Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Cosmetic are dedicated to cosmetics and phyto derived cosmetic components.The first archaeological evidence of cosmetics usage is found in Egypt around 3500 BC during the Ancient Egypt times with some of the royalty having make up such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, mask of Tutankhamun!
Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves, colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels, deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts, butters and many other types of products. Their use is widespread, especially among women in Western countries. A subset of cosmetics is called "make-up," which refers primarily to colored products intended to alter the user's appearance. Many manufacturers distinguish between decorative cosmetics and care cosmetics.
The manufacture of cosmetics is currently dominated by a small number of multinational corporations that originated in the early 20th century, but the distribution and sale of cosmetics is spread among a wide range of different businesses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which regulates cosmetics in the United States defines cosmetics as: "intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." This broad definition includes,any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. The FDA specifically excludes soap from this category.
Contents: walnut extract | walnut oil | walnut-shell powder | water | water-binding agent | watercress extract | wheat germ glycerides | wheat germ oil | wheat protein | whey | white camellia extract or oil | white nettle | white oak bark extract | white tea leaf extract | white willow | wild ginger | wild yam extract | willow bark | willow herb | wintergreen oil | witch hazel | wormword | Wu wei zi | Wine Extract | Withania Somnifera Root Extract |Water plantain extract | Wild ginger extract | White tea extract | Witch hazel extract | Walnut extract | Walnut shell extract | Water lotus extract | Winter cherry extract | Willow bark extract | Wheat extract |
walnut extract:Can have antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Nutrition, November 2001, pages 2837~842). There is no research showing this to have any benefit for skin.
walnut oil:Emollient, nonfragrant plant oil. See natural moisturizing factors.
walnut-shell powder:Abrasive used in scrub products.
water:The most widely used cosmetic ingredient; it is almost always listed first on an ingredient label because it is usually the ingredient with the highest concentration. Yet, despite claims of the skin need for hydration and the claims regarding the special type of water used, it turns out that water may not be an important ingredient for skin. Only a 10% concentration of water in the outer layer of skin is necessary for softness and pliability in this part of the epidermis (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, November-December 1999, pages 344~51). Studies that have compared the water content of dry skin to that of normal or oily skin dont find a statistically significant difference in moisture levels between them (Source: Journal of Cosmetic Chemistry, September/October 1993, page 249). Further, too much water in the skin can be a problem, because it can disrupt the skin intercellular matrix, the substances that keep skin cells bonded to each other (Source: Contact Dermatitis, December 1999, pages 311~14). The most significant aspect of the skin health is the structural organization of the intercellular lipids and the related materials that keep skin intact and prevent water loss (Sources: Trends in Cell Biology, August 2002, page 355; and Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, August 2002, pages 198~08). See natural moisturizing factors and oxygenated water.
water-binding agent:Wide range of ingredients that help skin retain water (moisture). Glycerin is one of the more typical and effective water-binding agents used in cosmetics. One group of water-binding agents can mimic the skin's actual structure and can be of benefit in a formulation; these include ceramide, lecithin, glycerin, polysaccharides, hyaluronic acid, sodium hyaluronate, mucopolysaccharides, sodium PCA, collagen, elastin, proteins, amino acids, cholesterol, glucose, sucrose, fructose, glycogen, phospholipids, glycosphingolipids, and glycosaminoglycans. No single one of these is preferred over the other because even though they are all effective, none of them can permanently change the actual structure of skin. See natural moisturizing factors.
watercress extract:There is some evidence that when consumed in the diet, watercress has some anticancer and antioxidant properties (Sources: Journal of Nutrition, March 1999, pages 768S~74S; and Food Chemistry Toxicology, February-March 1999, pages 95~03). Whether these properties translate to skin when the extract is applied topically is unknown. However, because watercress is a source of mustard oil, it can be a skin irritant.
wheat germ glycerides:Used as emollient and thickening agents in cosmetics. See glyceryl ester and natural moisturizing factors.
wheat germ oil:Emollient plant oil similar to all nonfragrant plant oils. See natural moisturizing factors.
wheat protein:See gums.See natural moisturizing factors and protein.
whey:Milk contains two primary proteins, casein and whey. When cheese is produced the more liquid components, whey and casein, are separated from the cheese. When eaten or taken in oral supplements whey protein can have significant antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Dairy Science, December 2001, pages 2577-2583) as well as anticancer properties (Source: Anticancer Research, November-December 2000, pages 4785-4792) because it generates the production of glutathione in the body, which is a significant antioxidant. Whether or not any of those benefits translate to skin is unknown. In skin care products it is most likely a good water-binding agent.
white camellia extract or oil:Used as a fragrance in cosmetics; it may be a skin sensitizer.
white nettle:Contains components that can have both anti-irritant as well as inflammatory properties (Source: www.bastyr.org/academic/botmed/herbs.asp?HerbId=5).
white oak bark extract:See oak root extract.
white tea leaf extract:The minimally processed buds and leaves of green tea. There is research showing white and green teas to have the highest concentration of antioxidant properties (via their polyphenol and flavonoid content) of all teas, and several in vitro and animal studies have shown green tea and white tea to have anticancer and antimutagenic properties. However, even though tea flavonoids are effective antioxidants, it is unclear to what extent they increase the antioxidant capacity of humans, and there is no research showing what their activity means for skin. It appears that white and green tea share similar amounts of the polyphenol Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which is tea's main antioxidant. The conclusion drawn is that white and green tea have nearly identical antioxidant activity (Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, Volume 296, Issue 3, August 23, 2002, pages 584-588.) See green tea.
white willow:See willow bark.
wild ginger:See ginger extract.
wild yam extract:The roots of wild yams were used in the first commercial production of oral contraceptives, topical hormones, androgens, estrogens, progesterones, and other sex hormones. Diosgenin, a component of wild yam, is promoted as a natural precursor to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Some wild-yam products are promoted as "natural DHEA." Although diosgenin can be converted to steroidal compounds, including DHEA, in the laboratory, this chemical synthesis does not occur in the human body. So taking wild-yam extracts will not increase DHEA levels in humans (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com). There is no research showing wild yam has any effectiveness when applied topically on skin. If anything, the studies that do exist have demonstrated that topical application of wild yam has little to no effect on menopausal symptoms (Source: Climacteric, June 2001, pages 144~50). See DHEA.
willow bark:Contains salicin, a substance that when taken orally is converted by the digestive process to salicylic acid (beta hydroxy acid). The process of converting willow bark to salicylic acid requires the presence of enzymes to turn the salicin into salicylic acid. The digestive conversion process that turns salicin into saligenin, and then into salicylic acid, is complex. Further, salicin, much like salicylic acid, is stable only under acidic conditions. The likelihood that willow bark in the tiny amount used in cosmetics can mimic the effectiveness of salicylic acid is at best problematic, and in all likelihood impossible. However, willow bark may indeed have some anti-inflammatory benefits for skin because, in this form, it appears to retain more of its aspirin-like composition.
willow herb:See Epilobium angustifolium extract.
wintergreen oil:Can be very irritating and sensitizing (Source: Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, www.naturaldatabase.com). See counter-irritant.
witch hazel:Can have potent antioxidant properties (Sources: Phytotherapy Research, June 2002, pages 364~67; and Journal of Dermatological Science, July 1995, pages 25~4) and some anti-irritant properties (Source: Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, March-April 2002, pages 125~32). However, according to the Consumer Dictionary of Cosmetic Ingredients, Fifth Edition, Ruth Winter, 1995, Random House), witch hazel can have an ethanol [alcohol] content of 70 to 80 percent. Witch hazel water contains 15% ethanol.The alcohol can be an irritant. Witch hazel also has a high tannin content (and tannin is a potent antioxidant), which can also be irritating when used repeatedly on skin, though when used for initial swelling from burns it can reduce inflammation.
wormword:Herb that has antioxidant properties (Source: Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, November 2001, pages 5165~170).
Wu wei zi:Also known as Schisandra chinensis, this herb can have a constricting effect and can be a skin irritant.
Wine Extract:source: Red Grapes.Powerful antioxidant red wine concentrate with potent levels of polyphenols and anthocyanins. .
Withania Somnifera Root Extract:source: Indian Ginseng.Used to enhance rejuvenation and longevity, reduces inflammation, heals, provides protection from free radicals.. .
Water plantain extract:Common Name:Mud plantain, Tse gsieh, Water Plantain, Ze xie;INCI Name:Alisma plantago aquatica extract;Property:Antioxidant, Whitening.
Wild ginger extract:Common Name:Wild ginger;INCI Name:Asarum sieboldi root extract;Property:Anti-microbe, Antioxidant.
White tea extract:Common Name:White tea, Silvet tip white tea, Yinzhen;INCI Name:Camellia sinensis leaf extract;Property:Astringent, Pore tightening, Anti-inflammation, Cleansing, Antioxidant.
Witch hazel extract:Common Name:Witch hazel, Hamamelis;INCI Name:Hamamelis virginiana (Witch hazel) leaf extract;Property:Sun block, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Walnut extract:Common Name:Walnut;INCI Name:Juglans regia (Walnut) seed extract;Property:Hair loss prevention, Hair growth, Nourishing.
Walnut shell extract:Common Name:Walnut;INCI Name:Juglans regia (Walnut) shell extract;Property:Hair dye.
Water lotus extract:Common Name:Sacred water lotus, Chinese arrowroot;INCI Name:Nelumbo nucifera flower extract;Property:Sun block, Soothing.
Winter cherry extract:Common Name:Winter cherry, Cape gooseberry, Chinese lanterns;INCI Name:Physalis alkekengi fruit extract;Property:Protein synthesis, Antioxidant, Skin regeneration.
Willow bark extract:Common Name:White willow, Willow;INCI Name:Salix alba (Willow) bark extract;Property:Anti-inflammation, Peeling, Whitening, Astringent, Pore tightening.
Wheat extract:Common Name:Wheat, Bread wheat;INCI Name:Triticum vulgare (Whete) seed extract;Property:Anti-atopy.
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