Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: saccharide isomerate | saccharides | Saccharomyces cerevisiae | Saccharomyces lysate | Saccharomyces calcium ferment | Saccharomyces copper ferment | Saccharomyces iron ferment | Saccharomyces magnesium ferment | Saccharomyces manganese ferment | Saccharomyces officinarum ferment | Saccharomyces potassium ferment | Saccharomyces silicon ferment | Saccharomyces zinc ferment | safflower oil | sage extract | salicin | salicylic acid | Salix alba extract | Salvia officinalis | Sambucus canadensis | Sambucus cerulea | Sambucus nigra | sandalwood oil | Sang zhi | sanguinaria | Sanguisorba officinalis | Santalum album | Sapindus mukurossi extract | Saponaria officinalis extract | saponin | Sargassum filipendula extract | saturated fat | Saussurea lappa | sausurrea oil | saw palmetto | Saxifraga sarmentosa extract | sclareolide | sclerotium gum | scullcap extract | Scutellaria baicalensis extract | SD alcohol | SD Alcohol 40-2 | sea salt | sea whip extract | Seamollient | seaweed | sebaceous glands | sebacic acid | Sechium edule extract | Sedum rosea root extract | selenium | self-heal | Sequoiadendron gigantea stem extract | Serenoa Serrulata extract | sericin | serine | serum protein | sesame oil | Sesamum indicum | sesquioleate | Shao-yao | shea butter | shikonin | Shorea stenoptera butter | Siegesbeckia orientalis | silanetriol lysinate | silica | Silica Dimethyl Silyate | silicate | silicone | silk | silk powder | silk protein | siloxane | silver | silver chloride | silver sulfadiazine | silver tip white tea leaf extract | Silybum marianum extract | simethicone | Skeletonema costatum extract | skin respiratory factor | slip agent | slippery elm bark | soap | soapwort | sodium acrylate/acryloydimethyl taurate copolymer | sodium ascorbate | sodium benzoate | sodium bisulfite | sodium borate | sodium C14-16 olefin sulfate | sodium carbonate | sodium carboxymethyl beta-glucan | sodium chloride | Sodium chondroitin sulfate | Sodium citrate | sodium cocoate | sodium cocoyl isethionate | sodium dehydroacetate | sodium hyaluronate | sodium hydroxide | sodium hydroxymethylglycinate | sodium lactate | sodium laureth sulfate | sodium laureth-13 carboxylate | sodium lauroamphoacetate | Sodium lauroyl lactylate | sodium lauroyl sarcosinate | sodium lauryl sulfate | sodium metabisulfite | sodium methyl cocoyl taurate | sodium methyl taurate | sodium PCA | sodium salicylate | sodium silicate | sodium sulfite | sodium tallowate | sodium thioglycolate | sodium trideceth sulfate | Solanum lycocarpum fruit extract | Solanum lycopersicum extract | Solanum tuberosum extract | soluble fish collagen | solum fullonum | solvent | Sonojell | sorbitan stearate | sorbitol | soy extract | soy isoflavones | soy oil | soy protein | soya sterol | spearmint oil | SPF | spikenard | Spilanthes acmella extract | spinach extract | Spiraea ulmaria | spirulina | squalane | squalene | St. John's wort | star anise | steapyrium chloride | stearalkonium chloride | stearalkonium hectorite | stearates | stearic acid | stearyl alcohol | Stearyl Methicone | Stevia rebaudiana extract | strawberry begonia | strawberry leaves | styrax benzoin | styrene/acrylates copolymer | subtilisin | sucrose | sugarcane extract | sulfur | suma | sun protection factor | sunflower oil | sunscreens | superfatted soap | superoxide dismutase | surfactant | sutilain | sweet almond oil | Symphytum officinale extract | Szechuan pepper | Szechuan peppercorn | Saccharomyces/Xylinum Black Tea Ferment | Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane) Extract | Salicylic Acid | Salix Alba (Willow) Bark Extract | Salvia Sclarea (Clary) Oil | Santalum Austrocaledonicum (Sandalwood) Oil | Santalum Spicatum (Australian Sandalwood) Oil | Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil | Smithsonite (Stone) Extract | Sodium Benzoate | Sodium Chloride | Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate (Coconut) | Sodium Cocoyl Hydrolyzed Amaranth Protein | Sodium Decylglucosides Hydroxypropylsulfonate (Coconut) | Sodium Hyaluronate (L) (Sugar) | Sodium Hydroxide | Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate | Sodium Hydroxypropylsulfonate Laurylglucoside Crosspolymer | Sodium Lauroamphoacetate (Coconut Oil) | Sodium Laurylglucosides Hydroxypropylsulfonate | Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate | Sodium NaPCA | Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Fruit Lipids | Sorbitan Olivate | Sphingolipids (Plant Fatty Acid) | Squalane (Spanish Olives) | Stevia Rebaudiana (Stevia) Extract | Sucrose Stearate (Sugar) | Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (Antoxidant Enzyme) | Siberian ginseng extract | Silky Skin-10 | Sweet Wormwood extract | Seang Yul Yoon Bu Um | Sappanwood extract | Sweet pepper extract | Safflower extract | Senna seed extract | Saffron extract | Silkworm thorn bark extract | Sanitizer Complex | Strawberry extract | Sea grape extract | Soybean extract | Sunflower seed extract | St. Johnswort extract | Sweet potato extract | SRM Complex | Siler root extract | Spicebush root extract | Spearmint extract | Spikenard extract | Sam Hwa Jea Chu Aek | So A Tae Yul Bang | Sang hwang mushroom extract | Solomon's seal root extract | Selfheal extract | Scalp Clinic Complex | Sa Mul Tang | SS Complex | Sheeps sorrel extract | Sage extract | Sandalwood extract | Schizonepeta extract | Skullcap extract | Selaginella extract | Sesame extract | Silk worm extract | Sodium hyaluronate(0.5%, 1%) | Sophora extract | So Pung San | Spirulina extract | Stevia extract | Swertia extract | Swiftlet nest extract | Silk Aminos | SEAEMO |
saccharide isomerate:Good water-binding agent and emollient for skin. See mucopolysaccharide.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae:See yeast.
Saccharomyces lysate:See yeast.
Saccharomyces calcium ferment:Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of calcium ions. There is no known benefit for skin.
Saccharomyces copper ferment:Saccharomyces, from the Latin, literally means sugar fungus,?and is the scientific name for the yeasts used in fermentation. There are many versions of this fungus fermented with various compounds; this version is fermented in the presence of copper ions. There is no known benefit for skin, though it may have antioxidant properties.
Saccharomyces iron ferment:Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of iron ions. See Saccharomyces copper ferment.
Saccharomyces magnesium ferment:The extract of yeast fermented in the presence of magnesium ions. See Saccharomyces copper ferment.
Saccharomyces manganese ferment:The extract of yeast fermented in the presence of manganese ions. See Saccharomyces copper ferment.
Saccharomyces officinarum ferment:Derived from the sugarcane plant. Glycolic acid is also derived from sugarcane, but sugarcane extract does not have the same exfoliating properties as glycolic acid. There is no research showing sugarcane extract has any benefit for skin. See AHA.
Saccharomyces potassium ferment:Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of potassium ions. See Saccharomyces copper ferment.
Saccharomyces silicon ferment:Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of silicon ions. See Saccharomyces copper ferment.
Saccharomyces zinc ferment:Extract of yeast fermented in the presence of zinc ions. See Saccharomyces copper ferment.
safflower oil:Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils. Safflower oil can be an antioxidant when consumed in the diet, but whether it retains this benefit when applied topically to skin is unknown. See natural moisturizing factors.
sage extract:Can be a potent antioxidant (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, March 2002, pages 1845~851). However, its fragrant camphor and phenol components can also cause skin irritation (Source: Clinical Toxicology, December 1981, pages 1485~498).
salicin:See willow bark.
salicylic acid:Referred to as beta hydroxy acid (BHA), it is a multifunctional ingredient that addresses many of the systemic causes of blemishes (Source: Seminars in Dermatology, December 1990, pages 305~08). For decades dermatologists have been prescribing salicylic acid as an exceedingly effective keratolytic (exfoliant), but it also is an anti-irritant This is because salicylic acid is a derivative of aspirin (both are salicylates aspirin technical name is acetyl salicylic acid), and so it also functions as an anti-inflammatory. (Sources: Archives of Internal Medicine, July 2002, pages 1531~532; Annals of Dermatology and Venereology, January 2002, pages 137~42; Archives of Dermatology, November 2000, pages 1390~395; and Pain, January 1996, pages 71~2). Another notable aspect of salicylic acid for treating breakouts is that it has antimicrobial properties (Source: Preservatives for Cosmetics, 1996, by David Steinberg, Allured Publishing; and Health Canada Monograph Category IV, Antiseptic Cleansers, at www.hc-sc.gc.ca/english). It is also well documented that it can improve skin thickness, barrier functions, and collagen production (Sources: Dermatology, 1999, volume 199, number 1, pages 50~3; and Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Volume 175, Issue 1, pages 76~2). As an exfoliant, in concentrations of 8% to 12%, it is effective in wart-remover medications. In concentrations of 0.5% to 2%, it is far more gentle, and, much like AHAs (See AHAs), can exfoliate the surface of skin. In addition, BHA has the ability to penetrate into the pore (AHAs do not), and thus can exfoliate inside the pore as well on the surface of the skin; that makes it effective for reducing blemishes, including blackheads and whiteheads.
Salix alba extract:See willow bark.
Salvia officinalis:See sage extract.
Sambucus canadensis:See elderberry.
Sambucus cerulea:Blue elderberry. May have antioxidant properties for skin (Source: Phytotherapy Research, February 2002, pages 63~5). See elderberry.
Sambucus nigra:See black elderberry.
sandalwood oil:Fragrant oil that can cause skin irritation or allergic reactions (Source: American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, June 1996, pages 77~3). There is one animal study showing it to have antitumor properties (Source: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, October 1999, pages 449~55).
Sang zhi:Derived from twigs of the mulberry tree. It has some effectiveness for reducing skin swelling.
sanguisorbaofficinalis:Latin name for salad burnet. There is a small amount of research showing it to have antioxidant properties for skin (Source: Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, September 2001, pages 998~003).
Santalum album:See sandalwood oil.
Sapindus mukurossi extract:Derived from a plant indigenous to India, and known for its detergent cleansing properties. See saponin.
Saponaria officinalis extract:See soapwort.
saponin:Group of natural carbohydrates found in plants that have considerable potential as pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical agents in natural or synthetic form. Saponins, from a variety of sources, have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. (Sources: Fitoterapia, July 2002, page 336; Phytotherapy Research, March 2001, pages 174~76; Drug Metabolism and Drug Interaction, 2000, volume 17, issue 1-4, pages 211~35)..
Sargassum filipendula extract:See algae.
saturated fat:Type of fat usually of animal origin. Chemically, when fatty acid chains can accommodate any more hydrogen atoms, they are considered saturated, as in saturated fatty acids. These are used as emollient in skin-care products.
Saussurea lappa:See costus root.
sausurrea oil:Costus oil. Volatile oil and fragrant component used in cosmetics; it can be a skin irritant. It is known to cause contact dermatitis (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
saw palmetto:Plant extract that, when taken orally, has been shown in short-term trials to be efficacious in reducing the symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (Source: Annals of Internal Medicine, January 2002, pages 42~3). It may have an anti-inflammatory effect on skin, but there is little research supporting this. Saw palmetto reputation is primarily based on the fact that it can reduce the presence of the male hormone dihydrotestosterone, and so it could theoretically reduce hair loss, but this effect has not been proven. There is some anecdotal information that it can also have estrogenic effects; but not only is that unlikely, it is highly improbable that it could have such effects when applied topically (Source: Healthnotes Review of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, www.healthwell.com/healthnotes/Herb/Saw_Palmetto.cfm).
Saxifraga sarmentosa extract:See strawberry begonia.
sclareolide:Fermented from clary sage and used as a fragrant component in cosmetics.
sclerotium gum:Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.
scullcap extract:Herbal extract from Scutellaria baicalensis that has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties for skin (Source: Life Sciences, January 2002, pages 1023~033).
Scutellaria baicalensis extract:See scullcap extract.
SD alcohol:See alcohol.
SD Alcohol 40-2:A denatured alcohol used as a solvent. It can be drying and irritating to skin when used as one of the main ingredients in a cosmetic product. Lesser amounts are not cause for concern. See alcohol.
sea salt:Can be effective as a topical scrub, but if left on skin it can increase skin sensitivity to UVB radiation (Source: Der Hautarzt, June 1998, pages 482~86).
sea whip extract:Extract from a creature that inhabits coral reefs, known for its anti-inflammatory properties (Source: Life Sciences, May 22, 1998, pages 401~07) and antibacterial properties (Source: Journal of Natural Products, January 2001, pages 100~02).
Seamollient:Trade name for an algae extract. See algae.
seaweed:Group of sea plants (scientific name algae) of all sizes and shapes, and having a gelatin-like consistency. Many seaweeds have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, but many other claims of benefits are not proven. See algae.
sebaceous glands:Glands in the skin that open into hair follicles and from which sebum (oil) is secreted.
sebacic acid:Used as a pH adjuster.
Sechium edule extract:Extract of the chayote plant. There is a small amount of research showing it to have antioxidant properties (Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1991, volume 11, number 4, pages 379~83).
Sedum rosea root extract:Plant extract; there is no research showing it to have any benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
selenium:Mineral considered to be a potent antioxidant (Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, June 2002, pages 173~78). See antioxidant.
self-heal:Plant that has antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and antioxidant properties when taken orally (Sources: Life Sciences, January 2000, pages 725~35; Planta Medica, May 2000, pages 358~60; and Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, August 2001, pages 423~35). However, there is no research demonstrating this to be of benefit for skin when applied topically.
Sequoiadendron gigantea stem extract:Extract from part of the giant sequoia tree. There is no research showing this extract to have any benefit for skin.
Serenoa Serrulata extract:See saw palmetto.
sericin:Scientific name for silk protein. See silk protein.
serine:See amino acid.
serum protein:See protein.
sesame oil:Emollient oil similar to other nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors.
Sesamum indicum:See sesame oil.
sesquioleate:Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
Shao-yao:See peony root extract.
shea butter:A plant lipid that is used as an emollient in cosmetics.See natural moisturizing factors.
shikonin:Common name for the Chinese plant Zi Cao, source of a plant extract with supposedly anti-inflammatory properties. There is no research substantiating its effect on skin.
Shorea stenoptera butter:Fat obtained from the Borneo tallow nut. It is similar to cocoa and shea butter, and has emollient properties for skin.
Siegesbeckia orientalis:Chinese herb (also known as St. Paul wort); there is no research showing that it has any benefit for skin.
silanetriol lysinate:See silicone.
silica:Mineral found abundantly in sandstone, clay, and granite, as well as in parts of plants and animals. It is the principal ingredient of glass. In cosmetics it is used as an absorbent powder and thickening agent. source: Mineral.Helps reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles and controls sebum for a smooth matte finish. .
Silica Dimethyl Silyate:Used as a slip and suspending agent. See silica and silicone.
silicate:Inorganic salt that has potent absorbing and thickening properties.
silicone:Substance derived from silica (sand is a silica). The unique fluid properties of silicone give it a great deal of slip and in its various forms it can feel like silk on the skin, impart emolliency, and be a water-binding agent that holds up well, even when skin becomes wet. In other forms, it is also used extensively for wound healing and for improving the appearance of scars (Source: Journal of Wound Care, July 2000, pages 319~24).
silk:See silk protein.
silk powder:Synthetically-derived powder used as an absorbent and slip agent. See slip agent.
silk protein:Protein substance (also called sericin) formed by converting silk, which is the soft, lustrous thread obtained from the cocoon of the silkworm. Silk protein can have water-binding properties for skin. However, whether the protein applied to skin is derived from animals or plants, the skin can tell the difference. There is a small amount of research showing silk protein to have topical antioxidant properties (Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, January 1998, pages 145~47).
silver:Metal that in cosmetics can have disinfecting properties; however, prolonged contact can turn skin grayish-blue. Silver can be irritating to skin, and can cause silver toxicity (Sources: Annals of Dermatology and Venereology, February 2002, pages 217~19; and Critical Reviews in Toxicology, May 1996, pages 255~60). See silver sulfadiazine.
silver chloride:See silver sulfadiazine.
silver sulfadiazine:Can be effective for wound healing (Source: Journal of Vascular Surgery, August 1992, pages 251~57). However, it is safe for skin only for short-term use, because silver can penetrate abraded skin and cause silver toxicity (Source: Clinical Chemistry, February 1997, pages 290~01).
silver tip white tea leaf extract:See green tea and white tea leaf extract.
Silybum marianum extract:See lady's thistle extract.
simethicone:A mixture of dimethicone with silica; related to silicones, but used as an antifoaming agent.
Skeletonema costatum extract:From a type of marine diatom. There is no research showing it to have benefit for skin.
skin respiratory factor:See tissue respiratory factor.
slip agent:Term used to describe a range of ingredients that help other ingredients spread over the skin and help ingredients penetrate into the skin. Slip agents also have humectant properties. Slip agents include propylene glycol, butylene glycol, polysorbates, and glycerin, to name a few. They are as basic to the world of skin care as water.
slippery elm bark:Can be an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory.
soap:True "soaps" are regulated by the Consumer Product Safety Commission and are not required to list their ingredients on the label. They are solely made up of fats and alkali. Many bar cleansers are not soaps, but contain synthetic detergent cleansing agents and various thickening agents that keep the bar in its bar form. Most soaps are considered very drying and potentially irritating for skin due to their alkaline base (having a pH over 8). Bar cleansers can be more gentle than bar soaps, but are more often than not still drying, depending on their composition (Sources: Cutis, December 2001, pages 12~9; Archives of Dermatologic Research, June 2001, pages 308~18; and Dermatologic Clinics, October 2000, pages 561~75).
soapwort:Plant providing an extract with detergent cleansing properties. There is some research showing it to have antiviral and antibacterial properties (Sources: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, May 1997, pages 129~32; and Phytotherapy Research, 1990, volume 4, pages 97~00).
sodium acrylate/acryloydimethyl taurate copolymer:Synthetic polymer used as a stabilizing and suspending agent; also used as a thickening agent.
sodium ascorbate:See ascorbic acid.
sodium benzoate:A salt of benzoic acid used as a preservative. See preservatives.
sodium bisulfite:Used in acid-type permanent waves to alter the shape of hair. It is less damaging than alkaline permanent waves, but it also has limitations regarding how much change it can effect in hair. It can be a skin irritant.
sodium borate:See gums.See borates.
sodium C14-16 olefin sulfate:Can be derived from coconut. Used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent, but is considered potentially drying and irritating for skin. See surfactant.
sodium carbonate:An absorbent salt used in cosmetics; it can also be a skin irritant.
sodium carboxymethyl beta-glucan:Used as a thickening agent. For additional functions, See beta-glucan.
sodium chloride:Common table salt. Used primarily as a binding agent in skin-care products and occasionally as an abrasive in scrub products.
Sodium chondroitin sulfate:Derived from natural mucopolysaccharides, it functions as a skin conditioning agent and helps reinforce skin's intercellular matrix.
Sodium citrate:Primarily used to control the pH level of a product, this ingredient also has antioxidant and preservative properties.
sodium cocoate:Used as a cleansing agent primarily in soaps. It can be drying and irritating for skin.
sodium cocoyl isethionate:Derived from coconut; it is a mild detergent cleansing agent. See surfactant.
sodium dehydroacetate:An organic salt used as a preservative. See preservatives.
sodium hyaluronate:See hyaluronic acid.
sodium hydroxide:Also known as lye, it's a highly alkaline ingredient used in small amounts in cosmetics to modulate the pH of a product. It is also used as a cleansing agent in some cleansers. In higher concentrations it is a significant skin irritant.
sodium hydroxymethylglycinate:Derived from amino acids and used as a skin- and hair-conditioning agent, and to a lesser extent as a preservative.
sodium lactate:The sodium salt of lactic acid. Used primarily as a water-binding and buffering agent (to adjust a product's pH value).
sodium laureth sulfate:Can be derived from coconut; it is used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent. It is considered gentle and effective. See surfactant and Paula's article, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate.
sodium laureth-13 carboxylate:Used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent. See surfactant.
sodium lauroamphoacetate:Mild surfactant also employed as a lather agent. See surfactant.
Sodium lauroyl lactylate:Used as an emulsifier and mild thickening agent in cosmetics. In higher concentrations, it functions as a surfactant. See surfactant.
sodium lauroyl sarcosinate:Surfactant known (and used) for its foam-boosting properties. See surfactant.
sodium lauryl sulfate:There has been a great deal of misinformation about sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) being circulated on the Internet. Used primarily as a detergent cleansing agent SLS can be derived from coconut. Although it is a potent skin irritant it is not toxic or dangerous for skin. In concentrations of 2% to 5%, SLS can cause allergic or sensitizing reactions in lots of people. It is used as a standard in scientific studies to establish irritatancy or sensitizing properties of other ingredients (Sources: European Journal of Dermatology, September-October 2001, pages 416~19; American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, March 2001, pages 28~2; and Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, September-October 2000, pages 246~57). Being a skin irritant, however, is not the same as a link to cancer, which is what erroneous warnings on the Internet are falsely claiming about this ingredient!
According to Health Canada, in a press release of February 12, 1999 (www.hc-sc.gc.ca), letter has been circulating the Internet which claims that there is a link between cancer and sodium laureth (or lauryl) sulfate (SLS), an ingredient used in [cosmetics]. Health Canada has looked into the matter and has found no scientific evidence to suggest that SLS causes cancer. It has a history of safe use in Canada. Upon further investigation, it was discovered that this e-mail warning is a hoax. The letter is signed by a person at the University of Pennsylvania Health System and includes a phone number. Health Canada contacted the University of Pennsylvania Health System and found that it is not the author of the sodium laureth sulfate warning and does not endorse any link between SLS and cancer. Health Canada considers SLS safe for use in cosmetics. Therefore, you can continue to use cosmetics containing SLS without worry.?Further, according to the American Cancer Society's Web site (www.cancer.org), contrary to popular rumors on the Internet, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS) and Sodium Laureth Sulfate (SLES) do not cause cancer. E-mails have been flying through cyberspace claiming SLS [and SLES] causes cancer ?and is proven to cause cancer.... [Yet] A search of recognized medical journals yielded no published articles relating this substance to cancer in humans.See surfactant. and Paula's article, Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Laureth Sulfate.
sodium metabisulfite:Reducing agent that alters the structure of hair. It can also be used as a preservative in formulations, and can be a skin irritant. However, it can also be an antioxidant (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, September-October 1999, pages 252~59).
sodium methyl cocoyl taurate:Mild surfactant. See surfactant.
sodium methyl taurate:Mild surfactant. See surfactant.
sodium PCA:PCA stands for pyrrolidone carboxylic acid. It is a natural component of skin that is also a very good water-binding agent. See natural moisturizing factors.
sodium salicylate:Salt form of salicylic acid (BHA). Because it is not the acid form of salicylate (i.e., salicylic acid), it does not have exfoliating properties.
sodium silicate:A highly alkaline and potentially irritating antiseptic and mineral used in cosmetics (Source: American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, September 2002, pages 133~39).
sodium sulfite:Reducing agent that alters the structure of hair. It can also be used as a preservative in cosmetic formulations, and can be a skin irritant. See reducing agent.
sodium tallowate:Sodium salt of tallow. See tallow.
sodium thioglycolate:See thioglycolate.
sodium trideceth sulfate:See surfactant.
Solanum lycocarpum fruit extract:Also known as wolf's fruit. There is no research showing this to have benefit for skin, though there is research showing it to have toxic effects when eaten (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, July 2002, pages 265~69)..
Solanum lycopersicum extract:See tomato extract.
Solanum tuberosum extract:Is potato starch. Used as a thickening agent in cosmetics.
soluble fish collagen:See collagen.
solum fullonum:See fuller's earth.
solvent:Describes a large group of ingredients, including water, that are used to dissolve or break down other ingredients in a formulation. Solvents are also used to degrease skin and to remove sebum.
Sonojell:Trade name for petrolatum. See petrolatum.
sorbitan stearate:Used to thicken and stabilize cosmetic formulations.
sorbitol:Can be derived synthetically or from natural sources. Similar to glycerin, it is a humectant, thickening agent, and slip agent.
soy extract:Potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent for skin (Sources: Cancer Investigation, 1996, volume 14, number 6, pages 597~08; Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, May-June 2002, pages 175~83; and Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, June 2005, pages 1,049-1,059). Soy is one of many phyto (plant) chemicals that are biologically active against free radicals. Polyphenol compounds, such as the catechins found in green tea, also fit this profile. Soy extract increased use in anti-aging products is largely due to studies showing that genistein (a component of soy) has a collagen-stimulating effect and that various compounds in soy influence skin thickness and elasticity (Sources: Cosmetics Toiletries, June 2002, pages 45-50; and Journal of Cosmetic Science, September-October 2004, pages 473-479). Researchers have also looked at Bifidobacterium-fermented soy milk extracts. On mouse skin and in human skin fibroblasts (lab cultured), this bacteria-modified form of soy was shown to stimulate production of hyaluronic acid in skin. This was due to the amount of genistein released during the fermentation process (Sources: Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2003, pages 108-116; Photochemistry and Photobiology, May-June 2005, pages 581-587).
Studies performed on mouse skin have shown that topical application of soy milk and other soy compounds has a protective effect against UVB light damage. It is theorized that these benefits will translate to human skin as well, but conclusive evidence has not materialized yet (Sources: Oncology Research, Volume 14, Numbers 7/8, 2004, pages 387-397; and Photodermatology, Photoimmunology,Photomedicine, April 2003, page 56).
There is no research showing that soy extract or soy oil has estrogenic effects when applied to skin, as it can when taken orally (Source: International Journal of Toxicology, Volume 23, Supplement 2, 2004, pages 23-47). Some companies have asserted that soy can affect hair growth and lighten skin color when applied topically. The single study citing this was done by Johnson Johnson that sells products claiming to have this effect (Source: Experimental Dermatology, December 2001, pages 405-413).
soy isoflavones:See soy extract.
soy oil:Emollient oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors and soy extract.
soy protein:See soy extract.
soya sterol:One form of phytosterol. There is no research showing soy sterols to have estrogenic or antioxidant benefit for skin. See phytosterol.
spearmint oil:Fragrant, volatile oil that can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions. See counter-irritants.
SPF:See sun protection factor.
spikenard:Plant that has antibacterial properties for skin.
Spilanthes acmella extract:Plant extract that can have antibacterial properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, February 1998, pages 79~4).
spinach extract:Can have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, May 2002, pages 3122~128), but whether benefits can be realized when it is applied topically on skin is not known.
Spiraea ulmaria:See meadowsweet extract.
squalane:See natural moisturizing factors and squalene.
squalene:Oil derived from shark liver or from plants and sebum. It is a natural component of skin and is considered a good emollient that has antioxidant and immune-stimulating properties (Sources: Lancet Oncology, October 2000, pages 107~12; and Free Radical Research, April 2002, pages 471~77). See natural moisturizing factors.
St. John's wort:Contains several components that are toxic on skin in the presence of sunlight (Sources: Planta Medica, February 2002, pages 171~73; and International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, March 2002, pages 221~41). St. John wort association with improving depression when taken as an oral supplement is unrelated to its topical impact on skin. However, it also has potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, November 2001, pages 5165~170).
star anise:See anise.
steapyrium chloride:Antistatic agent used in hair-care products.
stearalkonium chloride:Antistatic ingredient used in hair-care products to control flyaways and aid in helping a brush or comb get through hair.
stearalkonium hectorite:Used as a suspending agent.
stearates:See stearic acid.
stearic acid:Fatty acid used as an emollient and as an agent to help keep other ingredients intact in a formulation. See fatty acid and thickening agent.
stearyl alcohol:Fatty alcohol used as an emollient and to help keep the other ingredients intact in a formulation. See fatty alcohols.
Stearyl Methicone:A silicone polymer used as a skin-conditioning or occlusive agent. See silicone.
Stevia rebaudiana extract:Plant extract called stevioside, a natural, noncaloric sweetener that has been used as a noncaloric sugar substitute in South America. It has been shown to have enuine mutagenic activity (Source: Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, July 2002, pages 1007~010). There is no research showing this extract to have any benefit when applied topically to skin.
strawberry begonia:There is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin.
strawberry leaves:Can be a skin irritant and skin sensitizer, with no known benefit for skin.
styrax benzoin:See benzoin extract.
styrene/acrylates copolymer:A synthetic polymer. See film-forming agent.
subtilisin:Protease enzyme obtained from the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis. See proteases.
sucrose:Monosaccharide that has water-binding properties for skin. See mucopolysaccharide and water-binding agent.
sugarcane extract:Ingredients like sugarcane extract, fruit extracts, mixed fruit extracts, and milk solids may claim an association with AHAs, but they are not the same thing nor do they have the same beneficial effect on skin. While glycolic acid can indeed be derived from sugarcane, if you assume that sugarcane will net you the same result as glycolic acid that would be like assuming you could write on a tree the way you can on paper. Wood is certainly where paper begins, but paper wouldnt exist without the wood undergoing complex mechanical and chemical processes. Similarly, the original forms of these extracts do not have the same effect as the effective ingredients that are derived from them. The same is true for lactic acid, derived from milk. If milk were as acid as lactic acid you would not be able to drink it without serious complications. There is a vast difference between the extracted, pure ingredient and the original form of the source material. See AHA.
sulfur:An antibacterial agent (Source: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, October 2001, pages 282~86). It can be a potent skin irritant and sensitizer. Sulfur also has a high pH, which can encourage the growth of bacteria on skin. source: Mineral.Used as a stimulant to healing, antibacterial, drying for oily and acneic skin and may exhibit cell-regenerating functions. .
suma:Also known as Brazilian ginseng and Pfaffia paniculata. See Pfaffia paniculata extract.
sun protection factor:Most commonly referred to as SPF, it is a number assigned to a product that identifies its ability to protect the skin from sunburn or to protect the skin from turning pink or red when exposed to sun. SPF numbering is regulated by the FDA. It is a measure of the amount of time a person can stay in the sun without getting burned if a sunscreen is applied. Since sunburn results from UVB exposure, not UVA radiation, SPF is primarily a measure of UVB protection. At this time, there is no numbering system to indicate the level of protection a sunscreen can provide from UVA radiation, which affects the deeper layers of skin.
A sunscreen with at least an SPF 15 or higher is universally recommended. Sunscreen must be applied liberally and evenly or the sun-protection value of the product will not be achieved and damage to the skin will occur. It is also essential that the sunscreen contain ingredients (chiefly avobenzone, titanium dioxide, and zinc oxide) that protect from UVA damage (Sources: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, 2002, volume 3, number 3, pages 185~91; Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, November 15, 2001, pages 105~08); Photodermatology, Photoimmunology, and Photomedicine, February 2001, pages 2~0; www.skincancerprevention.org/prevention_tips.html; The Skin Cancer Foundation, www.skincancer.org; and American Academy of Dermatology, www.aad.org). See sunscreens and UVA.
sunflower oil:Non-volatile plant oil used as an emollient in cosmetics.
sunscreens:Products strictly regulated by the FDA that provide protection from sunburn and some amount of sun damage. There is a great deal of confusion regarding the efficacy and use of sunscreens. The FDA instituted new regulations that will take effect in 2002 and that will hopefully clarify the issue. According to the FDA July-August 2002 issue of Consumer magazine, under the new regulations manufacturers will no longer be allowed to [use] ?confusing terms such as "sunblock," waterproof," "all-day protection," and "visible and/or infrared light protection" on these [sunscreen] products. In addition to these changes ?tanning preparations that do not contain a sunscreen ingredient [are required] to display the following warning:warning: This product does not contain a sunscreen and does not protect against sunburn. Repeated exposure of unprotected skin while tanning may increase the risk of skin aging, skin cancer, and other harmful effects to the skin even if you do not burn.
o figure out how much protection a sunscreen provides, most consumers turn to a simple number: the SPF, or sun protection factor, listed on the label. Studies show that most consumers understand that the higher the number, the more the product protects the skin.?
The FDA then goes on to say: unfortunately, studies also show that people often have the mistaken notion that the higher the SPF number of the sunscreen they use, the longer they can stay and will stay in the sun.?Sunscreen should not be used to prolong time spent in the sun. Even with a sunscreen, you are not going to prevent all the possible damage from the sun. Some of the newer research in the last several years shows that [for] the sub-erythemal doses [exposure to the sun that does not cause reddening of the skin], as little as one-tenth the energy needed to get a sunburn, starts the process of skin damage of one sort or another.
The public under-applies sunscreens by as much as half of the recommended amount, concluded a study published in the Archives of Dermatology. Consequently, the study argued, consumers are receiving only half of the SPF protection they believe the product provides.?This issue of liberal application has been confirmed in other research as well (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, July 2001, pages 61~3). See sun protection factor and UVA.
superfatted soap:Soaps that contain extra oils and fats that supposedly make them more gentle for the face. Basis Soap is one of the more popular superfatted specialty soaps..
superoxide dismutase:Enzyme considered to be a potent antioxidant in humans (Sources: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, April 2002, pages 618~25; Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, October 2001, pages 61~9; and European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, August 2001, pages 63~7). See antioxidant.
surfactant:Acronym for surface active agent. Surfactants degrease and emulsify oils and fats and suspend soil, allowing them to be washed away, as laundry products do. I refer to these substances throughout my writing as etergent cleansing agents.?Surfactants and detergent cleansing agents are often used interchangeably by chemists and researchers (Sources: Food and Drug Administration, Office of Cosmetics and Colors Fact Sheet, February 3, 1995, www.fda.gov; Dermatology, 1995, volume 191, number 4, pages 276~80; Tenside, Surfactants, Detergents, 1997, volume 34, number 3, pages 156~68; and http://surfactants.net). Surfactants are used in most forms of cleansers and many of them are considered gentle and effective for most skin types. There are several types of surfactants that can be sensitizing, drying, and irritating for skin.
sutilain:See Bacillus subtilis.
sweet almond oil:Emollient oil. See natural moisturizing factors.
Symphytum officinale extract:See comfrey.
Szechuan pepper:May have antibacterial properties, but can also be a skin irritant.
Szechuan peppercorn:From a plant native to the Szechuan Province in China. It grows on trees, and so differs from black pepper, which grows on climbing vines. Used extensively in Szechuan cooking, Szechuan pepper is known for the "numbing" sensation it produces on the tongue. It is considered a counter-irritant. See black pepper extract and oil and counter-irritant.
Saccharomyces/Xylinum Black Tea Ferment:source: Fermented black tea.Rich in polyphenols that assist in repair mechanisms, antioxidant, renews collagen, protects from crosslinkages, improves skin radiance, alleviates oxidative stress. Rich in Vitamin B. .
Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane) Extract:source: Sugar Cane.Naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids to help promote smoother, younger looking skin by increasing the rate of cell renewal. Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying. Exhibits astringent and tightening properties while relieving congestion and limiting excess sebum (oil). .
Salicylic Acid:source: Pumpkin Seed/Cranberry Extract.BHA - Keratolytic, anti-microbial, penetrates the pore wall to reduce active breakouts, renews and refines surface texture relieving wrinkles and skin imperfections by digesting dead skin cells. .
Salix Alba (Willow) Bark Extract:source: Willow Bark.Natural source of salicylic acid (yielding 2%) used as an exfoliant, antibacterial, soothing anti-inflammatory (high in quercetin and rutin), analgesic, anti-irritant, antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-viral and effective against acne-causing bacteria. Quercetin is a bioflavonoid (nutrient) found in fruits and leafy green vegetables, maintains collagen health, strengthens capillaries, connective tissues, and is anti-inflammatory. .
Salvia Sclarea (Clary) Oil:source: Clary Sage Essential Oil.Balances oil output to eliminate overly dry and oily complexions, anti-viral, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory. .
Santalum Austrocaledonicum (Sandalwood) Oil:source: Caledonian Sandalwood Essential Oil.Exhibits a calming, harmonic and balancing sensory effect. .
Santalum Spicatum (Australian Sandalwood) Oil:source: Sandalwood Essential Oil.Exhibits a calming, harmonic and balancing sensory effect. .
Simmondsia Chinensis (Jojoba) Seed Oil:source: Jojoba seeds.Aids in healing and boosting immunity of skin cells, reduces water loss in stratum corneum, controls acne, anti-inflammatory, emollient, moisturizing and non-greasy. Chemically similar to human sebum making it appropriate for all skin types. .
Smithsonite (Stone) Extract:source: Smithsonite Stone.Improves cellular protection against harmful effects of UVB, provides long term protection against environmental stress and pollutants. .
Sodium Benzoate:source: Salt.Globally accepted natural preservative from salt offering broad spectrum protection in cosmetic formulations. .
Sodium Chloride:source: Salt.Natural pH adjuster. .
Sodium Cocoyl Glutamate (Coconut):source: Coconut.A combination of coconut fatty acids and glutaminc acid that gently cleanse the skin without stripping and over drying. .
Sodium Cocoyl Hydrolyzed Amaranth Protein:source: Amaranth.A natural, gentle, deep cleansing peptide and organic surfactant. Nourishes the skin, does not strip, imbalance or aggress the skin. .
Sodium Decylglucosides Hydroxypropylsulfonate (Coconut):source: Coconut.A green - environmentally friendly soothing, smoothing and mild, sulfate-free cleansing agent. .
Sodium Hyaluronate (L) (Sugar):source: Mucopolysaccharide from Berries.Hyaluronic Acid from mucopolysaccarides, surges water deep into the skin which improves skin pliability and plumping to relieve fine lines, maintains healthy hydration levels, prevents transepidermal water loss. .
Sodium Hydroxide:source: Salt.pH adjuster. .
Sodium Hydroxymethylglycinate:source: Derived from Glycine.Derived from glycine, a naturally occurring amino acid. A broad spectrum cosmetic preservative effective against gram positive and gram negative bacteria, as well as yeast and mold.. .
Sodium Hydroxypropylsulfonate Laurylglucoside Crosspolymer:source: Sugar.A mild surfactant based on sugar chemistry. .
Sodium Lauroamphoacetate (Coconut Oil):source: Coconut Oil.An amphoteric organic compound used to condition hair, a cleansing agent (surfactant) and foam booster. .
Sodium Laurylglucosides Hydroxypropylsulfonate:source: Coconut.A gentle, green - environmentally friendly sulfate-free cleansing agent. .
Sodium Methyl Cocoyl Taurate:source: Coconut.A sodium salt of the coconut fatty acidamide of N-methyltaurine used as a surfactant (cleansing agent). .
Sodium NaPCA:source: Sodium salt of pyrollidone carboxylic acid.Provides moisture retention and binding abilities, maintains soft, wrinkle free skin when used as a preventative tool, reduces visible wrinkles for corrective benefit. .
Solanum Lycopersicum (Tomato) Fruit Lipids:source: Tomato.Natural source of lycopene, carotenoid, antioxidant efficient at protecting against free radical damage, protects skin from damaging effects of UV radiation. .
Sorbitan Olivate:source: Olive Oil.Fatty acids derived from olive oil, used as a natural surfactant. .
Sphingolipids (Plant Fatty Acid):source: Plant Fatty Acid.Rebalances the lipid content on the skins surface to repair weakened barriers, assists in preventing skin infections. .
Squalane (Spanish Olives):source: Spanish Olives.Emollient, moisturizing, prevents water loss from the skin, antioxidant, protects from harsh environmental effects, and helps guard against UV radiation. .
Stearic Acid:source: Vegetable.A saturated fatty acid that is derived from vegetable oils, used as a carrier for absorption. .
Stevia Rebaudiana (Stevia) Extract:source: Stevia Leaf.Bactericidal. reputed herbal cold-sore remedy. The leaves have a delicious and refreshing taste that can be 30 times sweeter than sugar yet does not promote tooth decay. The leaf also contains proteins, high levels of chromium, iron, phosphorus, calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium, zinc, rutin (a flavonoid), true vitamin A, and Vitamin C. The FDA does not recognize stevia as a sweetener; it is in your product for its antibacterial qualities. .
Sucrose Stearate (Sugar):source: Sugar.A mild, protective non ionic emulsifier that is anti-microbial and disperses active ingredients efficiently. .
Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) (Antoxidant Enzyme):source: Antoxidant Enzyme.Naturally occurring enzyme, eliminates oxygen free radicals caused by UV radiation and environmental stress, alleviates symptoms of skin irritation. .
Siberian ginseng extract:Common Name:Eleuthero Ginseng, Siberian Ginseng, Spiny Ginseng;INCI Name:Acanthopanax senticosus (Eleuthero) root extract;Property:Soothing, Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration.
Silky Skin-10:Common Name:Korean angelica / Fishwort / Garden angelica / Loquat / Poria / Cnidium / Skulllcap / Narrowleaf sophora / Rhubarb / Black cohosh;INCI Name:Angelica gigas root extract / Houttuynia cordata extract / Angelica keiskei leaf/stem extract / Eriobotrya japonica leaf extract / Poria Cocos extract / Cnidium officinale root extract / Scutellaria baicalensis root extract / Sophora angustifolia root extract / Rheum쟰almatum root extract / Cimicifuga racemosa root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant.
Sweet Wormwood extract:Common Name:Annual mugwort , Annual wormwood, Qinghao, Sweet annie, Sweet wormwood;INCI Name:Artemisia annua extract;Property:Anti-microbe.
Seang Yul Yoon Bu Um:Common Name:Asparagus / Foxglove / Snake's beard / Angelica / Astragalus / Skullcap / Chinese cucumber / Peach / Black cohosh / Safflower;INCI Name:Asparagus cochinchinensis root extract / Rehmannia glutinosa root extract / Ophiopogon japonicus root extract / Angelica gigas root extract / Astragalus membranaceus root extract / Scutellaria baicalensis root extract / Trichosanthes kirilowii root extract / Prunus persica (Peach) kernel extract / Cimicifuga racemosa root extract / Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) flower extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
Sappanwood extract:Common Name:Sappanwood;INCI Name:Caesalpinia sappan bark extract;Property:Antioxidant.
Sweet pepper extract:Common Name:Bell Pepper, Cherry Pepper, Cone Pepper, Green Pepper, Paprika, Sweet Pepper;INCI Name:Capsicum annuum fruit extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Enhancing blood circulation, Skin regeneration.
Safflower extract:Common Name:Safflower, False saffron;INCI Name:Carthamus tinctorius (Safflower) flower extract;Property:Antioxidant, Enhancing blood circulation.
Senna seed extract:Common Name:Senna, Coffeeweed, Stinking cassia;INCI Name:Cassia tora seed extract / Cassia obtusifolia seed extract;Property:Antioxidant,Hair dye.
Saffron extract:Common Name:Saffron;INCI Name:Crocus Sativus flower extract;Property:Antioxidant, Enhancing blood circulation.
Silkworm thorn bark extract:Common Name:Storehousebush, Silkworm thorn;INCI Name:Cudrania tricuspidata bark extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-atopy.
Sanitizer Complex:Common Name:Dipropylene glycol / Green tea / Grapefruit / Triclocarban;INCI Name:Dipropylene glycol / Camellia sinensis leaf extract / Citrus grandis (Grapefruit) fruit extract / Triclocarban;Property:Anti-microbe.
Sea grape extract:Common Name:Sea grape, Jointfir;INCI Name:Ephedra distachya extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-microbe.
Strawberry extract:Common Name:Strawberry;INCI Name:Fragaria chiloensis (Strawberry) fruit extract;Property:Whitening, Protein synthesis, Anti-acne.
Soybean extract:Common Name:Soybean, Soya;INCI Name:Glycine soja (Soybean) seed extract;Property:Moisturizing, Soothing, Sebum control.
Sunflower seed extract:Common Name:Sunflower;INCI Name:Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) seed extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Antioxidant, Sun block.
St. Johnswort extract:Common Name:St. Johnswort, Goatweed, Hypericum;INCI Name:Hypericum perforatum flower,leaf,stem extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation.
Sweet potato extract:Common Name:Sweet potato;INCI Name:Ipomoea batatas root extract;Property:Soothing.
SRM Complex:Common Name:Laverder / Peppermint;INCI Name:Lavandula angustifolia (Lavender) flower extract / Mentha piperiata (Peppermint) leaf extract;Property:Sebum control.
Siler root extract:Common Name:Fang feng, Siler;INCI Name:Ledebouriella seseloides root extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Soothing, Anti-itching.
Spicebush root extract:Common Name:Spicebush, Benjamin bush;INCI Name:Lindera strychnifolia root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration.
Spearmint extract:Common Name:Spearmint, Garden mint, Menthol mint;INCI Name:Mentha viridis (Spearmint) extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Antioxidant.
Spikenard extract:Common Name:Chinese spikenard, Indian valerian;INCI Name:Nardostachys chinensis root extract;Property:Antioxidant.
Sam Hwa Jea Chu Aek:Common Name:Peach flower / Water lotus flower;INCI Name:Nelumbo nucifera flower extract / Prunus persica (Peach) flower extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Whitening.
So A Tae Yul Bang:Common Name:Pearl powder / Licorice / Mung bean / Peony / Moutan peony / Skullcap / Narrowleaf Sophora;INCI Name:Pearl powder / Glycyrrhiaza glabra (Licorice) root extract / Vigna radiata seed extract / Paeonia albiflora root extract / Paeonia suffruticosa root extract / Scutellaria baicalensis root / Sophora angustifolia root extract;Property:Anti-atopy, Skin regeneration
Sang hwang mushroom extract:Common Name:Sang hwang mushroom;INCI Name:Phellinus linteus extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-atopy.
Solomon's seal root extract:Common Name:Solomon's seal, Poligonato;INCI Name:Polygonatum officinale rhizome/root extract;Property:Moisturizing, Anti-inflammation.
Selfheal extract:Common Name:Common selfheal, All heal, Carpenter weed;INCI Name:Prunella vulgaris leaf extract;Property:Antioxidant.
Scalp Clinic Complex:Common Name:Kudzu / Chrysanthemum / Sophora / Sweet pepper / Mung bean / Kelp / Korean angelica / Jujube / Chaste tree / Snake's beard / Siler / Silkworm / Hyacinth orchid / Raspberry / Dogwood / Mulberry / Ginger / Wild ginger / Pine tree / Foxglove / Black cohosh / Fishwort / Siberian ginseng / Corn silk / Chestnut / Ginkgo / Job’s tears / Ginseng / Lithospermum / Clove / Arbor vitae / Cornbind / False daisy / Walnut / Fennel / Licorice / Bai zhi / Honey locust / Chinese cucumber;INCI Name:Pueraria thunbergiana root extract / Chrysanthemum morifolium flower extract / Sophora angustifolia root extract / Capsicum annuum fruit extract / Phaseolus radiatus seed extract / Laminaria japonica extract / Angelica gigas root extract / Zizyphus jujuba fruit extract / Vitex trifolia fruit extract / Ophiopogon japonicus root extract / Ledebouriella seseloides root extract / Silkworm extract / Bletilla striata root extract / Rubus chingii fruit extract / Cornus officinalis fruit extract / Morus alba root extract / Zingiber officinale (Ginger) root extract / Asarum sieboldi root extract / Pinus palustris leaf extract / Rehmannia glutinosa root extract / Cimicifuga racemosa root extract / Houttuynia cordata extract / Acanthopanax senticosus (Eleuthero) root extract / Zea mays (Corn) silk extract / Castanea sativa (Chestnut) shell extract / Gingko biloba leaf extract / Coix lachryma-jobi (Job’s Tears) seed extract / Panax ginseng root extract / Lithospermum erythrorhizon root extract;Property:Anti-dandruff, Protecting scalp, Hair loss prevention, Hair growth.
Sa Mul Tang:Common Name:Foxglove / Peony / Cheonkung / Angelica;INCI Name:Rehmannia glutinosa root extract / Paeonia albiflora root extract / Cnidium officinale root extract / Angelica gigas root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
SS Complex:Common Name:Rhubarb / Korean angelica / Bai zhi;INCI Name:Rheum palmatum root extract / Angelica gigas root extract / Angelica dahurica root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Anti-dandruff, Hair loss prevention, Hair growth.
Sheeps sorrel extract:Common Name:Sheeps sorrel, Sheep's sorrel, Red sorrel, Acetosella;INCI Name:Rumex acetosella extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant, Anti-atopy.
Sage extract:Common Name:Sage, Salvia, Sarubia;INCI Name:Salvia officinalis (Sage) leaf extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Soothing, Anti-microbe.
Sandalwood extract:Common Name:Sandalwood, White sandalwood;INCI Name:Santalum album (Sandalwood) wood extract;Property:Sun block.
Schizandra berry extract:Common Name:Chinese schizandra, Sandra berry;INCI Name:Schizandra chinensis fruit extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Anti-inflammation.
Schizonepeta extract:Common Name:Ching chieh, Jing jie, Schizonepeta;INCI Name:Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Antioxidant.
Skullcap extract:Common Name:Baikal skullcap, Chinese skullcap, Huang qin;INCI Name:Scutellaria baicalensis root extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation.
Selaginella extract:Common Name:Selaginella, Resurrection fern;INCI Name:Selaginella tamariscina extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration.
Sesame extract:Common Name:Sesame;INCI Name:Sesamum indicum (Sesame) seed extract;Property:Moisturizing, Softening.
Silk worm extract:Common Name:Silk worm;INCI Name:Silk worm extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Protecting scalp, Whitening, Moisturizing.
Sodium hyaluronate(0.5%, 1%):Common Name:Hyaluronic acid, Sodium hyaluronate, Na-hyaluronate;INCI Name:Sodium hyaluronate;Property:Moisturizing, Protein synthesis.
Sophora extract:Common Name:Narrowleaf Sophora, Ku shen;INCI Name:Sophora angustifolia root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-allergy, Soothing, Anti-microbe.
So Pung San:Common Name:Narrowleaf sophora / Korean angelica / Schizonepeta / Fenugreek / Foxglove / Chocolate Vine / Sesame;INCI Name:Sophora angustifolia root extract / Angelica gigas root extract / Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract / Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract / Rehmannia glutinosa root extract / Akebia quinata stem extract / Sesamum indicum (Sesame) seed extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Anti-atopy.
Spirulina extract:Common Name:Spirulina;INCI Name:Spirulina maxima extract, Spirulina platensis extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Nourishing, Antioxidant,Skin regeneration.
Stevia extract:Common Name:Stevia, Sweet leaf of paraguay;INCI Name:Stevia rebaudiana leaf,stem extract;Property:Soothing, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Swertia extract:Common Name:Swertia;INCI Name:Swertia pseudochinensis extract;Property:Hair loss prevention, Hair growth, Protecting scalp, Enhancing blood circulation.
Swiftlet nest extract:Common Name:Swiftlet's nest;INCI Name:Swiftlet nest extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Protein synthesis.
Silk Aminos:Common Name:Silk amino acid;INCI Name:Water / Butylene glycol / Silk amino acids;Property:Skin regeneration.
SEAEMO:Common Name:Purified water / Lecithin / Squalane / Algae;INCI Name:Water / Lecithin / Squalane / Algae extract;Property:Moisturizing.
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