source: Phytochemistry, June 2000, pages 295~00).
orris root:Used primarily as a fragrant component due to its violet-like scent (Source: www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/i/irises08.html). It can cause allergic or sensitizing skin reactions and there is no research showing it to be beneficial for skin (Source: Botanical Dermatology Database, http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/BotDermFolder/BotDermC/CACT.html).
Ortho Tri-Cyclen:Low-dosage type of birth-control pills (generic norgestimate/ethinyl estradiol) approved for use in the United States for the treatment of acne. In Canada, Diane-35, a combination of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol, is approved for the treatment of acne (Source: Skin Therapy Letter, 1999, volume 4, number 4, www.dermatology.org/skintherapy). According to a double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in Fertility and Sterility (September 2001, pages 461~68), other "low-dose birth-control pills can be an effective and safe treatment for moderate acne." The double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial found that the birth-control pill containing levonorgestrel (Alesse) reduced the appearance of acne.
Oryza sativa oil:See rice oil.
oryzanol:Component of plants and their products, such as rice bran, that has potent antioxidant properties.
osmanthus:Fragrant plant; used in perfumes, it can also be a skin irritant.
oxybenzone:Sunscreen agent that protects primarily from the sun's UVB rays, and some, but not all, UVA rays (Sources: www.photodermatology.com/sunprotection.htm; and Skin Therapy Letter, 1997, volume 2, number 5, www.dermatology.org/skintherapy). See UVA.
oxygen:Many cosmetic products contain antioxidants, ingredients that reduce the negative effect of oxygen or oxidative substances on skin. At the same time, the cosmetics industry also sells products that contain hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or other oxygen-releasing ingredients, which supposedly deliver an oxygen molecule when coming into contact with skin, although that generates free-radical damage (Source: Human and Experimental Toxicology, February 2002, pages 61~2). Why the concern about supplying oxygen to the skin? Oxygen depletion is one of the things that happens to older skin, regardless of whether it's been affected by sun damage or any other health-related factor. Why or how that happens is completely unknown, though it is thought to have something to do with blood flow and a reduction in lung capacity as we age. It is also believed that, with age, the issue isn't so much the amount of oxygen but rather a change in the blood's ability to use the oxygen it has.
However, when wound healing is a problem, regenerating the tissue often demands, in addition to other factors, increased topical oxygen, because wound repair can be facilitated by oxygen therapy. Yet this method of wound care lacks research showing it to be effective or to be the best option for skin (Source: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, May 2002, pages 239~49).
Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of life in an oxygen-rich atmosphere. The "Oxygen Paradox" is that oxygen is dangerous to the very life forms for which it has become an essential component of energy production. The first defense against oxygen toxicity is the sharp reduction in the amount of oxygen present in cells, from the level present in air of 20% to a tissue concentration of only 3% to 4% oxygen. These relatively low tissue levels of oxygen prevent most oxidative damage from ever occurring. Cells, tissues, organs, and organisms have multiple layers of antioxidant defenses, plus damage replacement and repair systems to cope with the stress and damage that oxygen engenders (Source: Journal of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, October-November 2000, pages 279~89). See free-radical damage.
oxygenated water:Claims regarding the benefit of enhanced oxygenated water are unsubstantiated, and have been debunked by medical, sports, and physiology experts. All water that has been exposed to the air is "oxygenated" to a small extent. This can be increased a small amount by pressurizing the water with oxygen gas, but it adds less oxygen than what is contained in a single breath. Further, once the oxygenated water is exposed to air the oxygen goes back into the atmosphere (Source: Penn State Sports Medicine Newsletter, www.psu.edu/ur/NEWS/news/april98sportsmed2.html).
Olea Europaea (Olive) Fruit Oil:source: Olive Fruit.Rich in Vitamin E and Oleic acid which nourishes and balances lipid content of the acid mantle, improves absorption, re-moisturizes the skin to relieve rough, dry textures. .
Olea Europaea (Olive) Leaf Extract:source: Olive Leaves.Provides wide-spectrum anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal compounds, improves circulation. .
Opuntia Ficus-Indica (Cactus) Stem Extract:source: Cactus Stem.Soothes irritations, protects from environmental stress, provides long lasting deep hydration, exhibits firming effects. .
Opuntia Tuna (Prickley Pear) Fruit Extract:source: Prickley Pear.Soothes and softens the skin, relieves sensitivities, protects from free radical damage caused by environmental stress. .
Origanum Vulgare (Oregano) Leaf Extract:source: Oregano Leaves.Provides antiseptic and analgesic action to limit skin discomfort and breakouts. .
Oryza Sativa (Rice Peptide) Extract:source: Rice.Naturally balances oils while absorbing dirt and cellular debris from the pores, prevents wrinkles, targets and heals skin breakouts, smoothes and softens skin texture. .
Oryza Sativa (Rice) Bran Oil:source: Rice.Different from other vegetable oils due to its high levels of tocotrienols and gamma-oryzanol antioxidants. .
Okra extract:Common Name:Okra, Lady fingers, Gambo, Gombo, Okura, Ocra, Bamia ochro, Bhindi, Bombo, Chimbombo;INCI Name:Abelmoschus esclentus fruit extract;Property:Moisturizing.
Onion extract:Common Name:Onion;INCI Name:Allium cepa (Onion) bulb extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-microbe, Enhancing blood circulation.
Organic-7:Common Name:Organic Celery , Organic Cabbage , Organic Brown rice , Organic Tomato , Organic Turnip , Organic Carrot , Organic Broccoli;INCI Name:Apium graveolens (Celery) extract , Brassica oleracea capitata (Cabbage) leaf extract , Oryza sativa (Rice) extract , Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) fruit extract , Brassica rapa (Turnip) leaf extrac;Property:Anti-atopy, Anti-allergy.
Oat extract:Common Name:Oat extract,INCI Name:Avena sativa (Oat) kernel extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Moisturizing.
O Ki Dan:Common Name:Safflower / Indigo / Black rice / Goldthread / Ginseng;INCI Name:Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) flower extract / Polygonum tinctorium leaf extract / Oryza sativa (Rice) extract / Coptis japonica root extract / Panax ginseng root Extract;Property:Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
Orange extract:Common Name:Orange;INCI Name:Citrus aurantium dulcis (Orange) fruit extract;Property:Softening.
Ok yong San extract:Common Name:Honey locust / Bai zhi / Black cohosh / Hyacinth orchid / Glutinous rice / Mung bean / Chinese cucumber / Cardamom / Paper mulberry / Clove;INCI Name:Gleditschia australis thorn extract / Angelica dahurica root extract / Cimicifuga racemosa root extract / Bletilla striata root extract / Oryza sativa (Rice) extract / Phaseolus radiatus seed extract / Trichosanthes kirilowii root extract / Amomum xanthioides seed extract / Broussonetia kazinoki root extract / Eugenia caryophyllus (Clove) flower extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Skin regeneration, Whitening, Anti-acne.
Ok Seol Go:Common Name:Nephrite powder / Magnolia / Cheonkung / Bai zhi / Peach kernel / Pokeweed;INCI Name:Nephrite powder / Magnolia biondii bud/flower extract / Cnidium officinale root extract / Angelica dahurica root extract / Prunus persica (Peach) kernel extract / Phytolacca decandra root extract;Property:Whitening, Skin regeneration, Anti-acne.
Olive extract:Common Name:Olive, Olivo, Zaytoon;INCI Name:Olea europaea (Olive) fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Ophiopogon root extract:Common Name:Snake's beard, Creeping lily-turf, Dwarf lilyturf;INCI Name:Ophiopogon japonicus root extract;Property:Moisturizing, Anti-atopy, Anti-inflammation.
Orchid extract:Common Name:Orchid;INCI Name:Orchid extract;Property:Orchid extract.
Oregano extract:Common Name:Oregano,INCI Name:Origanum vulgare flower extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.
Ok Yong Seo Si San:Common Name:Green gram / Hyacinth orchid / Peppervine / Silkworm / Bai zhi / Chinese cucumber / Spikenard / Galanga / Ling xiang cao / Siler / Kobon / Honey locust;INCI Name:Phaseolus radiatus seed extract / Bletilla striata root extract / Ampelopsis japonica root powder / Silkworm extract / Angelica dahurica root extract / Trichosanthes kirilowii root extract / Nardostachys chinensis root extract / Kaempferia galanga root extract / Lysimachia foenum-graecum extract / Ledebouriella seseloides root extract / Angelica tenuissima root extract / Gleditsia australis seed extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Skin regeneration, Whitening.
O Ji Tang:Common Name:Peach / Mulberry / Willow / Mae sil / Pagoda tree;INCI Name:Prunus persica(Peach) leaf extract / Morus alba leaf extract / Salix alba (Willow) bark extract / Prunus mume fruit extract / Sophora japonica root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
O Sam Complex:Common Name:Red sage / Ginseng / Hyeonsam / Mansam / Dodder;INCI Name:Salvia miltiorrhiza flower/leaf/root extract / Panax ginseng root extract / Scrophularia buergeriana root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
O Dan Bang:Common Name:Sandalwood / Honey locust / Poria / Honey / Turnip;INCI Name:Santalum album (Sandalwood) wood extract / Trichosanthes kirilowii root extract / Poria cocos extract / Honey extract / Brassica rapa (Turnip) seed extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration.
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