Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: talc | tallow | tamanu oil | Tambourissa extract | Tanacetum parthenium | tangerine oil | tannic acid | tannin | Taraktogenos kurzii | Taraxacum officinale | tartaric acid | TBHQ | TEA | tea tree oil | TEA-lauryl sulfate | Tecoma curialis bark extract | Tepescohuite extract | Tephrosia purpurea seed extract | Terminalia catappa | Terminalia sericea | tetradibutyl pentaeriththrityl hydroxyhydrocinnamate | tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate | Tetrahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin | tetrahydrodemethoxycurcumin | Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane | Tetrahydromethoxycurcumin | tetrasodium EDTA | tetrasodium etidronate | Thea sinensis extract | thiamine HCL | thiazolidine carboxylate | thickening agent | thioglycolate | thiotaurine | threonine | Thuja occidentalis extract | thyme extract | thyme oil | thymine | thymus extract | thymus hydrolysate | Thymus serpillum extract | Thymus vulgaris | Tian men dong | Tilia cordata | Tinosorb M | Tinosorb S | tissue respiratory factor (TRF) | titanium dioxide | Tocopherol | tocopherol acetate | tocopheryl acetate | tocopheryl lineolate | tocotrienols | toluene | tomato extract | tormentil extract | tourmaline | tragacanth | tranexamic acid | transforming growth factor (TGF) | transparent soap | trehalose | tretinoin | tricaprylin | triclosan | tridecyl salicylate | tridecyl stearate | tridecyl trimellitate | triethanolamine | triethoxycaprylylsilane | Trifolium pratense | triglyceride | Trigonella feonum-graecum | trihydroxystearin | trilaurin | Trimethylsiloxysilicate | trioclanolin | trioctanoin | trioctyldodecyl citrate | Trisodium EDTA | tristearin | Triticum vulgare oil | tryptophan | turmeric | Tussilago farfara | tyrosinase | tyrosine | Tartaric Acid (L) (Grapes) | Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Butter | Thermus Thermophilus Ferment | Thioctic (R-lipoic) Acid (Plant) | Thymus Vulgaris (Thyme) Leaf | Titanium Dioxide | Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891) | Tocopherol (D-alpha) (Vitamin E) | Tocopheryl Acetate (D-alpha) | Tocotrienols (Vitamin E) | Totara | Trehalose Dihydrate | Trisodium Ethylenediamine Disuccinate | Thorow wax root extract | Thistle extract | Todok extract | Turmeric extract | Tomato extract | Thyme extract |
talc:Finely ground mineral used as an absorbent, and the primary base of most pressed and loose powder. Talc is often criticized and described as a cosmetic ingredient to avoid. The concern about talc is not about it's use in makeup, but, rather, the way it was used in pure, large concentrations such as in talcum powder. Part of this story dates back to several studies published in the 1990s that found a significant increase in the risk of ovarian cancer from vaginal (perineal) application of talcum powder (Sources: American Journal of Epidemiology, March 1997, pages 459~65; International Journal of Cancer, May 1999, pages 351~56; Seminars in Oncology, June 1998, pages 255~64; and Cancer, June 1997, pages 2396~401). However, subsequent and concurrent studies have cast doubt on the way these studies were conducted as well as their conclusions (Sources: Journal of the National Cancer Institute, February 2000, pages 249~52; American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, March 2000, pages 720~24; and Obstetrics and Gynecology, March 1999, pages 372~76). There is no research showing talc to be a problem in cosmetics.
tallow:Substance extracted from the fatty deposits of animals, especially from suet (the fat of cattle and sheep). Tallow is often used to make soap and candles. In soap, because of its fat content, it can be a problem for breakouts.
tamanu oil:From a tree native to Polynesia. It is reputed to have wondrous wound-healing properties, as well as being a cure-all for almost every skin ailment you can think of, from acne to eczema to psoriasis, but all of the miraculous claims are hinged on anecdotal, not scientific, evidence. There no harm in using this oil in skin care,like most oils, it is composed of phospholipids and glycolipids, and these are natural constituents of healthy skin and are good water-binding agents. Tamanu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and there is some research showing it has anti-tumor properties, though this has not been proven in any direct research on skin.
Tambourissa extract:Extract of a plant indigenous to Madagascar that has no known benefit for skin. It may contain volatile components that can be skin irritants (Source: Planta Medica, April 2001, pages 290~92). .
Tanacetum parthenium:See feverfew extract.
tangerine oil:Fragrant, volatile citrus oil that can be a skin irritant.
tannic acid:A potent antioxidant; it may have some anticarcinogenic properties (Sources: Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry Letters, June 2002, pages 1567~570; and Nutrition and Cancer, 1998, volume 32, number 2, pages 81~5).
tannin:A component of many plants. It can have an antitumor benefit when consumed in tea or foods (Source: Nutrition and Cancer, 1998, volume 32, number 2, pages 81~5). There is some research on animals showing that this benefit may translate to skin (Source: Photochemistry and Photobiology, June 1998, pages 663~68). Tannins can also have constricting properties on skin, and that may cause irritation with repeated use.
Taraktogenos kurzii:See chaulmoogra oil.
Taraxacum officinale:See dandelion extract.
tartaric acid:See AHA.
TBHQ:Abbreviation for 2-tert-butylhydroquinone. It is a potent antioxidant (Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry, January 2002, pages 2477~484), though there is no research showing this to be of benefit when applied topically.
tea tree oil:Also known as melaleuca, from the name of its plant source, Melaleuca alternifolia. It can have disinfecting properties that have been shown to be effective against the bacteria that cause blemishes. According to Healthnotes Review of Complementary and Integrative Medicine (www.healthwell.com/healthnotes/Herb/Tea_Tree.cfm) and the Medical Journal of Australia (October 1990, pages 455~58), 5% tea tree oil and 2.5% benzoyl peroxide are effective in reducing the number of blemishes, with a significantly better result for benzoyl peroxide when compared to the tea tree oil. Skin oiliness was lessened significantly in the benzoyl peroxide group versus the tea tree oil group. However, the tea tree oil had somewhat less irritating side effects. Concentrations of 5% to 10% are recommended. However, the amount found in most skin-care products is usually less than 1% and, therefore, considered not to be effective for disinfecting. See Paula's article and Tea Tree Oil elaleuca.
TEA-lauryl sulfate:While there is abundant research showing sodium lauryl sulfate to be a sensitizing cleansing agent, there is no similar supporting research for TEA-lauryl sulfate. However, because the relationship between the two is so close, I decided to recommend against the use of either of them. The basis for this is a judgment call, made from a desire to protect skin from sensitization; however, there are no specific studies I can cite for this recommendation, although there are those who will understandably disagree with my conclusion. See sodium lauryl sulfate.
Tecoma curialis bark extract:Potential irritant and sensitizer for skin (Source: Botanical Dermatology Database, http://bodd.cf.ac.uk/index.html).
Tepescohuite extract:The Spanish name for Mimosa tenuiflora extract. See Mimosa tenuiflora extract.
Tephrosia purpurea seed extract:There is a small amount of research showing this to have antioxidant and anticancer properties when fed to rats, or in vitro (Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods, June 2001, pages 294~99), but there is no evidence that this effect can be duplicated when applied topically on skin.
Terminalia catappa:Can be a potent antioxidant (Source: Anticancer Research, January-February 2001, pages 237~43).
Terminalia sericea:May have antibacterial properties (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, February 2002, pages 169~77), but can also have a high incidence of irritation or contact dermatitis.
tetradibutyl pentaeriththrityl hydroxyhydrocinnamate:See antioxidant.
tetrahexyldecyl ascorbate:Stable form of vitamin C. See vitamin C.
Tetrahydrobisdemethoxycurcumin:Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant extract. See curcumin.
tetrahydrodemethoxycurcumin:See curcumin and turmeric.
Tetrahydrodiferuloylmethane:Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant extract. See curcumin.
Tetrahydromethoxycurcumin:Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory plant extract. See curcumin.
tetrasodium EDTA:A chelating agent. It is used to prevent minerals present in formulations from bonding to other ingredients.
tetrasodium etidronate:Used as a chelating agent in cosmetics to prevent varying mineral components from binding together and negatively affecting the formulation.
Thea sinensis extract:See green tea.
thiamine HCL:Vitamin B1. There is no research showing this to be effective when applied topically on skin.
thiazolidine carboxylate:Can have antioxidant properties, but there is no research showing this to be the case when it is applied topically on skin.
thickening agent:Substances that can have a soft to hard waxlike texture or a creamy, emollient feel, and that can be great lubricants. There are literally thousands of ingredients in this category that give each and every lotion, cream, lipstick, foundation, and mascara, as well as other cosmetic products, their distinctive feel and form.
thioglycolate:Compounds used in permanent waves and depilatories either to alter the structure of hair or to dissolve it. These are potent skin irritants.
thiotaurine:An amino acid. Potentially, it can have antioxidant properties for skin.See amino acid.
threonine:See amino acid.
Thuja occidentalis extract:Also known as extract of red or yellow cedar. It has antibacterial properties on skin, but it also has constricting properties and can be a skin irritant.
thyme extract:Derived from the thyme plant. It can have potent antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, March 2002, pages 1845~851). Its fragrant component can also cause skin irritation.
thyme oil:See thyme extract.
thymine:Component of DNA that carries genetic information for the cell. See DNA.
thymus extract:See thymus hydrolysate.
thymus hydrolysate:Form of animal thymus derived by acid, enzyme, or other methods of hydrolysis. It can have water-binding properties for skin but has no other special or unique benefit.
Thymus serpillum extract:An extract of wild thyme. See thyme extract.
Thymus vulgaris:See thyme extract.
Tian men dong:Chinese herbal asparagus extract; it has no known benefit for skin.
Tilia cordata:See linden flower extract.
Tinosorb M:See Tinosorb S.
Tinosorb S:In Europe there are two sunscreen ingredients, Tinosorb S (bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine) and Tinosorb M (methylene bis-benzotriazolyl tetramethylbutylphenol), that are approved for protection of the entire range of UVA radiation (Sources: Photochemistry and Photobiology, September 2001, pages 401~06; and Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, North America, www.cibasc.com). Whether they are preferred over the other UVA-protecting ingredients used in sunscreens has not been established. At this time, neither Tinosorb M nor Tinosorb S have been approved for use in the United States or Canada. See UVA.
tissue respiratory factor (TRF):Trade name for a form of yeast suspended in alcohol. There is only one independent study, performed on animals, that showed it to have some wound-healing benefits (Source: Journal of Burn Care Rehabilitation, March-April 1999, pages 155~62).
titanium dioxide:Inert earth mineral used as a thickening, whitening, lubricating, and sunscreen ingredient in cosmetics. It protects skin from UVA and UVB radiation and is considered to have no risk of skin irritation (Sources: www.photodermatology.com/sunprotection.htm; and Skin Therapy Letter, 1997, volume 2, number 5). See UVA.
Tocopherol:See vitamin E.
tocopherol acetate:See vitamin E.
tocopheryl acetate:See vitamin E.
tocopheryl lineolate:See vitamin E.
tocotrienols:Super-potent forms of vitamin E that are considered stable and powerful antioxidants. There is some research showing tocotrienols to be more potent than other forms of vitamin E for antioxidant activity (Source: Journal of Nutrition, February 2001, pages 369S~73S), but the studies cited in this review were all performed on animal models or in vitro. According to the University of California at Berkeley Wellness Guide to Dietary Supplements (October 1999), Tocotrienol] research in humans is very limited, and the results conflicting.?The research that has been done has centered on large doses of oral tocotrienols, animal studies, or test-tube trials. Companies that want you to believe that tocotrienols are now the answer for your skin are only guessing whether or not the laboratory evidence translates to human skin as it exists in the real world (Source: Healthnotes Review of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, www.healthnotes.com). Full-scale clinical studies on humans to assess the benefits of topical tocotrienols have not yet been performed, so for now (as is true for all antioxidants), choosing it as the est?one is a leap of faith. See vitamin E.
toluene:Solvent used in nail polishes; it is considered toxic with repeated use.
tomato extract:Has weak antioxidant properties (Source: Free Radical Research, February 2002, pages 217~33). Tomatoes contain lycopene, which is a significant antioxidant, but it is more bioavailable from tomato paste than from fresh tomatoes (Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1997, volume 66, number 1, pages 116~22). It can also be a potential skin irritant depending on what part of the tomato is used, but there is no way to know that from an ingredient label. See lycopene.
tormentil extract:See Potentilla erecta root extract.
tourmaline:An inert, though complex, mineral. One of its unique properties is that it is piezoelectric, meaning that it generates an electrical charge when under pressure. That's why tourmaline is typically used in pressure gauges. Tourmaline is also pyroelectric, which means that it generates an electrical charge during a temperature change (either increase or decrease). One of the results of generating such an electric charge is that dust particles will become attached to one end of the tourmaline crystal. However, none of that can take place in a cosmetic. There is no published research showing tourmaline has any proven effect on skin whatsoever. See Paula's article Tourmaline.
tragacanth:Natural gum used as a thickener in cosmetics.
tranexamic acid:Technical name 4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid. When used orally,it is an antihemophilic (stops bleeding) medicine; topically it is an anti-inflammatory agent.
transforming growth factor (TGF):Stimulates wound healing and collagen growth. See human growth factor.
transparent soap:Looks milder or less drying because of its unclouded, clear appearance, but many such soaps contain harsh cleansing ingredients, and the ingredients that give the bar its shape can clog pores.
trehalose:A plant sugar that has water-binding properties for skin.
tretinoin:Topical, prescription-only medication that can improve cell production after it has been damaged. It is the active ingredient in Retin-A, Renova, Tazorac, and Avita. One of the more significant problems of sun damage is abnormal and mutated cell growth. An article from Clinics in Geriatric Medicine (November 2001, pages 643~59) stated that studies that have elucidated photoaging pathophysiology have produced significant evidence that topical tretinoin (all-trans retinoic acid), the only agent approved so far for the treatment of photoaging, also works to prevent it?(Sources: Cosmetic Dermatology, December 2001, page 38; and Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2001, volume 111, pages 778~84). Tretinoin affects and improves actual cell production deep in the dermis, far away from the surface of skin (Sources: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, October 2001, pages 613~18; Clinical Geriatric Medicine, November 2001, pages 643~59; and Photochemistry and Photobiology, February 1999, pages 154~57).
tribenzoin:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester.
tricaprylin:A mixture of glycerin and caprylic acid. Has emollient properties and is used as a skin-conditioning agent. See glycerin.
triclosan:Good antibacterial agent used in many products, from those for oral hygiene to cleansers (Sources: Federation of European Microbiological Societies Microbiology Letter, August 2001, pages 1; and American Journal of Infection Control, April 2000, pages 184~96). However, whether triclosan is effective for treatment of acne has not been researched. There is also controversy over whether or not triclosan may contribute to creating strains of bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics owing to its overuse in cosmetic products. Further, there is also concern about whether, in practical use, it can in fact impart the benefits of disinfection indicated on the label (Source: Journal of Hospital Infection, August 2001, Supplement A, pages S48).
tridecyl salicylate:Salt form of salicylic acid (BHA). When it is no longer an acid (as here), salicylic acid no longer has exfoliating properties.
tridecyl stearate:Used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and emollient.
tridecyl trimellitate:Used as a skin-conditioning agent and thickening agent. See thickening agent.
triethanolamine:Used in cosmetics as a pH balancer. Like all amines, it has the potential for creating nitrosamines. There is controversy as to whether this poses a real problem for skin, given the low concentrations used in cosmetics and the theory that nitrosamines can penetrate skin.
triethoxycaprylylsilane:A silicone that functions as a binding agent and emulsifier. See silicone.
Trifolium pratense:See red clover.
triglyceride:Used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester and natural moisturizing factors.
Trigonella feonum-graecum:See fenugreek.
trihydroxystearin:A mixture of glycerin and fatty acids used as an emollient and thickening agent. See fatty acid.
trilaurin:Group of ingredients that are triesters of glycerin and aliphatic acids, and known generically as glyceryl triesters. These are used in cosmetic products as thickening agents and emollients (Source: International Journal of Toxicology, 2001, volume 20, Supplement 4, pages 61~4).
Trimethylsiloxysilicate:Used as a skin conditioning and occlusive agent. See silicone.
trioclanolin:Derived from lanolin and used as a texture enhanced, most commonly in powder-based products such as eyeshadows and powder blush.
trioctanoin:Emollient and thickening agent used in cosmetics. See trilaurin.
trioctyldodecyl citrate:A mixture of octyldodecanol and citric acid used as a skin-conditioning agent and emollient. See octyldodecanol and citric acid.
Trisodium EDTA:Similar to tetrasodium EDTA; Used as a water-softening and chelating agent (a compound that binds and separates metals, keeping them from bonding to other ingredients). See tetrasodium EDTA.
tristearin:Triglyceride of stearic acid. It is used as an emollient and thickening agent in cosmetics.
Triticum vulgare oil:See wheat germ oil.
tryptophan:See amino acid.
turmeric:Plant source of a spice made from the dried, ground root; its extract is called curcurmin. A natural yellow food coloring that has potent antioxidant properties (Sources: Food Chemistry and Toxicology, August 2002, pages 1091~097; and Planta Medica, December 2001, pages 876~77). Because it is a potent spice, it may have some irritating properties for skin as well.
Tussilago farfara:See coltsfoot.
tyrosinase:Enzyme that stimulates melanin production.See tyrosine.
tyrosine:An amino acid in skin that initiates the production of melanin (melanin is the component of skin that gives it color?. According to information on the FDA Web site (www.fda.gov), tyrosine se is based on the assumption that it penetrates the skin, increases the tyrosine content of the melanocytes, and thus enhances melanin formation. This effect has not been documented in the scientific literature. In fact, an animal study reported a few years ago demonstrated that ingestion or topical application of tyrosine has no effect on melanogenesis [the creation of melanin].?Tyrosine is important to the structure of almost all proteins in the body. However, the chemical pathway needed for tyrosine to function is complex and this pathway cannot be duplicated by including tyrosine in a skin-care product or by applying it topically.source: Amino Acid.A non-essential amino acid that is vital to the production of hormones that regulate metabolism and cellular health. .
Tartaric Acid (L) (Grapes):source: Grapes.AHA - Loosens cellular debris, dissolves inter-cellular glues that hold keratinized barrier cells to the skin. .
Theobroma Cacao (Cocoa) Butter:source: Cocoa.A soothing emollient used for centuries in Africa as a skin care ingredient. Repairs and moisturize skin that has been exposed to the harsh environmental elements. It also helps reduce the formation of stretch marks during pregnancy by keeping the skin supple. .
Thermus Thermophilus Ferment:source: Deep Sea Gulf of California.Inhibits damage from reactive oxygen species, protects natural defense enzymes, shields from UV damage, restores barrier lipids. .
Thioctic (R-lipoic) Acid (Plant):source: Vegetable.The only naturally-occurring form of alpha-lipoic acid, this form has been stabilized creating a highly bio-available form. Water and fat soluble antioxidant involved in cellular energy production. Significantly increases levels of Coenzyme Q10, vitamin C and vitamin E. Exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and assists in cellular detoxification. .
Thymus Vulgaris (Thyme) Leaf:source: Thyme leaves.Provides strong antiseptic actions while soothing the skin, anti-fungal, improves protein crosslinking to form a protective barrier from infection. .
Titanium Dioxide:source: Mineral.Physically shields the skin from UV exposure, disperses damaging UV rays to limit photo aging, creates an occlusive barrier. .
Titanium Dioxide (CI 77891):source: Mineral.Micro Titanium Dioxide (TiO2); a naturally occurring compound which is mined. The “natural” choice for a physical sunblock because it is more cosmetically pleasing than zinc oxide. It performs as both a UVA and UVB protectant (protects against skin cancer and wrinkling due to sun exposure ). It is also used for cosmetic reasons. TiO2 imparts a sheen to the lips and gives body, texture, and color to the product. .
Tocopherol (D-alpha) (Vitamin E):source: Vitamin E Family.Fat soluble antioxidant (Vitamin E) that protects from oxidative stress, reduces wrinkles. .
Tocopheryl Acetate (D-alpha):source: Vitamin E Family.Oil soluble Vitamin E, protects the cell membrane from lipid peroxidation while preventing cellular death. .
Tocotrienols (Vitamin E):source: Vitamin E Family.Antioxidant, UV protectant. .
Totara:source: Heart wood of New Zealand Totara Tree.Provides preservative actions while acting as a gentle and non-irritating anti-bacterial ingredient in both gram positive and negative bacteria (propionibacterium acne is particularly sensitive to this extract), anti-viral, antioxidant, effectively reduces acne disturbances. .
Trehalose Dihydrate:source: Sugar compound.A sugar that helps the skin cells hydrate properly. .
Trisodium Ethylenediamine Disuccinate:source: Salt.A biodegradable “green” universally accepted, award winning chelating agent. Improve stability of the product when exposed to air. .
Thorow wax root extract:Common Name:Thorow wax;INCI Name:Bupleurum falcatum root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation.
Thistle extract:Common Name:Thistle;INCI Name:Cirsium (Thistle) flower,leaf,stem extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Skin regeneration, Cleansing, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Todok extract:Common Name:Todok, Shan hai luo, Turu ninzin;INCI Name:Codonopsis lanceolata root extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Anti-inflammation.
Turmeric extract:Common Name:Turmeric, Indian saffron;INCI Name:Curcuma longa (Turmeric) root extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation, Enhancing blood circulation.
Tomato extract:Common Name:Tomato;INCI Name:Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) fruit extrat;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-inflammation.
Thyme extract:Common Name:Thyme;INCI Name:Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) leaf extract;Property:Soothing, Astringent, Pore tightening, Anti-allergy.
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