Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: P. elisabethae | PABA | padimate O | Padina pavonica extract | Paeonia albiflora extract | Paeonia suffruticosa extract | palm glyceride | palm oil | Palmaria palmata extract | palmarosa oil | palmitates | palmitic acid | palmitoyl pentapeptide 3 | Panax schinseng | pansy extract | pantethine | panthenol | pantothenic acid | papain | papaya extract | para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) | parabens | paraffin | Paraffinum liquidum | Parietaria officinalis extract | parsley extract | Parsol 1789 | Passiflora edulis extract | passion fruit extract | patchouli | Paullinia cupana | pawpaw extract | peanut oil | pecan oil | pectin | PEG compound | PEG-100 Stearate | PEG-120 methyl glucose dioleate | PEG-150 distearate | PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil | PEG-80 sorbitan laurate | Pelargonium graveolens oil | pellitory | pentadecalactone | pentasodium penetate | Peony flower | peony root extract | peppermint | peptide | perfluoropolymethylisopropyl ether | Perilla ocymoides oil | periwinkle extract | Persea gratissima oil | petitgrain mandarin | petrolatum | Pfaffia paniculata extract | PHA | Phellodendron amurense extract | phenoxyethanol | phenyl trimethicone | phenylalanine | phosphatidylcholine | phosphatidylethanolamine | phospholipid | phosphoric acid | photosensitizer | Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract | phytantriol | phytic acid | phytoalexins | phytoestrogen | phytol | phytonadione | Phytoplenolin | Phytosphingosine | phytosterol | pilewort extract | Pimpinella anisum | pine cone extract | pine needle extract | pine oil | pineapple extract | Pinus lambertiana wood extract | Pinus sylvestris extract | Piper nigrum | pistachio seed oil | Pistacia vera seed oil | placenta | placenta extract | placenta protein | placental enzymes | placental lipid | placental protein | plant estrogen | plasticizing agents | plum extract | Plumeria alba flower extract | Pogostemon cablin | Polianthes tuberosa extract | poloxamers | polyacrylamide | Polybutene | polycaprolactone | polyethylene glycol | polyglucuronic acid | polyglycerol monostearate | polyglycerol polyricinoleate | polyglyceryl methacrylate | polyglyceryl-2 caprate | polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate | Polygonum cuspidatum root extract | polyhydroxy acid | polyhydroxysteatic acid | polyquaterniums | polysaccharide | Polysorbate-20 | polysorbates | polyvinyl alcohol | polyvinylpyrrolidone | pomegranate extract | Pongamia glabra seed oil | Pongamia pinnata extract | poppy seeds | Poria cocos extract | Porphyra umbilicalis | Porphyridium cruentum | Portulaca Oleracea extract | potassium | potassium cetyl phosphate | potassium hydroxide | potassium myristate | potassium thiocyanate | Potentilla erecta root extract | Poterium officinale root extract | PPG-12 buteth-16 | PPG-14 butyl ether | PPG-2 myristyl ether propionate | pregnenolone acetate | preservatives | prickly pear extract | primrose | Primula veris extract | pristane | progesterone USP | prolamine extract | proline | propagermanium | propolis | Propylene Carbonate | propylene glycol | Propylene Glycol Stearate | propylparaben | proteases | protein | Protol | prune seed extract | Prunella vulgaris | Prunus americana | Prunus domestica seed extract | Prunus dulcis | Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae | Psidium guajava | Pueraria lobata | pullulan | Punica granatum extract | purified water | PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer | PVP | PVP copolymer | PVP/dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate | pycnogenol | pyridoxine hydrochloride (HCL) | Pyrus cydonia | Pyrus malus | Palmitoyl Dipeptide-5 | Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5 | Panthenol (D) (Provitamin B5) | Papaver Rhoeas (Red Poppy) Petal Extract | Passiflora Edulis (Passionfruit) Fruit Extract | Passiflora Laurifolia (Passionflower) Flower Extract | Pectin | Pelargonium Graveolens (Geranium) Flower Oil | Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil | Peumus Boldus Leaf Extract | Phenethyl Alcohol (Stabil® Preservative System) | Phenoxyethanol | Phenyl-N-Butyl Nitrone (Spin Trap) | Phospholipids (Plant Fatty Acid) | Phytic Acid (Plant) | Pisum Sativum (Pea Peptide) Extract | Plantago Lanceolata Leaf Extract (Plantago) | Pogostemon Cablin (Patchouli) Oil | Polyglyceryl-4 Caprate | Polygonum Cuspidatum (Giant Knotweed) Extract) (Resveratrol) | Polysorbate 20 (Plant) | Polysorbate 60 (Plant) | Pomegranate Flavor Oil | Porphyra Umbilicalis Red Algae Extract | Potassium Cetyl Phosphate | Potassium Sorbate | Proline (L) | Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil | Prunus Persica (Peach) Extract | Psidium Guajava (Pink Guava) Fruit | Pyridoxine HCI (Vitamin B6) | Pyrus Malus (Apple) Fruit | Pyrus Malus (Green Apple) Fruit Extract | Phyto Oligo | Pineapple extract | Pal Bo Seung Ki Dan | Paper mulberry seed extract | Papaya extract | Pumpkin extract | Persimmon extract | Phytoastrin | Phytocalciferol | Privet fruit extract | Peppermint extract | Prickly pear fruit extract | Phytovitas | Peony extract | Pearl extract | Parsley extract | Pokeweed root extract | Pinellia root extract | Pine tree leaf extract | Pine tree bark extract | Plantain extract | Plantain seed extract | Plantago extract | Poria extract | Portulaca extract | Peach extract | Peach kernel extract | Pomegranate extract | Potato extract |
P. elisabethae:The "P." is short for Pseudopterogorgia. See sea whip extract.
PABA:See para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA).
padimate O:Sunscreen agent that protects skin primarily from the sun's UVB rays (Sources: www.photodermatology.com/sunprotection.htm; and Skin Therapy Letter, 1997, volume 2, number 5, www.dermatology.org/skintherapy).
Padina pavonica extract:See algae.
Paeonia albiflora extract:See peony flower.
Paeonia suffruticosa extract:See peony root extract.
palm glyceride:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester and palm oil.
palm oil:Has emollient and antioxidant properties for skin (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1997, volume 22, number 5, pages 761~69). See antioxidant and natural moisturizing factors.
Palmaria palmata extract:Extract from a sea plant whose common name is dulse.See algae.
palmarosa oil:See geranium oil.
palmitates:Generally these are forms of fatty acids used in cosmetics as thickening agents and emollients. As is true for any emollient, they can potentially clog pores, depending on the amount used in the product. See fatty acid.
palmitic acid:Detergent cleansing agent that also creates foam and can be drying. See surfactant.
palmitoyl pentapeptide 3:Trade name Matrixyl. It is a fatty acid mixed with amino acids. The only research showing this to have significance for skin was carried out by the ingredient manufacturer, Sederma. In their research, three different "half-face" studies with a total of about 45 participants showed it to be better than a retinol or vitamin C product (Source: Journal of Cosmetic Science, January-February 2001, pages 77~8). Without independent substantiation, however, there is no way to know how accurate this company-funded research is. Further, according to Sederma's research, the recommended concentration for this ingredient is 3% to 5% and there are few, if any, products using more then just a trace amount in their products. See amino acid and fatty acid.
Panax schinseng:See ginseng.
pansy extract:There is a small amount of research showing it to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
pantethine:Also known as pantothenic acid. See pantothenic acid.
panthenol:Alcohol form of vitamin B. See pantothenic acid.
pantothenic acid:Also called vitamin B5, and often touted as being effective for acne. However, there is only one study supporting this notion and it dates from the early 1980s (Source: International Journal of Dermatology, 1981, volume 20, pages 278~85). There is no current research showing this to be an effective treatment for acne, but there is a small amount of research showing that it can be effective for hydration and wound healing (Source: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2002, volume 3, number 6, pages 427~33).
papain:An enzyme extracted from papaya. Applied topically, papain can cause severe irritation, itching, and allergic reactions (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com). There is one study showing it to be effective for exfoliation, but only in pure concentration (Source: Archives of Dermatological Research, November 2001, pages 500~07). See enzymes.
papaya extract:Source of papain that theoretically can have exfoliating properties on skin, though almost none of the research has been performed on skin. Papaya can be a skin irritant. See enzymes.
para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA):Sunscreen ingredient rarely used since the 1990s because of strong potential for allergic reactions.
parabens:Group of preservatives, including butylparaben, propylparaben, methylparaben, and ethylparaben. They are the most widely used group of preservatives found in cosmetics. It is estimated that more than 90% of all cosmetic products contain some form of paraben. They are considered to cause less irritation than some preservatives. There is research showing that in animal models (and in vitro) parabens can have weak estrogenic activity. Whether that poses any health risk for humans using cosmetics is unknown. The very technical findings of the study, which involved both oral administration and injection into rat skin, did show evidence of a weak estrogen effect on cells in a way that could be problematic for binding to receptor sites that may cause proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The study concluded that future work will need to address the extent to which parabens can accumulate in hormonally sensitive tissues and also the extent to which their weak oestrogenic activity can add to the more general environmental oestrogen problem.?(Source: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, January 2002, pages 49~0).
Does this mean you should stop buying products that contain parabens? That a good question, but the answer isn simple or conclusive, even by the standards of the study itself. This is a potentially serious issue and the FDA is conducting its own research to determine what this means for human health (Source: The Endocrine Disruptor Knowledge Base (EDKB), http://edkb.fda.gov/index.html). To keep the concern in perspective, it is important to realize that parabens are hardly the only substances that may have estrogenic effects on the body.
Any estrogen, including the estrogen our bodies produce, may bind to receptor sites on cells either strongly or weakly. Either this can stimulate the receptor to imitate the effect of our own estrogen in a positive way, or it can generate an abnormal estrogen response. Ironically, plant estrogens, or phytoestrogens (such as those found in soy), also produce chemicals that mimic estrogen. It is possible that a weak plant estrogen can help the body, but it can also be possible for a strong plant estrogen to make matters worse. For example, there is research that shows coffee to be a problem for fibrocystic breast disease. The reason for this is thought to be because coffee exerts estrogenic effects on breast cells (Sources: American Journal of Epidemiology, October 1996, pages 642~44; Journal of the American Medical Women Association, Spring 2002, pages 85~0; www.som.tulane.edu/ecme/eehome/newsviews/whatsnew/archive/jan_dec2002.html).
A study in the Journal of Applied Toxicology (Volume 24, Issue 1, January-February 2004, pages 5-13) mentioned that although recent reports of the oestrogenic properties of parabens have challenged current concepts of their toxicity in these consumer products, the question remains as to whether any of the parabens can accumulate intact in the body from the long-term, low-dose levels to which humans are exposed.?The study discussed the fact that traces of parabens have indeed been found in human breast tumors, but was quick to point out that it is unknown if this would be the same in healthy breast tissue. Parabens present in tumors may not be the causative factor but rather a result of parabens when cancer cells are present. See preservatives and Paula's article, Problems with Preservatives?.
paraffin:Waxy, petroleum-based substance. Used as a thickener for cosmetics.
Paraffinum liquidum:See mineral oil.
Parietaria officinalis extract:Extract from a plant also known as pellitory. It can have antibacterial properties for skin but also has strong allergic and irritant potential when applied topically (Source: European Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, July 1996, pages 579~84; and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com).
parsley extract:Can have antioxidant properties (Sources: Phytotherapy Research, August 2000, pages 362~65; and British Journal of Nutrition, June 1999, pages 425~26), but whether it has that effect when applied topically on skin is not known.
Parsol 1789:See avobenzone.
Passiflora edulis extract:See passion fruit extract.
passion fruit extract:There is no research showing this to have benefit for skin.
patchouli:Fragrant oil derived from mint. It contains eugenol and can be a skin sensitizer and irritant. See counter-irritant.
Paullinia cupana:See guarana.
pawpaw extract:See papaya extract
peanut oil:Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils.
pecan oil:Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils.
pectin:Natural substance found in plants, especially apples, and used in cosmetics as an emulsifier and thickening agent..
PEG compound:PEG stands for polyethylene glycol. Various forms of PEG compounds are mixed with fatty acids and fatty alcohols to create a variety of substances that have diverse functions in cosmetics, including surfactants, binding agents (to keep ingredients blended), stabilizers, and emollients. See polyethylene glycol.
PEG-100 Stearate:See PEG compound and thickening agent.
PEG-120 methyl glucose dioleate:See surfactant.
PEG-150 distearate:See thickening agent.
PEG-40 hydrogenated castor oil:An emollient ingredient that is the polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture of castor oil. See polyethylene glycol (PEG) and castor oil.
PEG-80 sorbitan laurate:Mild surfactant. See surfactant.
Pelargonium graveolens oil:See geranium oil.
pellitory:See Parietaria officinalis extract.
pentadecalactone:Synthetic fragrance used in cosmetics.
pentasodium penetate:Used as a chelating agent in cosmetics to prevent varying mineral components from binding together and negatively affecting the formulation.
Peony flower:A European flower used topically for treating a variety of skin diseases, including fissures. Evidence of its effectiveness for these purposes is anecdotal. There is not enough known about the effects of peony flower to substantiate its use or safety in cosmetic products (Source: www.naturaldatabase.com).
peony root extract:There is research showing that the root of the peony plant can have anticancer properties as well as antioxidant properties (Sources: Cancer Letters, December 2001, pages 17~4; Archives of Pharmaceutical Research, April 2001, pages 105?08; and Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, January 2001, pages 69~2). However, there is no research showing it to have that benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
peppermint:Both the oil and the extract can have antimicrobial properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, July 2002, pages 3943~946), but they can also have an irritating, sensitizing effect on skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com). See counter-irritant.
peptide:Proteins are comprised of a long chain of amino acids, and individual portions of proteins are known as peptides. In the body, peptides regulate the activity of many systems. This regulation is achieved by interaction of the peptide with a target cell. Enzymatic activity breaks proteins into peptides so they can exert their influence on the body. Some peptides have hormonal activity, others demonstrate immune activity, some are cell-communicating ingredients telling cells how to react and what to do, some are believed to play a role in wound healing, and still others are thought to influence the pathology of skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and eczema.
Whether peptides can have benefit when applied topically to skin for wound healing, skin barrier repair, or as disinfectants is difficult to ascertain, as they generally cannot penetrate skin and remain stable because they are considered too hydrophilic, or water-loving. Ironically, peptides can become unstable in water-based formulas (Source: Biotechniques, July 2002, pages 190~92; and IFSCC Magazine, July 2004, page 153). Further, because peptides are vulnerable to the presence of enzymes, when peptides are absorbed, the abundant enzymes present in skin can break the peptides down to the point where they have no effect. However, the latest research is examining how different types of synthesized peptides can enter the living membrane of cells and, more interesting, transport biologically active ingredients to these cells. Some of these peptides have demonstrated a remarkable anti-inflammatory effect. Creating specific peptide chains in the lab and then attaching a fatty acid component to them allows peptides to overcome their inherent limitations: absorbing and staying stable. Lab-engineered peptides appear to have the kind of efficacy and benefit that goes beyond the skin surface, but more conclusive, long-term research is essential to understanding what, if anything, is really taking place (Sources: Cosmetics Toiletries, June 2004, page 30; Pharmaceutical Research, March 2004, pages 389-393; and The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, September 2005, pages 473-481). It is reasonable to assume that as synthetic peptide technology broadens, we will see more options for use in skin-care products promoting anti-aging properties, specifically, tissue regeneration (Source: Cosmetics Toiletries, March 2003, pages 43-52).
In order for these specialized peptides to exert a benefit beyond that of a water-binding agent, three criteria must be met: the peptides must be stable in their base formula, they must be paired with a carrier that enhances absorption into the skin, and they must be able to reach their target cell groups without breaking down. Achieving this goal is no easy feat, but one that cosmetic scientists are predicting will have significant potential in the realm of anti-aging skin-care ingredients.
perfluoropolymethylisopropyl ether:Film-forming agent. See film-forming agent.
Perilla ocymoides oil:Derived from the seeds of the Perilla ocymoides plant. Perilla contains multiple flavones and the oil is high in alpha-linolenic acid. It has antioxidant and anti-cancer properties; however it may also be a significant skin irritant (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com).
periwinkle extract:There is no research showing this extract to have benefit for skin. It is not to be confused with Madagascar periwinkle, Catharanthus roseus, that has anti-tumor properties (Sources: Oncologist, 2000, volume 5, number 3, pages 185?98; and Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, November 2001, pages 5165~170). However, Madagascar periwinkle is considered toxic and has limited use for cancer treatment (Sources: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com; and FDA Poisonous Plant Database, www.fda.gov).
Persea gratissima oil:See avocado oil.
petitgrain mandarin:See mandarin orange oil or extract.
petrolatum:Vaseline is pure petrolatum. For some unknown and unsubstantiated reason, petrolatum has attained a negative image in regard to skin care, despite good research to the contrary. Topical application of petrolatum can help the skin's outer layer recover from damage, reduce inflammation, and generally heal the skin (Source: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, November-December 2000, pages 412~15). See mineral oil.
Pfaffia paniculata extract:Also known as suma extract and Brazilian ginseng. There is a small amount of research showing it to have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com).
PHA:See polyhydroxy acid.
Phellodendron amurense extract:Extract of the Amur corktree; it can have anti-inflammatory and antifungal benefits (Sources: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, May 1999, pages 667~74; and Fitoterapia, March 2001, pages 221~29).
phenoxyethanol:Common cosmetic preservative that is considered one of the less irritating ones to use in formulations. It does not release formaldehyde. See preservatives.
phenyl trimethicone:Silicone with a drier finish than dimethicone. See silicone.
phenylalanine:See amino acid.
phosphatidylcholine:The active ingredient found in lecithin. Every cell membrane in the body requires phosphatidylcholine (PC). It is also a major source of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is used by the brain in areas that are involved in long-term planning, concentration, and focus. But all of this information is associated with ingesting PC, not putting it on the skin. PC is considered a very good water-binding agent and aids in the penetration of other ingredients into the skin. It absorbs well without feeling greasy or heavy (though other ingredients can perform similarly, including glycerin, ceramides, and hyaluronic acid). (Sources: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, September-October 1999, pages 235~46; and Journal of Controlled Release, March 29, 1999, pages 207~14.) See lecithin and water-binding agent.
phospholipid:Type of lipid (fat) composed of glycerol, fatty acids, and phosphate. Phospholipids are essential to the function of cell membranes by providing a stable surrounding structure. Lecithin and cholesterol are phosopholipids. See glyceryl ester and natural moisturizing factors.
phosphoric acid:Used as a pH adjuster in cosmetic and skin-care products.
photosensitizer:Ingredients that can cause the skin to have an irritated or inflamed reaction when exposed to sunlight.
Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract:Has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Sources: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, May 2000, pages 171~76; and Planta Medica, December 1997, pages 518~24).
phytantriol:A hair- and skin-conditioning agent that also has water-binding properties.
phytic acid:A component of plants that has antioxidant properties.
phytoalexins:Antimicrobial substances that are produced by a plant in response to infection by fungi or bacteria and that help to defend the plant by inhibiting the growth of invading microbes. Phytoalexins can also be potent antioxidants, and the combination of those two properties is thought to have benefit for skin, particularly for wound healing (Sources: Free Radical Research, June 2002, pages 621~31; and Biochemical Pharmacology, January 2002, pages 99~04). How that relates to daily skin care or wrinkles is unknown, but it is probably a good antioxidant for skin.
phytoestrogen:See plant estrogen.
phytol:Subcomponent of vitamin E and also a component of chlorophyll. It has antioxidant properties, but there is limited research about phytol having any effect on skin.
phytonadione:See vitamin K.
Phytoplenolin:Trade name for the plant extract Centipeda cunninghami. See Centipeda cunninghami extract.
Phytosphingosine:A long-chain, complex fatty alcohol that functions as a water-binding agent and also has preservative qualities. Its name is derived from the term sphingoid, coined by chemist J.L.W. Thudichum in 1884 because the way the molecules of this substance lined up reminded him of the riddle of the Sphinx.
phytosterol:Cholesterol-like molecules found in all plant foods, with the highest concentrations occurring in vegetable oils. Phytosterols in the natural diet may lower cholesterol (Sources: Annual Reviews of Nutrition, 2002, volume 22, pages 533~49; and Metabolism, May 2002, pages 652~56). However, regarding topical application, there is research showing that the high lipid content of phytosterols can make the skin extremely sensitive to light (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, September 1997, pages 316~25).
pilewort extract:See Ranunculus ficaria extract.
Pimpinella anisum:See anise.
pine cone extract:Components of this extract, specifically linolenic and linoleic acid, can have antioxidant properties (Source: Tree Physiology, June 2002, pages 661~66) and antibacterial properties for skin (Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, May 2000, pages 3~2).
pine needle extract:See pine oil.
pine oil:Can have disinfectant properties (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, December 1997, pages 2770~772), but it can also be a potent skin irritant and should never be used on abraded or chafed skin.
pineapple extract:Contains the enzyme bromelain, which can break down the connecting layers between skin cells to exfoliate skin. However, bromelain used alone is a more effective source of exfoliation, without the other irritating properties of the pineapple.See bromelain.
Pinus lambertiana wood extract:Pine extract that may have skin-sensitizing properties (Source: Botanical Dermatology Database, http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/index.html).
Pinus sylvestris extract:See pine cone extract.
Piper nigrum:See black pepper.
pistachio seed oil:An emollient plant oil with uses similar to peanut oil in cosmetics.
Pistacia vera seed oil:See pistachio seed oil.
placenta:The nourishing lining of the womb that protects and supports human and animal fetuses during prenatal development. The placenta is linked to the uterus and regulates metabolic changes. Placenta does not have anti-aging or rejuvenating effects on skin.
placenta extract:Obtained from the afterbirth of animals, it is supposed to have rejuvenating properties for skin, but this claim has never been proven in research of any kind. Much like any part of a human or animal body, the placenta is a source of proteins and amino acids that have water-binding and antioxidant properties (Sources: Placenta, July 2002, pages 497~02; and Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, November 2000, pages 2478~481). These are helpful for skin, but no more so than hundreds of other ingredients with similar or superior attributes. Due to the concern about Mad Cow Disease, ingredients of this nature are best avoided.
placenta protein:Protein that works like other proteins on skin, regardless of the source. It is just a good water-binding agent. See placenta, and protein.
placental enzymes:Obtained from either human or animal placentas. See placenta extract and placental protein.
placental lipid:A lipid obtained from either human or animal placentas. See placenta extract and placental protein.
placental protein:Obtained from either human or animal placentas, and used in cosmetics with varying, though completely unsubstantiated, claims about miraculous effects on skin. Animal- and human-derived ingredients are prohibited from use under the provisions of the European Union Cosmetics Directive (www.colipa.com/publication_17.html). For animal-derived ingredients, this directive is based on concerns about transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease); for human-derived ingredients the concern is viral diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Source: International Journal of Toxicology, 2002, volume 21, Supplement 1, pages 81~1). There is no way to know from a cosmetic ingredient label what the source of the extract is. See placenta extract.
plant estrogen:Current understanding regarding oral supplements of plant estrogens is that they may work by interfering with the body's own estrogen, thus preventing it from being out of balance. Plant estrogens may fool the body into thinking it has the right balance of this hormone by filling the receptor areas on cells sensitive to human estrogen. If the body has too much estrogen, the plant estrogen may prevent the body from using it (thereby preventing estrogen-related cancers); if the body has too little estrogen (as during the stages of menopause), plant estrogen might make the body think it has more, thus reducing some of the more uncomfortable side effects. There is little information about how much estrogen-laden food a woman must consume (and for how long) to reduce or eliminate the effects of menopause. In other words, adding estrogen-rich foods or supplements to your diet won't necessarily prevent breast cancer, heart attack, osteoporosis, or hot flashes. There are also studies that have shown no improvement or benefit from dietary estrogens (Sources: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, January 2002, pages 118?21; and Toxicological Science, February 2002, pages 228~38), although these were hardly sweeping or conclusive reviews.
Clearly, this is a health issue that needs to be examined more closely. But what about plant estrogens used in creams and applied topically? There is no research showing that plant estrogens can provide any benefit when applied topically to skin. But even if there were a benefit, how much would you need to rub on your skin to obtain it? Moreover, when it comes to cosmetics or skin-care products, there is no way to know how much of a plant estrogen extract is being used, or how active it remains in a manufactured product. More to the point, because the cosmetics and natural-supplement industries are not regulated, there is no way to really know what you are getting.
plasticizing agents:Ingredients that place a thin layer of plastic over the skin; typically these are used in facial masks so they can be peeled off the skin. See film-forming agent.
plum extract:Extract of Prunus americana that may have antioxidant activity when applied topically (Source: Phytotherapy Research, February 2002, pages 63~5).
Plumeria alba flower extract:Used as a fragrance in cosmetics.
Pogostemon cablin:See patchouli.
Polianthes tuberosa extract:Limited research has shown that the extract from this tuberous plant can have water-binding and antioxidant properties (Source: Phytochemistry, April 196, pages 1517~521)..
polyacrylamide:See film-forming agent.
Polybutene:A polymer derived from mineral oil and used as a thickener and lubricant.
polycaprolactone:Biodegradable thermoplastic polymer derived from the chemical synthesis of crude oil. It may have application in supporting skin-tissue growth for the purposes of skin grafts (Source: Tissue Engineering, August 2001, pages 441~55).
polyethylene glycol:Also listed as PEG on ingredient labels, polyethylene glycol is an ingredient that self-proclaimed "natural" Web sites have attempted to make notorious and evil. They gain a great deal of attention by attributing horror stories to PEG, associating it with antifreeze (however, antifreeze is ethylene glycol, not polyethylene glycol), and there is no research indicating that PEG compounds pose any problem for skin. Quite the contrary: PEGs have no known skin toxicity and can be used on skin with great results (Sources: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, June 2002, pages 587~06; and Cancer Research, June 2002, pages 3138~143). The only negative research for this ingredient indicates that large quantities given orally to rats can cause tumors, but that is unrelated to topical application.
Polyethylene, when it is not combined with glycol, is the most common form of plastic used in the world. It is flexible and has a smooth, waxy feel. When ground up, the small particles are used in scrubs as a gentle abrasive. When mixed with glycol, it becomes a viscous liquid. In the minuscule amounts used in cosmetics, it helps keep products stable and performs functions similar to glycerin. Because polyethylene glycol can penetrate skin, it is also a vehicle that helps deliver other ingredients deeper into the skin. It is even used internally in medical procedures to flush and clean the intestinal tract. See propylene glycol.
polyglucuronic acid:See film-forming agent.
polyglycerol monostearate:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
polyglycerol polyricinoleate:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
polyglyceryl methacrylate:See film-forming agent.
polyglyceryl-2 caprate:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
polyglyceryl-3 methylglucose distearate:See glyceryl ester.
Polygonum cuspidatum root extract:Extract of the knotweed plant. When eaten it may have weak estrogenic activity (Source: Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters, July 2001, pages 1839~842) and antitumor activity (Source: Journal of Nutrition, June 2001, pages 1844~849). It also has antioxidant properties (Source: Biological Pharmaceutical Bulletin, January 1995, pages 162~66).
polyhydroxy acid:Because alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) may be irritating to skin, the search for an effective form of AHA or an extra ingredient that can enhance performance and reduce irritation is an active issue. Gluconolactone and lactobionic acid are types of polyhydroxy acid (PHA) that are supposed to be as effective as AHAs but less irritating (NeoStrata is the company that holds the patent on glycolic acid as an antiwrinkle agent, as well as a patent for gluconolactone for reducing the appearance of wrinkles). Gluconolactone and lactobionic acid are chemically and functionally similar to AHAs. The significant difference between them is that gluconolactone and lactobionic acid have larger molecular structures, which limits their ability to penetrate into the skin, resulting in a reduction of irritating side-effects. This reduced absorption into the skin supposedly doesn't hamper their effectiveness. Does that mean gluconolactone and lactobionic acid are better for your skin than AHAs in the form of glycolic acid or lactic acid? According to an Internet-published class lecture by Dr. Mark G. Rubin (Source: http://22.214.171.124/lasernews/rubin_lecture/21.html), a board-certified dermatologist and assistant clinical professor of dermatology at the University of California, San Diego, research on gluconolactone demonstrated only a "6% decrease in dermal penetration" in comparison to glycolic acid, which "isn't a dramatic improvement." Gluconolactone may be slightly less irritating for some skin types but this isn't quite the magic bullet for exfoliation that beauty magazines and some cosmetics companies have been extolling. There is no independent research information available about lactobionic acid.
polyhydroxysteatic acid:Synthetic polymer related to stearic acid and functions as a suspending agent.
polyquaterniums:Group of ingredients used primarily in hair-care products due to their antistatic and film-forming properties. They can have water-binding properties for skin due to the sheer "plastic" film layer they create on skin.
polysaccharide:Natural component of skin that can be a good water-binding agent and potentially have antioxidant properties. See mucopolysaccharide and natural moisturizing factors.
polysorbates:Fatty acids that are used as emollients and thickening agents in cosmetics. See fatty acid.
polyvinyl alcohol:See plasticizing agents.
polyvinylpyrrolidone:Usually listed on ingredient labels as PVP or PVP copolymer, it is one of the primary ingredients used in hairstyling products to hold hair in place. When present in minuscule amounts in skin-care products, it places an imperceptible film over the skin that is considered to be water-binding and that helps give the appearance of firmer skin. It can be a skin sensitizer for some individuals. See film-forming agent.
pomegranate extract:Contains ellagic acid, and is considered effective as an anticarcinogen and antioxidant when taken orally. There is no research showing what effect, if any, this extract can have on skin (Sources: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, January 2002, pages 81~6, and 166~71; and International Journal of Oncology, May 2002, pages 983~86).
Pongamia glabra seed oil:Has antimicrobial properties (Source: Archives of Andrology, January-February 2002, pages 9~3).
Pongamia pinnata extract:Can have anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, December 2001, pages 151~57).
poppy seeds:Can have analgesic properties when applied topically.
Poria cocos extract:Derived from a mushroom, this extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Sources: Life Sciences, January 2002, pages 1023~033; and Journal of Ethnopharmacology, November 2000, pages 61~9). Also known as Hoelen and Fu ling.
Porphyra umbilicalis:Form of seaweed. See algae.
Porphyridium cruentum:Type of red algae. See algae.
Portulaca Oleracea extract:May have anti-inflammatory or analgesic properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, July 2001, pages 171-176 and December 2000, pages 445-451).
potassium:Important in diet and present in such fruits and bananas and citrus. It is also an earth mineral that has absorbent properties and some disinfecting properties, but can also be a skin irritant.
potassium cetyl phosphate:Used as a detergent cleansing agent. See surfactant.
potassium hydroxide:Also known as lye, it's a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate the pH of a product. It is also used as a cleansing agent in some cleansers. In higher concentrations it is a significant skin irritant.
potassium myristate:Detergent cleansing agent that is a constituent of soap; it can be drying and sensitizing for some skin types. See surfactant.
potassium thiocyanate:Chemically, a salt that can be a potent skin irritant, though it can also have antibacterial properties for skin.
Potentilla erecta root extract:Can have anti-inflammatory properties, though there is minimal research showing this to be the case (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database,www.naturaldatabase.com).
Poterium officinale root extract:Derived from the garden burnet plant. See Sanguisorba officinalis.
PPG-12 buteth-16:Versatile ingredient composed of several non-volatile alcohols. Functions as a skin-conditioning agent, emulsifier, solvent, and surfactant..
PPG-14 butyl ether:Used as a hair- and skin-conditioning agent.
PPG-2 myristyl ether propionate:A mixture of glycols and fatty alcohols used as a skin-conditioning agent and, in some cases, as a thickening agent.
pregnenolone acetate:Precursor to other hormones, it can affect levels of progesterone and estrogen in the body when taken orally. When applied to skin it may work as a water-binding agent. There is no information about whether absorption of this through skin is possible.
preservatives:Substances used in cosmetics to prevent bacterial and microbial contamination of products. While there is definitely a risk of irritation from these types of ingredients, the risk to skin and eyes from using a contaminated product is considered by many scientists to be even greater.
prickly pear extract:There is no research showing it to be effective for skin when applied topically, though it may have water-binding properties (Source: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 1998, volume 52, number 3, pages 263~70).
primrose:See Primula veris extract.
Primula veris extract:Derived from primrose or cowslip plants. It has no known benefit for skin, though it does contain flavones and may have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Chromatography A, February 2000, pages 453~62).
pristane:Technically tetramethylpentadecane or pentadecane. It is a component of mineral oil, shark oil, or plant oil. It is used as an emollient in cosmetics.
progesterone USP:A study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (June 1999, pages 1504~511) states that "In order to obtain the proper (effective) serum levels with use of a progesterone cream, the cream needs to have an adequate amount of progesterone in it [at least 30 milligrams per gram]. Many over the counter creams have little [for example, 5 milligrams per ounce] or none at all. The creams that are made from Mexican yams are not metabolized to progesterone by women. The cream used in the above study (Pro-Gest) contains pure United States Pharmacopoeia [USP] progesterone." Dr. John Lee, an author and longtime proponent of topically applied progesterone, explains that "The USP progesterone used for hormone replacement comes from plant fats and oils, usually a substance called diosgenin, which is extracted from a very specific type of wild yam that grows in Mexico, or from soybeans. In the laboratory, diosgenin is chemically synthesized into real human progesterone. Some companies are trying to sell ?wild yam extract' [or other plant extracts] ?claiming that the body will then convert it into hormones as needed. While we know this can be done in the laboratory, there is no evidence that this conversion takes place in the human body." Dr. Lee is quick to explain that he doesn't sell any of these products and receives no profit from their sale. He also does not recommend the use of natural progesterone creams with any other active hormones or herbs. See Paula's article Progesterone.
prolamine extract:Protein that has water-binding and antioxidant properties.
proline:See amino acid.
propolis:Brownish, resinous material that is collected by bees and used to construct the hive. It has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties for skin (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, May 2002, pages 1302~309).
Propylene Carbonate:Liquid used as a solvent and film-forming agent. See film-forming agent.
propylene glycol:Along with other glycols and glycerol, this is a humectant or humidifying and delivery ingredient used in cosmetics. There are Web sites and spam e-mails stating that propylene glycol is really industrial antifreeze and that it is the major ingredient in brake and hydraulic fluids. These sites also state that tests show it to be a strong skin irritant. They further point out that the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) on propylene glycol warns users to avoid skin contact because systemically (in the body) it can cause liver abnormalities and kidney damage. As ominous as this sounds, it is so far from the reality of cosmetic formulations that almost none of it holds any water or poses real concern. It is important to realize that the MSDS sheets are talking about 100% concentrations of a substance. Even water and salt have frightening comments regarding their safety according to the MSDS. In cosmetics propylene glycol is used in only the smallest amounts to keep products from melting in high heat or freezing when it is cold. It also helps active ingredients penetrate the skin. In the minute amounts used in cosmetics, it is not a concern in the least. Women are not suffering from liver problems because of propylene glycol in cosmetics. And finally, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, within the Public Health Services Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, "studies have not shown these chemicals [propylene or the other glycols as used in cosmetics] to be carcinogens" (Source: www.atsdr.cdc.gov). See Paula's article, Propylene Glycol.
Propylene Glycol Stearate:Mixture of propylene glycol and stearic acid used as a skin-conditioning agent and emulsifier. See Propylene Glycol and stearic acids.
proteases:Enzymes that are part of a process that causes the breakdown of amino acids and proteins in skin (Source: www.chemistry-info.net). There is research showing that proteases, when applied topically to skin, can reduce the visible scaling associated with dry, flaky skin (Source: Archives of Dermatological Research, November 2001, pages 500~07). Whether proteases can be of benefit for wound healing when applied topically is unclear (Source: Experimental Dermatology, October 2001, pages 337~48).
protein:Proteins are fundamental components of all living cells and include a diverse range of biological substances, such as enzymes, hormones, and antibodies, that are necessary for the proper functioning of any organism, plant, or animal. The human body contains perhaps 100,000 different proteins, each composed of an assortment of 20 or so amino acids. The sequence of these amino acids determines the unique properties of each protein, such as, for example, its role as an enzyme acting as a catalyst for a specific biochemical reaction. If even one of the essential amino acids is missing, the protein cannot be formed. This fact is well known to nutritionists because ensuring an adequate supply of essential amino acids is important in determining the nutritional value of proteins in the diet. Components of proteins can have varying benefits for skin, but overall they are used for their water-binding and emollient properties.
Protol:Trade name for mineral oil. See mineral oil.
prune seed extract:In large enough amounts can have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 2002, pages 3708~712).
Prunella vulgaris:See self-heal.
Prunus americana:See plum extract.
Prunus domestica seed extract:See plum extract.
Prunus dulcis:See almond oil.
Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae:See sea whip extract.
Psidium guajava:See guava extract.
Pueraria lobata:See kudzu root.
pullulan:Produced by black yeast, pullulan is a glucan gum that contains polysaccharides, which makes it a good water-binding agent, thickening agent, and antioxidant. See beta-glucan and mucopolysaccharide.
Punica granatum extract:See pomegranate.
purified water:See deionized water.
PVM/MA decadiene crosspolymer:A synthetic polymer used as a film-forming and thickening agent.
PVP copolymer:See polyvinylpyrrolidone.
PVP/dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate:A polymer formed from PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and the film-forming agent dimethylaminomethacrylate. See film-forming agent and polyvinylpyrrolidone.
pycnogenol:There is a great deal of research on pycnogenol, a plant-derived substance found in everything from pine bark to apples, cocoa beans, unripe strawberries, peanut skin, grape seeds, and red wine. However, most of the research dates back to 1990 and earlier (Source: U.S. Patent No. 4,698,360 entitled "Plant Extract with a Proanthocyanidins Content as Therapeutic Agent Having Radical Scavenging Effect and Use Thereof"). There are studies supporting the notion that pycnogenol is a potent antioxidant with strong free-radical-scavenging properties (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, September 1999, pages 704~24). However, there isn't any research showing that it will have any effect on wrinkles.See antioxidant.
pyridoxine hydrochloride (HCL):Scientific name for vitamin B6; may have antibacterial and antioxidant benefits for skin when applied topically.
Pyrus cydonia:See quince seed.
Pyrus malus:Species of apple; the pectin derived from it is used as a thickener in cosmetics.
Palmitoyl Dipeptide-5:source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).Improves collagen production and strengthens the dermal epidermal junction (DEJ) to improve structural strength, improves nourishment and cellular communication, anti-age and anti-wrinkle. Reduces wrinkle depth, modulates enzymatic process that deplete collagen formation, inhibits protein breakdown. .
Palmitoyl Tripeptide-5:source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).Peptide - Activates the TGF-beta growth factor to improve the synthesis of collagen, relieves wrinkles, moisturizes and firms. Clinical trials have show this ingredient to reduce and changes depth of wrinkles. Mimics body’s own mechanism to stimulate collagen in fibroblasts therefore compensating for collagen deficits and smoothing the skin. .
Panthenol (D) (Provitamin B5):source: Provitamin B5.B pro-vitamin in correct molecular form for topical use, Provitamin B5, moisturizes and acts as a humectant to hydrate the skins surface, when used in combination with Allantoin it relieves burns and promotes tissue healing. .
Papaver Rhoeas (Red Poppy) Petal Extract:source: Red poppy.Provides emollient and anti-inflammatory properties. .
Passiflora Edulis (Passionfruit) Fruit Extract:source: Passionfruit.Antioxidant, moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, promotes skin rejuvenation and anti-aging benefits. .
Passiflora Laurifolia (Passionflower) Flower Extract:source: Passionflower.Due to soothing effect of flavonoids, beneficial for sensitive skin or after sun care. Provides radical scavenging and astringent effects. .
Pectin:source: Fruit Enzymes, Obtained from Diluted Acid Extracts of Citrus Fru.Infuses the skin with antioxidants and phytochemicals that assist in skin repair functions, protects from cellular damage and free radical assault, stimulates cell renewal and exfoliation mechanisms. Also used as a natural polymer that increases ingredient cohesion and water resistance. .
Pelargonium Graveolens (Geranium) Flower Oil:source: Geranium Essential Oil.Antiseptic anti-inflammatory that relaxes the muscles and controls excess oil, stimulates the lymphatic system and encourages healthy circulation. .
Persea Gratissima (Avocado) Oil:source: Avocado.Rebalances lipid content and infuses essential fatty acids into the skin to aid in guarding against infection, rich in vitamins and minerals to nourish the skin. .
Peumus Boldus Leaf Extract:source: South American Boldo Plant.Derived from an evergreen shrub, boldo provides toning, antiseptic and stimulating actions that assist in clearing problematic skin while rejuvenating aged skin. .
Phenethyl Alcohol (Stabil® Preservative System):source:A water soluble natural organic compound (occurs widely in nature) that is found in essential oils, provides preservative actions. Component of Stabil preservative system. .
Phenoxyethanol:source:An aromatic alcohol that provides product preservation. Broad spectrum anti-microbial activity, gram negative or positive bacterias, yeasts and molds. Non-irritating and formaldehyde-free bactericide and cosmetic formula stabilizer. .
Phenyl-N-Butyl Nitrone (Spin Trap):source: Roots of Carrots and Potatoes.An antioxidant that utilizes unique mechanisms to capture free radicals and correct the molecular imbalance thus restoring stability to the reactive oxygen species to stop the destructive chain of free radical production. .
Phospholipids (Plant Fatty Acid):source: Plant Fatty Acid.Improves the permeability of the cell membranes to increase ingredient utilization, improves barrier functions to protect from infection. .
Phytic Acid (Plant):source: Rice.Natural antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties. .
Pisum Sativum (Pea Peptide) Extract:source: Pea Peptide.A botanical anti-enzyme complex to promote firmness and elasticity through the implementation of proteins and essential amino acids that promote the production of collagen. Exhibits antioxidant and anti-wrinkle effects. Protects and repairs epidermal proteins against damages induced by proteases activated by environmental aggressions such as pollution, stress and UV rays. Promotes membrane lipid synthesis and is an excellent long-term hydroregulator.. .
Plantago Lanceolata Leaf Extract (Plantago):source: Plantago Leaves.Anti-inflammatory and healing effects on damaged skin, astringent properties.. .
Pogostemon Cablin (Patchouli) Oil:source: Patchouli Essential Oil.Antiseptic, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial. Due to it's cell regeneration action it is especially beneficial for the more mature type skin, particularly helpful for scar tissue and cracked skin. .
Polawax:source: Plant Omega-6 from Evening Primrose.Naturally thickens or thins the viscosity of a cosmetic formulation. Fatty alcohol from plant omega-6 (evening primrose). .
Polyglyceryl-4 Caprate:source: Coconut.Emollient agent to soften and soothe the skin. .
Polygonum Cuspidatum (Giant Knotweed) Extract) (Resveratrol):source: Giant Knotweed.Natural source yielding Resveratrol, dilates blood vessels to improve oxygenation, stimulates cell growth and slows enzymes that break down proteins to protect collagen structures, prevents UVB damage to skin cells. .
Polysorbate 20 (Plant):source: Plants.Emulsifies oil into water, provides surfactant actions. .
Polysorbate 60 (Plant):source: Plants. .
Pomegranate Flavor Oil:source: Pomegranate.Natural ingredient to enhance the aroma of the product. .
Porphyra Umbilicalis Red Algae Extract:source: Red Algae.Boosts sun protection in sun care products by protecting skin against photoaging and DNA damage. Natural UVA-absorbing active for daily protection, helps prevent the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles. .
Potassium Cetyl Phosphate:source: Potassium Salt.A phosphorous compound that acts as a surfactant; an emulsifying agent. .
Potassium Sorbate:source: Potassium Salt.A paraben-free natural preservative for organic food-sourced active ingredients. Also, a naturally occurring organic acid used as a fungicide against yeast, molds and select bacteria. .
Proline (L):source: Amino Acid.Amino Acid - Improves skin texture and aids collagen formation, slows the loss of collagen content within the skin as aging occurs. Moisturizing and moisture retention properties, repairs damaged tissue, promotes health of connective tissue. .
Prunus Amygdalus Dulcis (Sweet Almond) Oil:source: Almonds.Lubricates to protect from chapping, rich in vitamins and essential fatty acids making it highly nourishing. .
Prunus Persica (Peach) Extract:ource: Peaches.Provides pleasant scent. .
Psidium Guajava (Pink Guava) Fruit:source: Pink guava.Antioxidant and nutrient dense. .
Pyridoxine HCI (Vitamin B6):source: Vitamin B6.B vitamin, metabolizes proteins and promotes over 100 enzymatic actions some of which aid in the production of red blood cells and prevent stress related skin disturbances. .
Pyrus Malus (Apple) Fruit:source: Apple.AHA - Puree rich in alpha hydroxy acid to maintain moisturized and evenly exfoliatedskin. .
Pyrus Malus (Green Apple) Fruit Extract:source: Apple.Shown to contain ten times the level of polyphenol found in ripe apples. Maintains youthful skin, rich in malic acid which refines and rejuvenates the skin, inhibits elastase (an enzyme that breaks down elastin protein) known to maintain healthy elastin fibers. .
Phyto Oligo:Common Name:Hollyhock / Aloe ;INCI Name:Althaea rosea flower extract / Aloe barbadensis leaf extract;Property:Moisturizing, Anti-itching, Anti-atopy.
Pineapple extract:Common Name:Pineapple;INCI Name:Ananas sativus (Pineapple) fruit extract;Property:Moisturizing, Peeling.
Pal Bo Seung Ki Dan:Common Name:Korean angelica / Cheonkung / Peony / Snake's beard / Chinese asparagus / Hyacinth orchid;INCI Name:Angelica gigas root extract / Cnidium officinale root extract / Paeonia lactiflora root extract / Rehmannia glutinosa root extract / Polygonum multiflorum root extract / Ophiopogon japonicus root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration.
Paper mulberry seed extract:Common Name:Kozo, Paper mulberry;INCI Name:Broussonetia kazinoki root extract;Property:Anti-acne, Antioxidant.
Papaya extract:Common Name:Papaya;INCI Name:Carica papaya (Papaya) fruit extract;Property:Softening, Soothing, Anti-inflammation.
Pumpkin extract:Common Name:Pumpkin;INCI Name:Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin) fruit extract;Property:Anti-inflammation.
Persimmon extract:Common Name:Persimmon, Kaki;INCI Name:Diospyros kaki fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Phytoastrin:Common Name:Persimmon / Gallnut / Birch tree;INCI Name:Diospyros kaki leaf extract / Quercus infectoria (Oak) gall extract / Betula platyphylla japonica bark extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening.
Phytocalciferol:Common Name:Shiitake;INCI Name:Lentinus edodes extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Protein synthesis, Moisturizing.
Privet fruit extract:Common Name:Ligustri fructus;INCI Name:Ligustrum japonicum fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant.
Peppermint extract:Common Name:Peppermint;INCI Name:Mentha piperita (Peppermint) leaf extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Sebum control, Anti-dandruff.
Prickly pear fruit extract:Common Name:Prickly pear, Barbary fig;INCI Name:Opuntia tuna fruit extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Anti-inflammation.
Phytovitas:Common Name:Rice / Tangerine / Shiitake;INCI Name:Oryza sativa (Rice) extract / Citrus tangerina (Tangerine) extract / Lentinus edodes extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Peony extract:Common Name:Peony;INCI Name:Paeonia albiflora root extract, Paeonia lactiflora root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation.
Pearl extract:Common Name:Pearl;INCI Name:Pearl powder;Property:Skin regeneration.
Parsley extract:Common Name:Parsley;INCI Name:Petroselinum crispum (Parsley) extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Antioxidant, Hair loss prevention, Hair growth.
Pokeweed root extract:Common Name:Poke - berry, pokeweed, pokeberry, pokeroot, inkberry, poke, pigeoberry;INCI Name:Phytolacca decandra root extract;Property:Anti-microbe.
Pinellia root extract:Common Name:Ban xia, Crowdipper, Karasu bisyaku, Pan hisa, Pan hsia;INCI Name:Pinellia ternata root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-acne, Antioxidant, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Pine tree leaf extract:Common Name:Pine tree leaf;INCI Name:Pinus palustris leaf extract;Property:Hair loss prevention, Hair growth, Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.
Pine tree bark extract:Common Name:Pine tree;INCI Name:Pinus sylvestris bark extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation.
Plantain extract:Common Name:Common Plantain, Che qian zi;INCI Name:Plantago asiatica extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.
Plantain seed extract:Common Name:Common Plantain, Che qian zi;INCI Name:Plantago asiatica seed extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Anti-inflammation.
Plantago extract:Common Name:Ribwort plantain, Plantain, Ribwort;INCI Name:Plantago lanceolata leaf extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.
Poria extract:Common Name:Fu ling, Poria, Tuckahoe, Indian bread, Hoelen;INCI Name:Poria cocos extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Sebum control, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Portulaca extract:Common Name:Green purslane, Golden purslane;INCI Name:Portulaca oleracea extract;Property:Anti-allergy, Anti-inflammation.
Peach extract:Common Name:Peach,INCI Name:Prunus persica (Peach) fruit extract;Property:Skin regeneration.
Peach kernel extract:Common Name:Peach;INCI Name:Prunus persica (Peach) kernel extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Anti-inflammation.
Pomegranate extract:Common Name:Pomegranate, Pomogranado;INCI Name:Punica granatum extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Anti-inflammation.
Pear extract:Common Name:Pear;INCI Name:Pyrus communis (Pear) fruit extract;Property:Moisturizing, Soothing.
Potato extract:Common Name:Potato, Irish potato;INCI Name:Solanum tuberosum (Potato) extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Soothing.
♥The electronic data information published at our official website www.mdidea.com and www.mdidea.net,gives online form of glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics:Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.
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