Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: Ranunculus ficaria extract | rapeseed oil | Raspberry Seed Extract | Raspberry Seed Oil | Ravensara oil | red algae | red clover | red raspberry extract | red sandalwood | reducing agent | Rehmannia chinensis root extract | Rehmannia glutinosa | Renova | resorcinol | respiratory enzyme | Retin-A | retinol | retinyl palmitate | rhatany | riboflavin | ribonucleic acid | rice bran oil | rice oil | rice starch | ricinoleate | Ricinus communis | RNA | Robinia pseudacacia extract | rockrose oil | Rosa canina | Rosa centifolia | Rosa damascena oil | Rosa eglanteria | Rosa gallica flower extract | Rosa mosqueta | Rosa roxburghii extract | Rosa rubiginosa | rose flower | rose flower oil | rose hip | rose hip oil | rose of Jericho extract | rose oil | rosemary extract | rosemary oil | roseroot | Rosmarinus officinalis extract | royal jelly | Rubus idaeus | Rubus laciniatus | Rubus occidentalis | Rubus suavissimus extract | Rubus ursinus x idaeus | Rubus ursinus | Ruscus aculeatus | rutin | Retinol (Vitamin A) | rH-oligopeptide-1 (Epidermal Growth Factor) | Ribes Nigrum (Black Currant) Seed Oil | Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil | Rosa Canina (Rose Hip) Fruit Oil | Rosa Damascena Flower Oil (Damaske Rose) | Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Oil | Rubus Chamaemorus (Cloudberry Seed) Oil | Rubus Idaeus (Raspberry) Fruit | Rumex Occidentalis Extract (Yellow Dock) | Ruscus Aculeatus (Butcherbroom) Root Extract | Rooibos extract | Reishi extract | Rice bran extract | Rice extract | Red ginseng extract | Rose geranium extract | Rose moss extract | Rhubarb extract | Rhubarb extract(HD) | Rosehip extract | Rosemary extract | Rosemary water | Royal jelly extract | Red-dye madder extract(HD) | Raspberry extract | Red sage root extract | Rainbow FV | Red clover extract | Red wine extract |
Ranunculus ficaria extract:May have antibacterial and antifungal properties and is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. However, applied topically it can cause skin irritation and may also cause photodermatitis (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
rapeseed oil:Nonfragrant oil that has emollient and potential antioxidant properties for skin (Source: British Journal of Nutrition, May 2002, pages 489~99).
Raspberry Seed Extract:See red raspberry extract.
Raspberry Seed Oil:See red raspberry extract.
Ravensara oil:A plant oil. There is a small amount of research showing it to have antifungal properties, and when tested on insect larvae it showed antimutagenic properties (Sources: Mutation Research, January 2002, pages 61~8; and Phytochemistry, September 1999, pages 265~69).
red algae:See algae.
red clover:Can have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, September 2001, pages 465~70). It is sold as an herbal supplement for relief of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Red clover does contain high concentrations of four major isoflavones that have been shown to have estrogenic properties. However, in studies red clover was found to be no better than placebo for menopausal symptoms (Source: Harvard Women's Health Watch, December 2001, www.health.harvard.edu/medline/Women/W1201e.html; and Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com)..
red raspberry extract:Fruit extract that has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, June 5, 2002, pages 3495~500) and antibacterial properties (Source: International Journal of Food Microbiology, May 2000, pages 3~2). It can also cause irritation due to its tannin content.
red sandalwood:Has a phytoestrogen component (Source: Phytochemistry, March 2000, pages 605~06), but it can also be a skin irritant (Source: Contact Dermatitis, January 1996, page 69). See plant estrogen.
reducing agent:Substances that have the ability to split or break down the disulfide bonds of hair. Therefore, they are typically used in hair-straightening or hair-waving products and in depilatories. The chemical reaction they generate has antioxidant properties, but they can also be strong skin irritants.
Rehmannia chinensis root extract:From the plant also known as Chinese foxglove; there is no research showing it to have benefit for skin.
Rehmannia glutinosa:Chinese herb known as Di huang that has no known benefit for skin.
Renova:See Retin-A and tretinoin.
resorcinol:Considered an effective topical disinfectant in concentrations of 1% to 3% (Source: www.fda.gov). However, there is also research showing it to be overly irritating for skin (Source: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, July 1999, pages 14~3). As a result it is rarely used nowadays for treating blemishes..
respiratory enzyme:Type of enzyme that interacts with several other biological and physiological processes for the activation and use of oxygen in the body. There is no evidence that any respiratory enzyme can do anything topically for skin.
Retin-A:One of several prescription-only drugs (others include Renova, Tazorac, and Avita) that contain tretinoin (technically, all-trans retinoic acid), which is the acid form of vitamin A, as the active ingredient. In skin, tretinoin is the form of vitamin A that can actually affect cell production by binding to the tretinoin receptor sites on the cell. There is a great deal of research establishing that when skin has been damaged (often by exposure to sunlight) tretinoin is effective in improving cell production. Tretinoin is a valid method for addressing wrinkles and, overall, for improving cell production. Applying tretinoin doesn't produce miraculous results, but the positive outcome in terms of skin health is indisputable. However, it is highly possible that using tretinoin on the skin will cause irritation, which is a major drawback of this drug. See tretinoin.
retinol:Technical name for vitamin A. There is research demonstrating that retinol can have the same action on skin as tretinoin (a derivative of vitamin A and the active ingredient in Retin-A, Renova, Tazorac, and Avita). In skin, tretinoin is the form of vitamin A that can actually affect cell production by binding to the tretinoin receptor sites on the cell, and, therefore, retinol and retinyl palmitate must become tretinoin in the skin if they are to do the same thing. Theoretically, retinol can become tretinoin in the skin, but it is not a direct process. Retinol can be absorbed into the skin and if certain enzymes are present it could be converted to tretinoin. There is research, however, showing that retinol (and retinyl palmitate) can increase epidermal thickness and can indeed function in a manner similar to tretinoin (Sources: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 1998, volume 111, pages 478~84, and September 1997, pages 301~05; Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, November-December 2001, pages 363~72; and Experimental Dermatology, February 1998, pages 27~4).
Retinol is an unstable ingredient, and therefore its packaging is of vital concern. Any container that allows the product to be exposed to sunlight and air means that the retinol will not be stable for very long, if at all, after it is opened (Source: Journal of Cosmetic Science, January-February 2001, pages 77~8). See tretinoin.
retinyl palmitate:Form of vitamin A. It is a combination of retinol (pure vitamin A) and palmitic acid. There is research showing it to be effective as an antioxidant and skin-cell regulator (Sources: European Journal of Medical Research, September 2001, pages 391~98; and Journal of Investigative Dermatology, September 1997, pages 301~05). See retinol.
rhatany:See Krameria triandra extract.
riboflavin:See vitamin B2.
ribonucleic acid:See RNA.
rice bran oil:Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. There is no research showing this to have superior benefit for skin.
rice oil:Emollient similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. There is no research showing this to have superior benefit for skin.
rice starch:Absorbent substance sometimes used instead of talc. It can cause allergic reactions and, because it is a food derivative (as opposed to a mineral derivative like talc), it can support bacterial growth in pores.
ricinoleate:Glyceryl triester used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
Ricinus communis:See castor oil.
RNA:Ribonucleic acid is a single strand of molecules, exactly copied from DNA in the cell nucleus, that is required for the body's production of protein. This single strand is a linear, ladder-like sequence of nucleotide bases (chemicals that form its structure) that corresponds precisely to the sequence of bases in the DNA strand (the core of the body's genetic makeup). RNA in a skin-care product is useless because it cannot affect a cell's genetic elements. The production of DNA and RNA is an extremely complex process that requires a multitude of proteins and enzymes to have its effect on the body's genetic material. It is also doubtful that you would ever want to put anything on your skin that could affect your genetic material, and particularly not via a cosmetic that has no safety or efficacy regulations.
Robinia pseudacacia extract:See black locust extract.
rockrose oil:See labdanum oil.
Rosa canina:See rose hip oil.
Rosa centifolia:See rose hip oil.
Rosa damascena oil:A very fragrant pink rose, used as fragrance in cosmetics.
Rosa eglanteria:See rose hip oil.
Rosa gallica flower extract:Fragrant extract.
Rosa mosqueta:See rose hip oil.
Rosa roxburghii extract:Extract from the chestnut rose; can be a source of antioxidants for skin, and does not impart fragrance (Source: International Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Applied Molecular Biology, November 2001, pages 37~3).
Rosa rubiginosa:See rose hip oil.
rose flower:Highly fragrant substance that can be a skin irritant.
rose flower oil:Fragrant, volatile oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer. There is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin.
rose hip:Seed-containing part of a rose. See rose hip oil and vitamin C.
rose hip oil:Good emollient oil that has antioxidant properties (Sources: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, March 2000, pages 825~28; and Journal of Nutrition, March 2002, pages 461~71).
rose of Jericho extract:Extract from an annual desert plant with the scientific name Anastatica hierochuntica. It has hygroscopic properties, meaning it can absorb moisture from the air. There is no research showing this extract to have benefit for skin.
rose oil:Fragrant, volatile oil that can be a skin irritant and sensitizer.
rosemary extract:Can have antioxidant benefit for skin (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, October 1999, pages 3954?962), but its aromatic components can cause irritation, sensitizing, or toxic reactions on skin (Source: Chemical Research in Toxicology, November 2001, pages 1546~551).
rosemary oil:See rosemary extract.
roseroot:See Sedum rosea root extract.
Rosmarinus officinalis extract:See rosemary extract.
royal jelly:Milky white, thick substance secreted by worker bees that has been shown to have some immune-modulating benefits (Source: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, January 1996, pages 31~8). The myriad other claims about royal jelly being able to prevent wrinkles and heal acne are all anecdotal, and have no research to substantiate them.
Rubus idaeus:See red raspberry extract .
Rubus laciniatus:See blackberry.
Rubus occidentalis:See black raspberry.
Rubus suavissimus extract:Derived from the Chinese blackberry. Most likely, as is true for most berries, this fruit extract has antioxidant properties. However, there is no research proving this to be the case.
Rubus ursinus x idaeus:See boysenberry.
Rubus ursinus:See marionberry.
Ruscus aculeatus:See butcher's broom extract.
rutin:Bioflavonoid that is extracted from various plants and used as an antioxidant and emollient (Sources: Cell Biology and Toxicology, 2000, volume 16, number 2, pages 91~8; and Life Sciences, January 14, 2000, pages 709~23). See bioflavonoid.
Retinol (Vitamin A):source: Vitamin A.A fat-soluble antioxidant vitamin indicated in the treatment of acne due to its ability to separate dead skin cells from live skin cells thus expediting the removal of pore-clogging debris. Also effective in resurfacing skin texture and promoting collagen formation to reduce wrinkles. .
rH-oligopeptide-1 (Epidermal Growth Factor):source: Amino Acid Chain (Peptides).A polypeptide responsible for growth and repair of epidermis (cellular tissue healing). Stimulates growth of fibroblast cells responsible for collagen production and encourages production of hyaluronic acid. Stimulates various pathways that lead to tissue growth, strengthens tissue, assists in thickening over processed skin, improves cellular matrix. .
Ribes Nigrum (Black Currant) Seed Oil:source: Black Currant Seeds.Encourages healthy microcirculation, assists in detoxifying skin tissues, promotes anti-inflammatory actions to relieve accelerated free radical damage, soothes. .
Ricinus Communis (Castor) Seed Oil:source: Castor Seeds.Humectant and skin conditioning; creates a protective barrier against the elements. Excellent stability and dispersion characteristics. .
Rosa Canina (Rose Hip) Fruit Oil:source: Rose hips.Natural source of Vitamin C, promotes tissue growth, aids in the protection and production of collagen, soothes and restores. .
Rosa Damascena Flower Oil (Damaske Rose):source: Essential oil - damaske rose.An essential oil that heals and prevents viral infections, excellent for damaged skin of any skin type. .
Rosmarinus Officinalis (Rosemary) Leaf Oil:source: Rosemary Leaves.Stimulates blood flow and circulation, relieves discomfort, provides tonic / astringent actions. .
Rubus Chamaemorus (Cloudberry Seed) Oil:source: Cloudberry Seeds.Fruit bearing perennial plant related to the raspberry, rich in essential fatty acids, phytosterols and antioxidants, emollient. .
Rubus Idaeus (Raspberry) Fruit:source: Raspberry.Soothes skin irritations, slightly astringent, reduces inflammation to relieve discomfort, antioxidant, broad spectrum sun protection. .
Rumex Occidentalis Extract (Yellow Dock):source: Yellow Dock.Plant skin lightening ingredient exhibiting strong inhibitory effect on the tyrosinase enzyme. Tyrosinase increases natural production of melanin resulting in hyper-pigmentation. .
Ruscus Aculeatus (Butcherbroom) Root Extract:source: Butcherbroom.Activates lymphatic drainage, reduces excess fluids (anti-inflammatory), alleviates fatty inclusions (cysts). .
Rooibos extract:Common Name:Rooibos, Red bush;INCI Name:Aspalathus linearis leaf extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Antioxidant, Anti-atopy.
Reishi extract:Common Name:Reishi, Ling chih, Ling zhi, Mannentake;INCI Name:Ganoderma lucidum (Mushroom) stem extract;Property:Anti-allergy, Anti-atopy.
Rice bran extract:Common Name:Rice bran;INCI Name:Oryza sativa (Rice) bran extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Soothing.
Rice extract:Common Name:Rice;INCI Name:Oryza sativa (Rice) extract;Property:Soothing.
Red ginseng extract:Common Name:Red ginseng,INCI Name:Panax ginseng root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Nourishing.
Rose geranium extract:Common Name:Rose geranium, Old fashion rose geranium, Sweet scented geranium;INCI Name:Pelargonium graveolens extract;Property:Anti-acne, Antioxidant.
Rose moss extract:Common Name:Rose moss, Large-flowered purslane, Sun plant;INCI Name:Portulaca grandiflora extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant, Anti-allergy.
Rhubarb extract:Common Name:Turkey Rhubarb, Da huang;INCI Name:Rheum palmatum root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Anti-allergy, Anti-dandruff, Hair loss prevention, Hair growth, Anti-microbe.
Rhubarb extract(HD):Common Name:Turkey Rhubarb, Da huang;INCI Name:Rheum palmatum root extract;Property:Hair dye, Anti-microbe.
Rosehip extract:Common Name:Rosehip, Dog rose, Wild rose;INCI Name:Rosa canina fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant.
Rosemary extract:Common Name:Rosemary, Anthos, Dew of the sea, Mannen-ro, Romarin, Romero, Romero Comun, Rozemarijn;INCI Name:Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) leaf extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Anti-microbe.
Rosemary water:Common Name:Rosemary, Anthos, Dew of the sea, Mannen-ro, Romarin, Romero, Romero Comun, Rozemarijn;INCI Name:Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) leaf water;Property:Protein synthesis, Anti-microbe.
Royal jelly extract:Common Name:Royal jelly;INCI Name:Royal jelly extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation, Moisturizing.
Red-dye madder extract(HD):Common Name:Indian madder, Red-dye madder;INCI Name:Rubia cordifolia root extract;Property:Hair dye.
Raspberry extract:Common Name:Raspberry, Wild red raspberry;INCI Name:Rubus idaeus (Raspberry) fruit extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Red sage root extract:Common Name:Dan-Shen, Red Sage, Tan-Shen;INCI Name:Salvia miltiorrhiza flower/leaf/root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-itching, Soothing, Anti-acne.
Rainbow FV:Common Name:Tomato / Wine / Broccoli / Pumpkin / Garlic;INCI Name:Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) fruit,leaf,stem extract / Wine extract / Brassica oleracea italica (Broccoli) extract / Cucurbita pepo (Pumpkin) fruit extract / Allium sativum (Garlic) bulb extract;Property:Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
Red clover extract:Common Name:Red clover, Clover;INCI Name:Trifolium pratense (Clover) flower extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Soothing, Anti-acne.
Red wine extract:Common Name:Red wine, Wine;INCI Name:Wine extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
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