Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: VA/crotonates | VA/crotonates copolymer | Vaccinium myrtillus | valerian | valine | Vanilla planifolia fruit extract | vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) | verbena extract | Veronica officinalis extract | vetiver oil or extract | Vinca minor extract | vinegar | Viola tricolor extract | vitamin A | vitamin B1 | vitamin B12 | vitamin B2 | vitamin B3 | vitamin B5 | vitamin B6 | vitamin C | vitamin D | vitamin E | vitamin E for scars | vitamin F | vitamin H | vitamin K | Vitex trifoliar fruit extract | Vitis vinifera | Vitreoscilla ferment | volatile oil | VP/hexadecene copolymer | Vaccinium Macrocarpon (Cranberry) Fruit Juice | Vaccinium Myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruit/Leaf Extract | Vanilla Planifolia (Vanilla) Fruit Oil | Vigna Aconitifolia (Moth Bean) Seed Extract | Vitex Agnus Castus (Casticin) Extract | Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract | Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil | Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil infused with Rosa Canina | Vita plus complex | Valerian extract | Velvet extract | Verbena extract | Violet extract |
VA/crotonates:Film-forming agent. See film-forming agent.
VA/crotonates copolymer:See VA/crotonates.
Vaccinium myrtillus:See bilberry extract.
valerian:Extract of the common herb valerian (Valeriana officinalis). There is definitely research showing that it is effective at improving sleep patterns when taken orally (Source: Pharmacopsychiatry, March 2000, pages 47~3). There is no research showing that it has any effect when applied topically on skin.
valine:See amino acid.
Vanilla planifolia fruit extract:Used primarily as a fragrance and flavoring agent. The vanilla plant is a source of catechins (also known as polyphenols), which exhibit antioxidant activity and serve as anti-inflammatory agents (Source: Drugs Experimental Clinical Research, 2004; 30(1):1-10).
vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF):Stimulates the growth of blood vessels.See human growth factor.
verbena extract:Fragrant extract that can be a skin irritant.
Veronica officinalis extract:There is no research showing this extract to have any benefit for skin (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com).
vetiver oil or extract:Fragrant component in skin-care products that also has some antibacterial properties (Source: Applied Microbiology, June 1999, pages 985~90). It can also be a skin sensitizer.
Vinca minor extract:See periwinkle extract.
vinegar:Consists of acetic acid and water. The color and flavor of the vinegar is determined by and varies with the alcoholic liquor or juice that is used to ferment the acetic acid (such as apple cider or wine). It does have mild disinfecting and antifungal properties, but according to a study in Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (January 2000), commercial disinfectants are far more effective in killing germs and bacteria than vinegar. Vinegar can be a skin irritant.
Viola tricolor extract:See pansy extract.
vitamin A:Considered a good antioxidant in some of its various forms, particularly as retinol and retinyl palmitate. See retinol and Paula's article,Vitamins.
vitamin B1:See thiamine HCL.
vitamin B12:May be effective in the treatment of psoriasis (Source: Dermatology, 2001, volume 203, number 2, pages 141~47). Overall there is limited research showing vitamin B12 to have any benefit when applied topically on skin.
vitamin B2:There is no research showing this to have any benefit when applied topically to skin. However, there is a small amount of research showing that riboflavin may be photosensitizing and thus cause the breakdown of skin (Sources: Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 1997, volume 22, number 7, pages 1139~144; and Toxicology Letters, August 1985, pages 211~17).
vitamin B3:See niacinamide.
vitamin B5:Also known as pantothenic acid. See pantothenic acid.
vitamin B6:There is no research showing it to have benefit for skin.
vitamin C:Considered a potent antioxidant for skin (Sources: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, February 2002, pages 372~79, and June 2001, pages 853~59; and Toxicology in Vitro, August-October 2001, pages 357~62). Claims that vitamin C can prevent or eliminate wrinkling are not proven. An article in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (January 2000, pages 464~65) discussed the issue of vitamin C and concluded that vitamin C is a valuable antioxidant and protectant against photodamage that is created by sunlight in both the UVB and UVA bands? Although oral supplementation may also be useful, topical preparations are able to deliver a higher dosage to the needed area. Topical vitamin C does not absorb or block harmful ultraviolet radiation like a sunscreen. Instead, it augments the skin ability to neutralize reactive oxygen singlets [free-radical damage] that are created by the ultraviolet radiation, thereby preventing photodamage to the skin. It becomes an integral part of the skin and remains unaffected by bathing, exercise, clothing, or makeup. Used appropriately, topical vitamin C is an important adjunct to the use of sunscreens, an adjunctive treatment to lessen erythema [redness] in skin resurfacing, a helpful adjunct or an alternative to Retin-A in the treatment of fine wrinkles, and a stimulant to wound healing." See Paula's article, Vitamins.
vitamin D:Provides no known benefit for skin when applied topically, though it may have antioxidant benefits. Vitamin D formed in the skin by sunlight, or in an oral supplement form, is essential for health. See Paula's article, Vitamins.
vitamin E:Considered an antioxidant superstar. Vitamin E is a lipid-soluble vitamin (meaning it likes fat better than water) that has eight different forms, of which some are known for being excellent antioxidants when applied topically to skin, particularly alpha tocopherol and the tocotrienols (Sources: Current Problems in Dermatology, 2001, volume 29, pages 26~2; Free Radical Biology and Medicine, May 1997, pages 761~69; Journal of Nutrition, February 2001, pages 369S~73S; and International Journal of Radiation Biology, June 1999, pages 747~55). However, other studies have indicated the acetate form (tocopherol acetate) is also bioavailable and protective for skin (Source: Journal of Cosmetic Science, January-February 2001, pages 35~0). And still other research points to tocopherol sorbate as providing significant antioxidant protection against ultraviolet radiation induced oxidative damage (Source: Journal of Investigative Dermatology, April 1995, pages 484~88). Pointing to the significance of vitamin E for skin is an article in the Journal of Molecular Medicine (January 1995, pages 7~7), which states: more than other tissues, the skin is exposed to numerous environmental chemical and physical agents such as ultraviolet light causing oxidative stress [free-radical damage]. In the skin this results in several short- and long-term adverse effects such as erythema [redness], edema [swelling], skin thickening, wrinkling, and an increased incidence of skin cancer? Vitamin E is the major naturally occurring lipid-soluble ?antioxidant protecting skin from the adverse effects of oxidative stress including photoaging [sun damage]. Many studies document that vitamin E occupies a central position as a highly efficient antioxidant, thereby providing possibilities to decrease the frequency and severity of pathological events in the skin.?See Paula's article, Vitamins.
vitamin E for scars:There is no evidence that vitamin E can help heal scars, and, because of skin sensitivity, it can actually impede the healing process for some. A report of research published in Dermatologic Surgery (April 1999, pages 311~15), in an article titled the effects of topical vitamin E on the cosmetic appearance of scars,?concluded that the study shows that there is no benefit to the cosmetic outcome of scars by applying vitamin E after skin surgery and that the application of topical vitamin E may actually be detrimental to the cosmetic appearance of a scar. In 90% of the cases in this study, topical vitamin E either had no effect on, or actually worsened, the cosmetic appearance of scars. Of the patients studied, 33% developed a contact dermatitis to the vitamin E. Therefore we conclude that use of topical vitamin E on surgical wounds should be discouraged.?The study was done double-blind with patients given two ointments each labeled A or B. A was Aquaphor, a regular emollient, and the B was Aquaphor mixed with vitamin E. The scars were randomly divided into parts A and B. Patients were asked to put the A ointment on part A and the B ointment on part B twice daily for 4 weeks.?Antioxidants are definitely an option for skin, but, for preventing scars, vitamin E directly applied on skin does not appear to be one of them.
vitamin F:Name sometimes used to represent essential fatty acids of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. These are considered essential fatty acids (EFA) because they cannot be produced by the body. There are many fatty acids that have benefit for skin, including arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and oleic acids to name a few. These all have emollient, water-binding, and often antioxidant properties for skin. See gamma linolenic acid and linoleic acid.
vitamin H:See biotin.
vitamin K:Some cosmetics companies sell creams and lotions containing vitamin K, claiming it can reduce or eliminate surfaced spider veins (technically referred to as telangiectasias). These creams can change spider veins. The only research concerning vitamin K effectiveness on skin or surfaced spider veins comes from the companies selling these products. There are no published or peer-reviewed studies that add up to results you can even remotely count on (Source: Archives of Dermatology, December 1998, pages 1512~514). See gums.See Paula's article Vitamins.
Vitex trifoliar fruit extract:See chaste tree fruit extract.
Vitis vinifera:Latin name for the vines producing wine grapes.See grape seed oil and grape seed extract.
Vitreoscilla ferment:Made from a bacteria that can help cells utilize oxygen better in vitro (Source: Journal of Biotechnology, January 2001, pages 57~6). Whether that effect can be translated to benefit skin cells via a cosmetic formulation is unknown.
volatile oil:Group of volatile fluids derived primarily from plants, and used in cosmetics primarily as fragrant additives. These components most often include a mix of alcohols, ketones, phenols, linalool, borneol, terpenes, camphor, pinene, acids, ethers, aldehydes, and sulfur, which all have extremely irritating and sensitizing effects on skin.
VP/hexadecene copolymer:A synthetic polymer. See film-forming agent.
Vaccinium Macrocarpon (Cranberry) Fruit Juice:source: Cranberry.Provides antibacterial effects, nourishes the skin while protecting from free radical damage. .
Vaccinium Myrtillus (Bilberry) Fruit/Leaf Extract:source: Multifruit Sugar Complex.Naturally occurring alpha hydroxy acids to help promote smoother, younger looking skin by increasing the rate of cell renewal. Stimulates the lymphatic system to encourage detoxification and skin purifying. Exhibits astringent and tightening properties while relieving congestion and limiting excess sebum (oil). .
Vanilla Planifolia (Vanilla) Fruit Oil:source: Vanilla.Provides olfactory benefits through the natural fragrance of the essential oil. .
Vigna Aconitifolia (Moth Bean) Seed Extract:source: Moth Bean.Pronounced "moat bean", an anti-aging topical Vitamin A suitable for all skin types, including sensitive skin. Clinically proven to stimulate epidermal cellular renewal and growth factors in order to enhance collagen synthesis via fibroblast cells. Exhibits high tolerance and stability in skin care formulations. .
Vitex Agnus Castus (Casticin) Extract:source: Vitex/chaste tree.Phyto-Endorphin complex based on Monk’s Pepper for radiant glow, powerful antioxidants and moisturizing factors fight against signs of aging. .
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Extract:source: Grape seeds.Highly antioxidant, reduces irritation, provides anti-bacterial actions and assists in repair mechanisms. .
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil:source: Grape Seeds.Quickly penetrates the skin; powerful antioxidant; rich in flavonoids; inhibits allergic reactions; skin cancer deterrent; protects skin’s own collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. .
Vitis Vinifera (Grape) Seed Oil infused with Rosa Canina:source: Grape Seed Oil.Quickly penetrates the skin; powerful antioxidant; rich in flavonoids; inhibits allergic reactions; protects skin’s own collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid. Promotes tissue growth, aids in the protection and production of collagen, soothes and restores. .
Vita plus complex:Common Name:Vitamin A / Vitamin C / Vitamin D3 / Vitamin B1 / Carrot / Shiitake / Sage;INCI Name:Retinyl acetate / Ascorbic acid / Cholecalciferol / Thiamine HCI / Pyridoxine HCI / Daucus carota sativa (Carrot) root extract / Lentinus edodes extract / Salvia officinalis (Sage) leaf extract;Property:Antioxidant, Anti-acne, Anti-atopy.
Valerian extract:Common Name:Valerian, Garden heliotrope;INCI Name:Valeriana officinalis rhizome,root extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-acne.
Velvet extract:Common Name:Velvet;INCI Name:Velvet extract;Property:Skin regeneration, Moisturizing.
Verbena extract:Common Name:Verbena, Vervain, Pigeon grass, Pigeon meat, Holy herb;INCI Name:Verbena officinalis leaf extract;Property:Cleansing, Anti-inflammation.
Violet extract:Common Name:Violet, Sweet violet, Pansy, Wild violet, Chinese violet;INCI Name:Viola odorata flower,leaf extract, Viola odorata leaf extract, Viola tricolor extract, Viola yedoensis extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Anti-microbe.
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