Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: 1,3,7-Trimethoxyxanthone | | 1-Heptadecene | 1-hexanol | 1-hexadecene | 1-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone | 1-Monomyristin | 1-Pentadecene | 1-Perillaldehyde | 1-octen-3-ol | 1-Tridecene | 2-Dodecanone | 2-Methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate | 2-Methylbutyl heptanoate | 2-Methylbutyl hexanoate | 2-Methylbutyl isobutyrate | 2-Methylbutyl isovalerate | 2-Methylbutyl propionate | 2-Methylpropyl isobutyrate | 2-Pentadecanone | 2-Nonacosanone | 2-Tridecanone | 2-Undecanone | 2,3',4,6-Tetrahydroxybenzophenone | 3-Methylbutan-1-ol | 3-methylbutan-2-one | 3-n-Butylphthalide | 3-N-Butyl-4,5-dihydrophthalide | 3'-Methoxycoumestrol | 3-Methylbutanoic acid | 3-Methylbutyl isobutyrate | 3-Methyl-3-ethylhexane | 3-Methylquercetin | 3-Hexen-1-ol | 3-Xylene | 4-Xylene | 4-Aminobenzoic Acid | 5-Methoxypsoralen | 6-Methylindole | 27-deoxyactein | a- (prefix) | ab- (prefix) | abaxial | abscission | acaulescent | accessory bud(s) | accessory cell | accessory fruits | accrescent | accumbent | acetate | Acetic acid | Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester | acetogenins | Acetone | Acetophenone | Acetylation | acetyl choline | acetylenes | Acetylsalicylic Acid | achene | achlamydeous | acicular | Acidic | acrodromous | acropetal | acropetal | acroscopic | acrotonic | Actein | acteoside | actinocytic | actinodromous | actinomorphic | actinostele | aculeate | acumen | acute | acyclic | acylation | ad- (prefix): | adaxial | addorsed (prophyll) | Adenine | Adenosine | Adenosine phosphate | adherent | Adjunct therapy | admedial | adnate | Adoxa | Adrenal glands | aduncate | advanced | adventitious | adventitious (poly)embryony | adventive | aerenchyma | Aescin | aestivation | after-ripening | agamospermy | aggregate fruit | aglycone | AI | AIDS | Ajoene | ala, alate | Alanine | alar, loosely | albumen | albuminous cell | aleurone | aliform | Alkaline | alkanes | Alkaloid | alkaloids | alkannin | Allantoin | Allele | allelocytic | Allergen | Allicin | alliin | allitol | Allium | alloocimene | allogamy | allopatric | allopolyploid | Allyl alcohol | Alpha-Amyrin | alpha-caryophyllene | alpha-Cedrene | alpha-copaene | alpha-curcumene | alpha-humulene | alpha-Humulon | alpha-Linoleic acid | alpha-Phellandrene | alpha-Pinene | alpha-Santalol | alpha-spinasterol | alpha-Terpinene | alpha-Terpineol | alpha-terpinyl acetate | alpha-Thujene | alpha-Tocopherol | alternate of leaves | alternate of floral parts | alternate | alternation of generations | Aluminum | alveolate | Alzheimer's disease | Amarogentin | amb | ament | Amides | amine | Amino acids | amoeboid | amorphic | amphi- (prefix) | amphianisocytic | amphibious | amphicarpy | amphicribral | amphimixis | amphiphloic | amphistomal | amphistomatic | amphitropous | amphivasal | amplexicaul | Amyloid plaque | amyloplast | amylose | Amylase | Amyrin | Amyrin acetate | ana- | Anaerobic | Analog | Anaphylaxis | anastomosis | anasulcate | anatomy | anatropous | anauxotelic | ancestral | ancipital, ancipitous | androdioecious | androecium | androgynophore | androgynous | andromedotoxins | andromonoecious | androphore | Anemia | anemo- (prefix) | anemochory | anemophilous | Anencephaly | aneuploid | Angelicin | Angina pectoris | Angiogenesis | Angiography (coronary) | angiosperm | angustiseptate | Anion | Anisic Acid | aniso- (prefix) | anisocytic | anisophyllous | annual | annular | annulus | anomalous | anomocytic | Antagonist | ante- (prefix) | anterior | anther | antheridium | antherode | antherozoid | anthesis | anthocarp | anthochlors | anthocyanidins | Anthocyanidin Polymers | anthocyanins | anthophore | anthotelic | anthoxanthins | anthraquinones | anti- (prefix) | Antibodies | anticlinal | Anticoagulant | Anticonvulsant | anticous | Antigen | Antihistamine | antipodals | Antioxidant | antiraphe | Antiresorptive agents | antirrhinoid | antitropous | antrorse | apert | aperture | apetalous | apical | apical cell | apical | apical meristem | apiculum | Apigenin | Apiin | Apiole | apocarpous | apogamy | apogeotropic | apomixis | apomorphy | apopetalous | apoptosis | aporphine alkaloids | apospory | apostapetalum | apotracheal | apotropous | appendage | appendicular | appendicular epigyny | apposition | appressed | aquatic | Arabinose | Arachic acid | arachnoid | arborescent | arbuscular mycorrhiza | arbutin | arbuscular | archegonial chamber | archegonium | archesporium | Arctigenin | Arctiin | arcuate | areole | Arginine | aril | arillode | arista | aristolochic acid | Arrhythmia | article | articulated | Arum-type arbuscular mycorrhiza | arylphenalenones | ascending | ascending | ascidiate | Ascorbic Acid | asexual (of reproduction) | asiatic acid | Asiaticoside | Asparagine | Asparamide | Aspartic acid | asperulate | asphodelin | Aspirin | Asthma | Astragalin | astrosclereid | asymmetric | atactostele | Ataxia | atectate | Atherosclerosis | ATP | Atria | Atrial fibrillation | Atrophic gastritis | Atrophy | Atropine | atropous | attenuate | aucubin | aulacospermous | aureol | auricle | aurones | autapomorphic | auto- (prefix) | autochory | autoecious | autogamy | Autoimmune disease | autopolyploid | Autosomal | autotroph | autumn wood | auxoblast | auxotelic | awn | axial | axial parenchyma | axil | axile | axis | Azelaic Acid | azetidine-2-carboxylic acid |
1,3,7-Trimethoxyxanthone[3722-54-1]:Synonyms:1,3,7-Trimethoxyxanthone,3722-54-1,5-18-04-00498 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),9H-Xanthen-9-one, 1,3,7-trimethoxy-,BRN 0291562,CCRIS 4035, Xanthen-9-one, 1,3,7-trimethoxy-
Chemical Name:1,3,7-Trimethoxyxanthone Formula: C16 H14O5 CAS RN:3722-54-1 Molecular Weight:286.279 g/mol
1-Heptadecene [6765-39-5]:Synonyms:AI3-36483;EINECS 229-825-6;NSC 77132
Formula: C17 H34. Molecular Weight:238.4556 CAS RN:6765-39-5 Melting Point:11. Boiling Point:11
1-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone[13379-35-6]:Synonyms:1-Hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthone,13379-35-6,5-18-04-00497 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),9H-Xanthen-9-one, 1-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-,9H-Xanthene-9-one, 3,7-dimethoxy-1-hydroxy-,BRN 0263672,CCRIS 2244,Xanthen-9-one, 3,7-dimethoxy-1-hydroxy-
Chemical Name:Xanthen-9-one, 3,7-dimethoxy-1-hydroxy- Formula: C15 H12O5 CAS RN:13379-35-6 Molecular Weight:272.253 g/mol
1-Monomyristin:[142-18-7]:Synonyms: (+-)-2,3-Dihydroxypropyl dodecanoate;(+-)-Glyceryl 1-monododecanoate;1-Glyceryl laurate;1-Monododecanoylglycerol;1-Monolaurin;1-Monolauroyl-rac-glycerol;3-Dodecanoyloxy-1,2-propanediol;Dodecanoic acid alpha-monoglyceride;Dodecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester;EINECS 205-526-6;Glucerol alpha-monolaurate;Glycerin 1-monolaurate;Glycerol 1-laurate;Glycerol 1-monolaurate;Glyceryl laurate;Glyceryl monododecanoate;Glyceryl monolaurate;Lauric acid 1-monoglyceride;Lauric acid alpha-monoglyceride;Lauricidin;alpha-Monolaurin
CAS Type 1 Name:2,3-Dihydroxypropyl laurate;Dodecanoic acid, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester;Laurin, 1-mono- ;Glyceryl monolaurate
Formula:C15 H30 O4. CAS RN:142-18-7
1-Pentadecene [13360-61-7]:Synonyms:CCRIS 5721;EINECS 236-414-5;NSC 77125;PENTADECENE,1-
Formula: C15 H30. Molecular Weight:238.4556 CAS RN:13360-61-7 Melting Point:-2.80E+00 deg C Boiling Point:268.2 deg C
1-Perillaldehyde [18031-40-8]: (-)-Perillaldehyde;CCRIS 7325;l-Perillaldehyde
CAS Type 1 Name: 1-Cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (S)-(-)- (9CI);1-Cyclohexene-1-carboxaldehyde, 4-isopropenyl-, (S)-(-)-;1-Perillaldehyde
Chemical Name:1-Perillaldehyde Formula: C10 H14O. CAS RN:18031-40-8
1-octen-3-ol [3391-86-4]:1-octen-3-ol; 3-Octenol; Flowtron mosquito attractant; Matsuka alcohol; Morillol; Mushroom alcohol; Octen-3-ol; Pentyl vintyl carbinol; Pentyl vinyl carbinol; Vinyl hexanol; Vinyl pentyl carbinol;;1-Octen-3-ol;1-Octen-3-ol (natural);1-Okten-3-ol [Czech];1-Vinylhexanol;3-Hydroxy-1-octene;3-Octenol;AI3-28627;Amyl vinyl carbinol;Amylvinylcarbinol;BRN 1744110;EINECS 222-226-0;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 069037;FEMA No. 2805;Matsuica alcohol;NSC 87563;Pentyl vinyl carbinol;Pentylvinylcarbinol;Vinyl amyl carbinol
Chemical Name:1-octen-3-ol, (+-)-isomer;1-octen-3-ol, (R)-isomer
CAS Type 1 Name:Oct-1-ene-3-ol
Formula: C8 H16O CAS RN:3391-86-4 Other RN:50999-79-6 Molecular Weight:128.2138
ACX Number:X1002095-8. Density:0.833 Flashing Point:68 Boling Point:174
1-Tridecene [2437-56-1]:Synonyms:n-tridec-1-ene;tridecene;4-01-00-00921 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 1744660;CCRIS 5719;EINECS 219-443-8;HSDB 1088;N-Tridec-1-ene;NSC 78473;Tridecylene;Undecylethylene;alpha-Tridecene
Formula: C13 H26. Molecular Weight:182.3484 CAS RN:2437-56-1 Melting Point:-23 deg C Boiling Point:233 deg C Flashing Point:79 deg C
2-Butanone[78-93-3]:See Butanone [78-93-3].Solvent; colorless synthetic resins, smokeless powders; may be irritating to eyes, mucous membranes; may be toxic in high concentrations.
2-Dodecanone [6175-49-1]:Synonyms:AI3-28136;EINECS 228-222-5;Methyl decyl ketone
Formula: C13 H26. Molecular Weight:184.318 g/mol CAS RN:6175-49-1 Melting Point:21 deg C Boiling Point:246.5 deg C Water Solubility:14 mg/L at 25 deg C
2-Methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate [2445-78-5]:Synonyms:2-Methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutyl ester;2-Methylbutyl 2-methylbutanoate;2-Methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate;2445-78-5;Butanoic acid;2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester;Butyric acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester;dl-2-Methylbutyric acid 2-methylbutyl ester;EINECS 219-497-2;FEMA No. 3359;NISTC2445785
Systematic Name:Butanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester Formula: C10H20O2. M.W.:172.265 g/mol CAS RN:2445-78-5
2-Methylbutyl heptanoate :Synonyms:(S)-2-Methylbutyl heptanoate;160085;2-Methylbutyl heptanoate;55195-33-0;EINECS 259-526-6;Heptanoic acid,2-methylbutyl ester
Systematic Name:2-methylbutyl heptanoate Formula: C12H24O2. M.W.:200.318 g/mol CAS RN:160085
2-Methylbutyl hexanoate[2601-13-0]:Synonyms:2-Methylbutyl caproate,2-Methylbutyl hexanoate,2601-13-0,AI3-33716,EINECS 220-005-3,Hexanoic acid,2-methylbutyl ester,NISTC2601130
Systematic Name:2-Methylbutyl hexanoate;Hexanoic acid, 2-methylbutyl ester Formula: C11H22O2. M.W.:186.291 g/mol CAS RN:2601-13-0
2-Methylbutyl isobutyrate[2445-69-4]:Synonyms:2-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropanoate,2-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropionate,2-Methylbutyl isobutyrate,2445-69-4,AI3-06019,EINECS 219-493-0,Isobutyric acid, 2-methylbutyl ester,NISTC2445694,NSC53946,Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester
Systematic Name:2-Methylbutyl isobutyrate;Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester Formula: C9H18O2. M.W.:158.238 g/mol CAS RN:2445-69-4
2-Methylbutyl isovalerate [2445-77-4]:Synonyms:2-Methylbutyl 3-methylbutanoate;2-Methylbutyl isopentanoate;2-Methylbutyl isovalerate;2-Methylbutyl isovalerianate;2445-77-4;3-Methylbutanoic acid, 2-methylbutyl ester;AI3-33764; Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester;EINECS 219-496-7;FEMA No. 3506;Isovaleric acid;2-methylbutyl ester;NISTC2445774;
Systematic Name:2-Methylbutyl isovalerate;Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester Formula: C10H20O2. M.W.:172.265 g/mol CAS RN:2445-77-4
2-Methylbutyl propionate[2438-20-2]:Synonyms:1-Butanol, 2-methyl-, propanoate;1-Butanol, 2-methyl-, propionate;2-Methylbutyl propionate;2438-20-2;EINECS 219-449-0;NISTC2438202
Systematic Name:1-Butanol, 2-methyl-, propanoate;2-Methylbutyl propionate Formula: C8H16O2. M.W.:144.211 g/mol CAS RN:2438-20-2
2-Methylpropyl isobutyrate[97-85-8]:Synonyms:2-Methyl-1-propyl 2-methylpropanoate;2-Methylpropyl 2-methylpropanoate;2-Methylpropyl 2-methylpropionate;2-Methylpropyl isobutyrate;4-02-00-00847 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),97-85-8,AI3-06122,BRN 1701355,EINECS 202-612-5,FEMA No. 2189,FEMA Number 2189,HSDB 5311,Isobutyl 2-methylpropanoate,Isobutyl ester of 2-methylpropanoic acid,Isobutyl isobutanoate,Isobutyl isobutyrate, Isobutyl isobutyrate (natural), Isobutyl isobutyrate [UN2528] [Flammable liquid], Isobutylester kyseliny isomaselne, Isobutylester kyseliny isomaselne [Czech];Isobutyric acid, isobutyl ester;NISTC97858;NSC 6538;NSC6538;Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylpropyl ester;UN 2528;UN2528
Systematic Name:2-methylpropyl 2-methylpropanoate Formula: C8H16O2. M.W.:144.211 g/mol CAS RN:97-85-8
2-Pentadecanone[2345-28-0]:Synonyms:2-Pentadecanone;2345-28-0;AI3-11706;EINECS 219-064-8;FEMA No. 3724;Methyl tridecyl ketone;NISTC2345280;Pentadecan-2-one;2-Pentadecanone ;AI3-11706;EINECS 219-064-8;FEMA No. 3724;Methyl tridecyl ketone
Systematic Name:2-Pentadecanone;Pentadecan-2-one Formula: C15H30O. M.W.:226.398 g/mol CAS RN:2345-28-0 Melting Point:39.5 deg C Boiling Point:294 deg C
2-Nonacosanone [17600-99-6]:Formula: C29 H58O Molecular Weight:422.77 g/mol
2-Tridecanone[593-08-8]:Synonyms:2-Tridecankje;2-Tridecanone;2-Tridecanone (natural);593-08-8;AI3-04238;EINECS 209-784-0;FEMA No. 3388;Hendecyl methyl ketone;Mathyl undecyl kepoje;Methyl n-undecyl ketone;Methyl undecyl ketone;NISTC593088;NSC 14763;NSC14763;Tridecan-2-one
Systematic Name:2-Tridecanone Formula: C13H26O. M.W.:198.345 g/mol CAS RN:593-08-8 Melting Point:30.5 deg C Boiling Point:263 deg C Water Solubility:4.530 mg/L at 25 deg C
2-Undecanone[112-12-9]:Synonyms:112-12-9, 2-Hendecanone, 2-Oxoundecane, 2-Undecanone, 2-Undecanone (natural), 4-01-00-03374 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), AI3-03081, AIDS-014153, AIDS014153, BRN 1749573, C01875, Caswell No. 573O, EINECS 203-937-5, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044102, FEMA No. 3093, Ketone, methyl nonyl, Methyl n-nonyl ketone, Methyl nonyl ketone, Mgk dog & cat repellent, Mgk dog and cat repellent, Mnk, NISTC112129, Nonyl methyl ketone, NSC 4028, NSC4028, Rue ketone, Undecan-2-one, UNDECANONE, Undecanone-(2)
Systematic Name:2-Undecanone Formula: C11H12O. M.W.:198.345 g/mol CAS RN:112-12-9 Melting Point:15 deg C Boiling Point:231.5 deg C Water Solubility:19.7 mg/L at 25 deg C
2,3',4,6-Tetrahydroxybenzophenone [3722-54-1]:Synonyms:1,3,7-Trimethoxyxanthone,3722-54-1,5-18-04-00498 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),9H-Xanthen-9-one, 1,3,7-trimethoxy-,BRN 0291562,CCRIS 4035, Xanthen-9-one, 1,3,7-trimethoxy-
Chemical Name:(3-hydroxyphenyl)-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)-methanone Formula: C13 H10O5 Molecular Weight:246.215 g/mol
3-Methylbutan-1-ol [123-51-3]:Synonyms:1-butanol, 3-methyl;1-Butanol, 3-methyl-;1-Hydroxy-3-Methylbutane;10008667;123-51-3;2-Methyl-4-butanol;27099.8;3-Methyl-1-butanol;3-METHYL-BUTAN-(1)-OL;3-Methylbutan-1-ol;3-Methylbutanol;3-Metil-butanolo;3-Metil-butanolo [Italian];3596.6;3928.7;6423-06-9;AI3-15288;Alcool amilico;Alcool amilico [Italian];Alcool isoamylique;Alcool isoamylique [French];Amylowy alkohol;Amylowy alkohol [Polish];Butanol, 3-methyl-;C07328;COI;EINECS 204-633-5;FEMA No. 2057;FEMA Number 2057;Fermentation amyl alcohol;Fusel Oil;Fuseloel;HSDB 605;Huile de fusel;i-Amyl Alcohol; IP3;Iso-amyl alcohol;iso-amylalkohol;Iso-amylalkohol [German];Isoamyl alcohol;Isoamyl alcohol (natural);Isoamyl alcohol (primary and secondary);Isoamyl alcohol, primary;Isoamyl alkohol;Isoamyl alkohol [Czech];ISOMYLALCOHOL;Isoamylol; Isobutyl carbinol;Isobutylcarbinol;Isopentanol;Isopentyl alcohol;Isopentyl alcohol (8CI);Methyl-3-butan-1-ol;NISTC123513;NSC 1029;NSC1029;NSC7905;Primary isoamyl alcohol;UN 1105
Systematic Name:Isoamyl alcohol;Isopentyl alcohol Formula: C5H12O. M.W.:172.265 g/mol CAS RN:6423-06-9 ;123-51-3 Related RN:6423-06-9 (magnesium salt) Melting Point: -1.17E+02 deg C Boiling Point:131.1 deg C
3-methylbutan-2-one [563-80-4]:Synonyms:10008779;2-Acetyl propane;2-Acetylpropane;2-butanone, 3-methyl;2-Butanone, 3-methyl-;2-BUTANONE,3-METHYL METHYL ISOPROPYL KETONE;2-Methyl-3-butanone;3-Methyl-2-butanone;3-Methylbutan-2-one;3-Methylbutan-2-one [UN2397] [Flammable liquid];3-Methylbutanone;52325-52-7;563-80-4;AI3-24194;Caswell No. 555A;EINECS 209-264-3;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044104;iso-C3H7COCH3;Isopropyl methyl ketone;Ketone;isopropyl methyl;Methyl butanone-2;Methyl isopropyl ketone;Methylbutanone;Methylbutanone (VAN);Mipk;NISTC563804;NSC 9379;NSC9379;UN 2397;UN2397
Systematic Name:2-Acetylpropane;3-Methylbutanone Formula: C5H10O. M.W.:86.1323 g/mol CAS RN:563-80-4
3-n-Butylphthalide [6066-49-5]:Synonyms:1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone, 3-butyl-;3-Butyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone;3-BUTYLPHTHALIDE;3-n-Butylphthalide;6066-49-5;93133-67-6;Butylphthalide;CCRIS 7107;EINECS 228-000-8;FEMA No. 3334;Phthalide, 3-butyl-;
Chemical Name:1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone, 3-butyl- 3-Butyl-1(3H)-isobenzofuranone CAS RN:6066-49-5 93133-67-6 Formula: C12 H14O2 Molecular Weight:190.238 g/mol
3-N-Butyl-4,5-dihydrophthalide [62006-39-7]:Synonyms:1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone, 3-butyl-4,5-dihydro-, (-)-;3-N-Butyl-4,5-dihydrophthalide;62006-39-7;Sedanenolide;Senkyunolide;Senkyunolide A
Chemical Name:1(3H)-Isobenzofuranone, 3-butyl-4,5-dihydro-, (-)- CAS RN:62006-39-7 Formula: C12 H16O2 Molecular Weight:192.254 g/mol
3'-Methoxycoumestrol [13360-66-2]:Synonyms:3'-Methoxycoumestrol; 13360-66-2;3'-Methoxycoumestrol;3,9-Dihydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benzofuro(3,2-c)(1)benzopyran-6-one;3-Benzofurancarboxylic acid, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-5-methoxy-, delta-lactone;6H-Benzofuro(3,2-c)(1)benzopyran-6-one, 3,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-;3,9-Dihydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benzofuro(3,2-c)(1)benzopyran-6-one;3-Benzofurancarboxylic acid, 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-6-hydroxy-5-methoxy-, delta-lactone
Systematic Name:6H-Benzofuro(3,2-c)(1)benzopyran-6-one, 3,9-dihydroxy-8-methoxy- Formula: C16H10O6. CAS RN:13360-66-2
3-Methylbutanoic acid [503-74-2]:See Isovaleric acid.
3-Methylbutyl isobutyrate [2050-01-3]:Synonyms:3-Methyl-1-butyl isobutyrate;3-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropanoate;3-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropanoate (natural);3-Methylbutyl isobutyrate;AI3-33583;EINECS 218-078-1;FEMA No. 3507;Isoamyl 2-methylpropanoate;Isobutyric acid, isopentyl ester;Isopentyl 2-methylpropanoate;Isopentyl alcohol, isobutyrate;Isopentyl isobutyrate;Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3-methylbutyl ester;2050-01-3, 3-Methyl-1-butyl isobutyrate, 3-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropanoate, 3-Methylbutyl 2-methylpropanoate (natural), 3-Methylbutyl isobutyrate, AI3-33583, EINECS 218-078-1, FEMA No. 3507, Isoamyl 2-methylpropanoate, Isoamyl isobutyrate, Isobutyric acid, isopentyl ester, Isopentyl 2-methylpropanoate, Isopentyl alcohol, isobutyrate, Isopentyl isobutyrate, Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3-methylbutyl ester
Systematic Name:3-Methylbutyl isobutyrate; Propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 3-methylbutyl ester Formula: C9H18O2. M.W.:158.238 g/mol CAS RN:2050-01-3 Boiling Point:168.5 deg C
Formula: C9 H20. CAS RN:3074-76-8 Molecular Weight:128.255 g/mol Boiling Point:140.6 deg C
3-Methylquercetin [480-19-3]:See Isorhamnetin.A metabolite of quercetin. One of many flavonoids found in red wine. It inhibits xanthine oxidase, which is implicated in oxidative damage to cells. Has anti-tumor promoting activity.
3-Hexen-1-ol[928-96-1]:Synonyms:3-Hexen-1-ol; 3-Hexenol-cis; Blatteralkohol; Beta,gamma-hexenol; cis-3-Hexen-1-ol; cis-3-Hexenol; Leaf alcohol; (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol;
Formula: C6 H12O. CAS RN:928-96-1 Other RN:95123-47-0 Molecular Weight:100.1602 Boiling Point:156.5 deg C Flashing Point:44 deg C
log P:1.610 Atmospheric OH Rate Constant:1.10E-10 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
3-Xylene[108-38-3]:Synonyms:1,3-dimethylbenzene; 1,3-Xylene; m-dimethylbenzene; meta-xylene; m-Xylenes; m-xylol; 1,3-Dimethylbenzene;1,3-Xylene;AI3-08916;Benzene, 1,3-dimethyl-;CCRIS 907;EINECS 203-576-3;HSDB 135;NSC 61769;m-Dimethylbenzene;m-Methyltoluene;m-Xylene;m-Xylol
Formula: C8 H10. CAS RN:108-38-3 Molecular Weight:106.167 Melting Point:-47.87 Boiling Point:139.1 deg C Flashing Point:25 deg C
4-Xylene[106-42-3]:Synonyms:1,4-Dimethylbenzene;1,4-Xylene;4-Xylene;AI3-52255;Benzene, 1,4-dimethyl-;CCRIS 910;Chromar;EINECS 203-396-5;HSDB 136;NSC 72419;Scintillar;p-Dimethylbenzene;p-Methyltoluene;p-Xylene;p-Xylol
Formula: C8 H10. CAS RN:106-42-3 Molecular Weight:106.167 Melting Point:13.2 deg C Boiling Point:138.3 deg C Flashing Point:27 deg C
4-Aminobenzoic Acid:(PABA)[150-13-0]:See p-Aminobenzoic acid.
5-Methoxypsoralen [484-20-8]:Synonyms:bergapten;Dermatech brand of 5-methoxypsoralen;Pentaderm;10025008;1500664;4-Methoxy-7H-furo(3,2-g)(1)benzopyran-7-one;4-Methoxy-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one;484-20-8;5-19-06-00004 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);5-Methoxy psoralen;5-Methoxy-6,7-furanocoumarin;5-Methoxyfuranocoumarin;5-Methoxypsoralen;5-Methoxypsoralen with ultraviolet A therapy;5-MOP;6-Hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-benzofuranacrylic acid, gamma-lactone;7H-Furo(3,2-g)(1)benzopyran-7-one, 4-methoxy-;7H-furo[3,2-g]benzopyran-7-one, 4-methoxy;7H-Furo[3,2-g]benzopyran-7-one, 4-methoxy-;95437;AIDS-031096;AIDS031096;Bergaptan;Bergapten;Bergapten(e);Bergaptene;BRN 0019560;C01557;C03364;CCRIS 4348;CHEMBANK1147;EINECS 207-604-5;Heraclin;HSDB 3466;Majudin;NISTC484208;NSC 95437;NSC95437;O-Methylbergaptol;Psoraderm;ZINC00057731;O-Methylbergaptol; 4-methoxy-7H-furo(3,2-g)(1)benzopyran-7-one; 4-methoxyfuro(3,2-g)chromen-7-one; 5-methoxy-6,7-furanocoumarin; 5-Methoxypsoralen; 5-MOP; 6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-benzofuranacrylic acid, gamma-lactone; bergapten; heraclin; majudin; psoraderm;
Chemical Name:4-methoxy-7H-furo(3,2-g)(1)benzopyran-7-one CAS RN:484-20-8 Formula: C12 H8O4 Molecular Weight:216.19 g/mol Melting Point:188
6-Methylindole [3420-02-8]:Synonyms:1H-Indole, 6-methyl-;6-Methylindole;10018781;1H-indole, 6-methyl;1H-Indole, 6-methyl-;3420-02-8;6-Methyl-1H-indole;6-Methylindole;Indole, 6-methyl-;NISTC3420028
Formula: C9 H9N. CAS RN:3420-02-8 Molecular Weight:131.1768 Boiling Point:112 deg C at 5 mm Hg
ab- (prefix):away from.
abaxial:of the side or surface of an organ like a petal or organ system such as a branch, facing away from the axis that bears the organ or organ system, cf. adaxial,lateral,median.
abscission:the normal shedding from a plant of an organ that is mature or aged, e.g. a ripe fruit, an old leaf, see also cladoptosis.
Acacetin [480-44-4]:Synonyms:200842;4'-Methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone;4'-Methoxyapigenin;4'-Methylapigenin;4'-O-Methylapigenin;480-44-4;4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5, 7-dihydroxy-2- (4-methoxyphenyl)-;4H-1-BENZOPYRAN-4-ONE, 5,7-DIHYDROXY-2-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)-;5, 7-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone;5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone;5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one;5,7-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone;5,7-Dioxy-4'-methoxyflavone;5-18-04-00575 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);76061;A8206;Acacetin;Acacetine;ACAETIN;AIDS-014771;AIDS014771;Akatsetin;Apigenin 4'-dimethyl ether;Apigenin 4'-methyl ether;Apisenin 4'-methyl ether;BRN 0277879,Buddleoflavonol,C01470;CHEMBANK1463;EINECS 207-552-3;Flavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-,Flavone,5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy- (8CI),Linarigenin,Linarisenin,NSC 76061,NSC76061,ZINC00005600
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)- CAS Type 1 Name: 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone
Formula: C16 H12O5 Molecular Weight:284.27 CAS RN:480-44-4 Melting Point:263 deg C
acaulescent:of habit, without any above-ground stem execept for an inflorescence axis, where present, leaves and inflorescence arising together at ground level, cf. arborescent, dendroid, frutescent, fruticose, herb, liane,rheophyte, suffrutescent, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, tree, vine, see also life forms.
accessory bud(s):one or more buds other than the normal single bud occuring in the leaf axil, cf. adventitious, supernumerary, see collateral, superposed.
accessory cell:= subsidiary cell.
accessory fruits:fruits, whether derived from a single flower or several, with tissue that is other than carpellary in origin, see anthocarp, cf. aggregate fruits, multiple fruits, simple fruits.
accrescent:continuing to increase in size after maturity, as the calyx of some plants after flowering, cf. caducous, deciduous, deliquescent, fugacious, marcescent, persistent.
accumbent:of an embryo that is folded so that the radicle lies against the edges of the two cotyledons, cf. conduplicate, diplecolobous, incumbent.
acetate:a salt, ester or the conjugate base of acetic acid.Acetate, C2 H3 O2.
Acetic acid[64-19-7]:Synonyms: 4-02-00-00094 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-02394;Acetasol;Acetic acid;Acetic acid (natural);Acetic acid, glacial;Acide acetique [French];Acido acetico [Italian];Azijnzuur [Dutch];BRN 0506007;CCRIS 5952;Caswell No. 003;EINECS 200-580-7;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044001;Essigsaeure [German];Ethanoic acid;Ethylic acid;FEMA No. 2006;FEMA Number 2006;Glacial acetic acid;HSDB 40;Kyselina octova [Czech];Methanecarboxylic acid;NSC 132953;Octowy kwas [Polish];Pyroligneous acid;Vinegar acid
Chemical Name:Acetic acid; Acetic acid, of a concentration of more than 10 per cent,by weight, of acetic acid
Formula: C2 H4O2 Molecular Weight:60.0524 CAS RN:64-19-7 Other RN:77671-22-8
Melting Point:16.6 deg C Boiling Point:117.9 deg C Flashing Point:40 deg C Density:1.0492 Vapor Density:2.1 Vapor Pressure:11 Evaporation Rate:0.97 pKa Dissociation Constant :4.76 (none) at 25 deg C log P (octanol-water):-0.17 Water Solubility:1.00E+06 mg/L at 25 deg C; Vapor Pressure:15.7 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant:1.00E-07 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant:7.40E-13 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
Note:Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Acetic acid, cinnamyl ester[103-54-8]:See cinnamyl acetate.
acetogenins:polyketides derived from acetate with 35-37 carbon atoms in a single almost unbranched chain, substituted by 6-8 oxygen atoms.
Acetogenin-G, C19 H22 O3.
Mucoxin, C37 H66 O7.
Acetone[67-64-1]:Synonyms:(CH3)2CO;.beta.-Ketopropane;10007820;11402.6;15134.3;16261.8;16262.8;16263.201;16849.299;16850.236;2-propanon;2-propanone;20185.6;2239.5;2240.4;2241.6;26916.6;28239.6;2918.2;33142.23;528;6597.4;67-64-1;7872.2;Aceton (GERMAN, DUTCH, POLISH);Aceton [German, Dutch, Polish];ACETONE;Acetone (natural);Acetone Molecule;Acetone oil;Acetone [UN1090] [Flammable liquid];ACN;AI3-01238;beta-Ketopropane;C00207;Caswell No. 004;CCRIS 5953;CH2COCH3;Chevron acetone;Dimethyl ketone;Dimethylformaldehyde;Dimethylketal;dimethylketone;EINECS 200-662-2;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 004101;FEMA No. 3326;HSDB 41;IPA;Ketone propane;Ketone, dimethyl;Ketone, dimethyl-;Methyl ketone;NISTC3122074;NISTC67641;NSC 135802;NSC135802;propan-2-one;propanone;Pyroacetic acid,Pyroacetic ether;RCRA waste no. U002;Rcra waste number U002;Sasetone;UN 1090;UN 1091;UN1090
Chemical Name:2-Propanone;Acetone Formula: C3 H6O Molecular Weight:58.0791 g/mol CAS RN:67-64-1 Other RN:77671-22-8 Melting Point:-9.48E+01 deg C Boiling Point:56 deg C
Note:A Flammable, colorless, volatile liquid with a pleasant ethereal odor. It is a commonly used solvent and in pharmacy is so used; in concentrations above 80%, it is used as an antiseptic. It is one of the KETONE BODIES produced in ketoacidosis as in diabetic acidosis and starvation acidosis. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Acetophenone [98-86-2]:Synonyms:1-Phenylethanone; alpha-Acetophenone; Acetonephenone; Acetophenone; Acetophenone? Acetylbenzene; Acetylbenzol; Benzoyl methide; Hypnone; Methyl Phenyl Ketone; Phenyl methyl ketone;
Formula: C8 H8 O. Molecular Weight: 120.1506 CAS RN:98-86-2 Melting Point:19.6 Water Solubility:0.55 g/100 mL
ACX Number:X1001254-3. Density 1.0266 Vapor Density:4.1 Flashing Point:77 Boiling Point:201.7 Refractive Index:1.5308
Acetylation:the addition of an acetyl group (-COCH3) group to a molecule.
acetyl choline [51-84-3]:2-(Acetyloxy)-N,N,N-trimethylethanaminium;4-04-00-01446 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);ACh;Acetyl choline cation;Acetyl choline ion;Acetylcholine;Acetylcholinum;BRN 1764436;Choline acetate;EINECS 200-128-9
Formula: C7H16NO2++. Molecular Weight:146.2089 CAS RN:51-84-3 Related RN:2260-50-6 (iodide);60-31-1 (chloride);66-23-9 (bromide);927-86-6 (perchlorate)
Note:A Neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications.
acetylenes:the simplest of a class of triple-bonded hydrocarbons.
Acetylsalicylic Acid[50-78-2]:Synonyms:2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid; 2-acetoxybenzoic acid; Alka-seltzer; Anacin; A.S.A.; a.s.a. empirin; asagran; asatard; Ascoden-30; Ascriptin; aspalon; aspergum; aspirdrops; Aspirin; Aspro; asteric; Bayer; benaspir; bialpirinia; Bufferin; caprin; Chlorpheninaurine; Claradin; colfarit; contrheuma retard; Coricidin; Coricidin D; crystar; Darvon compound; delgesic; dolean ph 8; duramax; ECM; Ecotrin; empirin; endydol; entericin; enterophen; enterosarine; entrophen; Excedrin; extren; Gelprin; globoid; helicon; idragin; Measurin; neuronika; Norgesic; Novid; Nu-seals; Persistin; polopiryna; rhodine; Robaxisal; salacetin; salcetogen; saletin; salicylic acid acetate; Solprin; solpyron; Supac; Triaminicin; Vanquish; XAXA; 2-(Acetyloxy)-Benzoic Acid; O-acetylsalicylic acid; o-Carboxyphenyl Acetate; ac 5230; acenterine; acesal; Aceticyl; acetilsalicilico; acetilum acidulatum; acetisal; acetonyl; acetophen; acetosal; acetosalic acid; acetosalin; Acetoxybenzoic acid; acetylin; acetylsal; Acetylsalicylate; Acetylsalicylic acid; acidum acetylsalicylicum; acimetten; acisal; acylpyrin;
Chemical Name:Aspirin;Benzoic acid, 2-(acetyloxy)-;O-Acetylsalicylic acid;Salicylic acid, acetate CAS Type 1 Name:Benzoic acid, 2-(acetyloxy)-
Formula: C9 H8O4 Molecular Weight:286.281 CAS RN:50-78-2 Other RN:11126-35-5 11126-37-7 2349-94-2 26914-13-6 98201-60-6
Melting Point:135 deg C Boiling Point:140 Density:1.35 pKa Dissociation Constant :3.49 (none) at 25 deg C log P (octanol-water): 1.19 (none) Water Solubility: 4600 mg/L at 25 deg C; Soluble <0.1 g/100 mL at 23 deg C Vapor Pressure: 2.52E-05 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant: 1.30E-09 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant: 8.10E-13 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
Class:Analgesic;Anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal;Antipyretic;Antirheumatic;Cyclooxygenase inhibitors;Drug / Therapeutic Agent;Fibrinolytic agents;Human Data;Mutation data;Platelet aggregation inhibitors;Reproductive Effect
Note:The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
achene:specifically, a dry, indehiscent fruit formed from a superior ovary of one carpel and containing one seed which is free from the pericarp, more broadly, dry one-seeded fruits in general, whether formed from one or more carpels and superior or inferior ovaries, cf. caryopsis, cypsela., nut, utricle.
achlamydeous:of a flower, lacking a perianth parts, usually best to describe as such, cf. dichlamydeous, heterochlamydeous, monochlamydeous.
Acidic:having a pH of less than 7.
acrodromous:of palmate leaf venation, with two or more primary or strongly developed secondary veins running in convergent arches towards the apex, cf. actinodromous.
acropetal:produced or differentiated in succession towards the apex of an organ, e.g. of an inflorescence, with flowers arising or developing in a sequence beginning at the base and proceeding towards the apex, see also centripetal, cf. basipetal.
acrotonic:particularly pronounced development of the uppermost branch(es) of a stem or innovation, cf. basitonic.
Actein:Systematic Name:beta-D-Xylopyranoside, (3beta,12beta)-12-(acetyloxy)-16,23:23,26:24,25-triepoxy-26-hydroxy-9,19-cycloanostan-3-yl
Formula: C37 H56 O11. CAS RN:18642-44-9.
actinocytic:of stomata, with five or more somewhat radially enlarged or elongated subsidiary cells surrounding the guard cells., cf. allelocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic,laterocytic, paracytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
actinodromous:of palmate leaf venation, with three or more primary veins arising from at or near the base, ascending or diverging, whether or not reaching the margin, cf. acrodromous.
actinostele:a variant of a protostele in which the xylem forms a more or less star-shaped central mass, with phloem between the arms, cf. haplostele, plectostele.
aculeate:= prickly, cf. muricate.
acumen:of the apex of a structure, a long, narrowly tapering point with convex sides, hence acuminate, cf. acute, attenuate, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
acute:having a short and relatively severe course, of the apex or base of a structure, terminating in a distinct but not protracted point, the coverging sides concave and joining at an angle of less than 90o, acumen, attenuate, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
acylation:stabilization by the introduction of an acid radical from acids such as coumaric, ferulic, or caffeic acids into e.g. acylated anthocyanins.
Cyanidin 3-dimalonylglucoside, C27 H25 O17.
adaxial:of the side or surface of an organ like a petal or organ system such as a branch, facing towards the axis that bears the organ or organ system, cf. abaxial, lateral, median.
addorsed (prophyll):= adaxial (prophyll).
Adenine:[73-24-5]:Synonyms:1,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurine;1H-Purin-6-amine;1H-Purine, 6-amino;3,6-Dihydro-6-iminopurine;6-Amino-1H-purine;6-Amino-3H-purine;6-Amino-7H-purine;6-Amino-9H-purine;6-Aminopurine;9H-Purine, 1,6-dihydro-6-imino-;ADE;AI3-50679;Adenin;Adenine;Adeninimine;CCRIS 2556;EINECS 200-796-1;Leuco-4;NSC 14666;Purine, 6-amino-;USAF CB-18;Vitamin B4
CAS Type 1 Name:1H-Purin-6-amine;Adenine
Formula:C5H5N5. CAS RN:73-24-5 M.W.:135.128 Melting Point.:135.128
Description:A Major purine base. In animal and plant cells it usually occurs condensed with ribose or deoxyribose to form the nucleosides ADENOSINE and DEOXYADENOSINE. As such, it is a component of nucleic acids, of certain nucleotides, and of many coenzymes. It is found in the pancreas and spleen. (Dorland, 28th ed; Grant Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Adenosine:[58-61-7]:Synonyms:.alpha.-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine;.beta.-Adenosine;.beta.-D-Adenosine;.beta.-D-Arabinosyladenine;.beta.-D-Ribofuranose, 1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-;.beta.-D-Ribofuranoside, adenine-9;129803;2946-52-3;3080-29-3;3228-71-5;4005-33-8;524-69-6;5536-17-4;58-61-7;6-Amino-9-.beta.-D-arabinofuranosylpurine;6-Amino-9.beta.-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine;6-Amino-9beta-D-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine;9-.alpha.-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine;9-.alpha.-D-Xylofuranosyladenine;9-.beta.-Arabinoadenosine;9-.beta.-Arabinosyladenine;9-.beta.-D-Arabinofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine;9-.beta.-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine;9-.beta.-D-Xylofuranosyladenine;9-alpha-d-Arabinofuranosyladenine;9-alpha-D-Xylofuranosyladenine;9-Arabinosyladenine;9-beta-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine;9-beta-D-Ribofuranosidoadenine;9-beta-D-Ribofuranosyl-9H-purin-6-amine;9-beta-d-Ribofuranosyladenine;9-beta-D-Xylofuranosyladenine;9.beta.-D-Arabinofuranosyladenine;9.beta.-D-Ribofuranosyladenine;9H-Purin-6-amine, 9-.alpha.-D-arabinofuranosyl-;9H-Purin-6-amine, 9-.alpha.-D-xylofuranosyl-;9H-Purin-6-amine;9-.beta.-D-xylofuranosyl-;9H-Purin-6-amine, 9-alpha-D-xylofuranosyl-;9H-Purin-6-amine, 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-;9H-Purin-6-amine, 9-beta-D-xylofuranosyl- (9CI);9H-Purin-6-amine, 9.beta.-D-arabinofuranosyl-;9H-Purin-6-amine, 9.beta.-D-ribofuranosyl-;A9251;Adenine .beta.-d-arabinofuranoside;Adenine arabinoside;Adenine nucleoside;Adenine riboside;Adenine xyloside;Adenine;9-.alpha.-D-arabinofuranosyl-;Adenine, 9-.alpha.-D-xylofuranosyl-;Adenine;9-.beta.-D-arabinofuranosyl-;Adenine, 9-.beta.-D-xylofuranosyl-;Adenine, 9-alpha-D-xylofuranosyl-;Adenine, 9-beta-D-xylofuranosyl- (8CI);Adenine, 9.beta.-D-arabinofuranosyl-;Adenine-.beta.-D-arabinofuranoside;Adenine-9-.beta.-D-arabinofuranoside;adenine-D-ribose;
Adenocard;Adenocor;Adenoscan;Adenosin;ADENOSINE;ARA-A;ARA-A NSC 247519;Araadenosine;Arabinoside adenine;Arabinosyl adenine;Arabinosyladenine;beta-Adenosine;beta-d-Adenosine;beta-d-Ribofuranose;1-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-1-deoxy-;beta-d-Ribofuranoside, adenine-9;Boniton;
CHEMBANK418;CI 673;CI-673;Myocol;NISTC58617;NSC 404241;NSC 7359;NSC-404241;NSC247519;NSC404241;NSC627048;NSC70422;NSC7359;NSC7652;NSC80832;NSC87676;NSC91041;
Nucleocardyl;Sandesin;Spongoadenosine;USAF cb-10; Vidarabin;VIDARABINE;Vira ATM;Vira-A;VIRDARABINE;XA;Xylosyl A;Xylosyladenine
CAS Type 1 Name:Adenosine Chemical Name:6-Amino-9-.beta.-ribofuranosyl-9H-purine
Formula:C10H13N5O4. CAS RN:58-61-7 Other RN:46946-45-6 46969-16-8 M.W.:267.24 Melting Point.:235.5 deg C
Description:A Nucleoside that is composed of adenine and d-ribose. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
Adenosine phosphate:[61-19-8]:Synonyms:5'-Adenylic acid; Adenosine 5[-monophosphate; Adenosine-5'-monophosphate; Adenosine-5'-monophosphoric acid; Adenosine phosphate; AMP;Vitamin B8
CAS Type 1 Name:5'-Adenylic acid;Adenosine phosphate;Vitamin B8;Phosphentaside;Phosaden
Formula:C7H14N5O7P. CAS RN:61-19-8 Other RN:47286-65-7 M.W.:347.22366 Melting Point.:200
Description:Adenylic acid. Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
adherent:when tissues or organs of different kinds are stuck together, but without organic fusion, cf. appressed, adnate, coherent, connate, connivent, fasciate, fasciculate, fastigiate, phalangiate.
Adjunct therapy:a treatment or therapy used in addition to another, not alone.
admedial:towards the midline of the lamina, cf. exmedial.
adnate:when tissues of one organ are organically fused to those of another organ of a different kind, as a stamen adnate to a petal, cf. adherent, appressed, coherent, connate, connivent, fasciate, fasciculate, fastigiate, phalangiate.
Adoxa:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic and 8-nucleate, all nuclei haploid, cf. Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
Adrenal glands:a pair of small glands, located above the kidneys, consisting of an outer cortex and inner medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes cortisone-related hormones and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)..
advanced (of characters, not recommended):= apomorphy or derived.
adventitious:arising in "abnormal" positions and in "exceptional" circumstances, e.g. roots arising from the shoot system, buds arising elsewhere than in axils of leaves, however, the roots that characteristically occur along the stems of a number of prostrate herbs, often in fixed positions, are also often called adventitious..., see also accessory, supernumerary.
adventitious (poly)embryony:of reproduction, the production of an embryo/seed directly from somatic tissue of the ovule without fertilisation, cf. agamospermy, apogamy, apomixis, apospory, vegetative reproduction, cf. also cleavage polyembryony, and simple polyembryony.
adventive:introduced to an area recently, whether or not established cf. endemic, native, introduced, naturalised.
aerenchyma:tissue incorporating large, gas-filled spaces interspersed between the cells, often forming characteristic arrangements, cf. collenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma.
Aescin[6805-41-0]:Same as Escin.
aestivation:the arrangement of sepals and petals or their lobes relative to one another in an unexpanded flower bud, cf. ptyxis, vernation, see cochleate, contorted, contortiplicate, crumpled, decussate, imbricate, induplicate, open, quincuncial, reduplicate, valvate.
after-ripening:of germination, when a period of dormancy of the seed and/or growth of the embryo is needed before germination will occur, cf. recalcitrant.
agamospermy:a kind of apomictic (s.l.) reproduction, the development of seeds from ovules without fertilization, equals apomixis s. str, see adventitious embryony, apospory, diplospory, polyembryony.
aggregate fruit:a cluster of fruits formed from the free carpels of one flower, cf. accessory fruit, multiple fruit, simple fruit.
aglycone:the non-carbohydrate group of a glycoside which appears on its hydrolysis (sometimes called aglucone).the nonsugar component of a glycoside. Cleavage of the glycosidic bond of a glycoside results in the formation of a sugar and an aglycone.
AI:adequate intake. Established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the US Institute of Medicine, the AI is a recommended intake value based on observed or experimentally determined estimates of nutrient intake by a group of healthy people that are assumed to be adequate. An AI is established when an RDA cannot be determined.
AIDS:acquired immune deficiency syndrome. AIDS is caused by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) virus, which attacks the immune system, leaving the infected individual vulnerable to opportunistic infection.
Ajoene[92285-01-3]:Synonyms:4,5,9-trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide;2-Propenyl-3-(2-propenylsulfinyl)-1-propenyl disulfide, 4,5,9-Trithiadodeca-1,6,11-triene 9-oxide, 92285-01-3, AIDS-003903, AIDS003903, Ajoene, Ajoene, trans-, Disulfide, 2-propenyl 3- (2-propenylsulfinyl)-1-propenyl, Disulfide, 2-propenyl 3-(2-propenylsulfinyl)-1-propenyl, NSC614554
Formula: C9 H14OS3. Molecular Weight:234.41 CAS RN:92285-01-3 Melting Point:234.405 g/mol
ala, alate:= wing, winged.
Alanine [56-41-7]:Synonyms:2-Aminopropanoic acid; 2-ammoniopropanoate; A; Ala; Alanine; L-2-Aminopropionic Acid; L-alanine;
Formula: C3 H7NO2. Molecular Weight:89.0938 CAS RN:56-41-7 ACX Number:X1007040-3. Melting Point:314.5 - 316.5
alar, loosely:= axillary (Hickey King 2000), a confusing term.
albuminous cell:a nucleated cell in phloem tissue of gymnosperms that is closely associated with a sieve cell and whose metabolisms are intimately connected such that one cell will die soon after the other, but which is not necessarily derived from the same mother cell that produces the sieve cell.
aleurone:aleurone layer, the outermost layer(s) of the endosperm, living cells containing proteins, the other cells being more or less dead and with much thickened walls, the lumen being more or less occluded e.g. by galactomannans (a hemicellulose), cf. chalazal cyst, haustorium, see also aleurone grain, a garin-like structure conating proteins, etc.
aliform:of paratracheal axial parenchyma, the parenchyma cells associated with the vessels forming a wing-shaped mass in transverse section, cf. banded.
Alkaline:basic; having a pH of more than 7.
alkanes:simple hydrocarbons, CH3 (CH2)n CH3, where n = 25-35.
Alkaloid:a plant-derived compound that is biologically active, contains a nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring, is alkaline, has a complex structure, and is of limited distribution in the plant kingdom.
alkaloids:organic, nitrogenous-containing bases, usually with a heterocyclic ring of some kind; divided into three main categories: 1) true alkaloids - nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds derived from an amino acid, e.g. benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, tropane alkaloids, quinolizidine alkaloids, 2) protoalkaloids - derived from amino acids, but lacking a heterocyclic ring, 3) pseudoalkaloids - derived from terpenes, sterols, aliphatic acids, nicotinic acid, or purines. Note that similar alkaloids can have quite different biosynthetic pathways, indeed, alkaloids are rather like species - you know what they are, but cannot define them...
alkannin:a naphthoquinone derived from the p-hydroxybenzoic acid pathway (S = shikonin isomer), the coloring ingredient of alkanet; alkannin paper is an indicator of acidity, alkalis turning the paper blue, acids red (see the color changes as flowers of some Boraginaceae-Boraginoideae age).
Alkannin, C16 H16 O5.
Allantoin [97-59-6]:Synonyms:Allantoin;Cordianine;Glyoxyldiureide;NSC7606;5-Ureidohydantoin; Allantoin; Glyoxyldiureide; Hemocane; Paxyl; Urea, (2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)-; Ureidohydantoin;(2,5-Dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)urea;5-25-15-00338 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);5-Ureido-2,4-imidazolidindion;AI3-15281;AVC/Dienestrolcream;Alantan;Allantoin;Allantol;BRN 0102364;CCRIS 1958;Caswell No. 024;Cordianine;Cutemol emollient;EINECS 202-592-8;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 085701;Glyoxyldiureid;Glyoxyldiureide;Hydantoin, 5-ureido-;Sebical;Uniderm A
Chemical Name:Allantoin;Urea, (2,5-dioxo-4-imidazolidinyl)-
Formula: C4 H6N4O3 CAS RN:97-59-6 Other RN:37305-69-4 5377-33-3 58308-55-7
Melting Point: 239 deg C;230 with decomposition. M.W.:158.1164 log P (octanol-water): -3.140 (none) Water Solubility: 5260 mg/L Vapor Pressure: 4.32E-09 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant: 3.41E-18 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant: 1.97E-11 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
Allele:One of a set of alternative forms of a gene. Diploid cells possess two homologous chromosomes (one derived from each parent) and therefore two copies of each gene. In a diploid cell, a gene will have two alleles, each occupying the same position on homologous chromosomes.
allelocytic:of stomata, with an alternating complex of three or more C-shaped subsidiary cells of graded sizes surrounding the guard cells, see diallelocytic and parallelocytic, cf. actinocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, paracytic, staurocytic,tetracytic.
Allicin[539-86-6]:Synonyms:2-Propene-1-sulfinic acid, thio-, S-allyl ester, 2-Propene-1-sulfinothioic acid S-2-propenyl ester, 2-Propene-1-sulfinothioic acid, S-2-propenyl ester (9CI), 4-04-00-00007 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), 539-86-6, AIDS-097132, AIDS097132, Allicin, Allylthiosulphinic acid allyl ester, BRN 1752823, C07600, Diallyl thiosulfinate, Diallyldisulfid-S-oxid, EINECS 208-727-7, NSC707388, S-Allyl acrylo-1-sulphinothioate, Thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester;allimin;allylthiosulfinate;diallyl disulfide-oxide
Chemical Name:Thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester Cas Type 1 Name:thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester;Allicin;Diallyl thiosulfinate
Formula: C6 H10OS2 CAS RN:539-86-6 Melting Point:165 deg C M.W.:162.275 g/mol Water Solubility:2.40E+04 mg/L at 10 deg C
Note:Anti-infective agents,Antilipemic agents,Antioxidants,Free radical scavengers,Hypoglycemic agents,Natural Product.
alliin[556-27-4]:Synonyms:17795-27-6,Alanine,3-(2-propenylsulfinyl)-,alliin,PCSO,S-(2-Propenyl)cysteine sulfoxide,S-Allylcysteine sulfoxide; alliin, (L-Ala)-(R)-isomer;alliin, (L-Ala)-(S)-isomer;alliin, (L-Ala)-isomer;PCSO;S-(2-propenyl)cysteine sulfoxide;S-allylcysteine sulfoxide
Chemical Name:(S)-3-(Allylsulphinyl)-L-alanine;L-Alanine, 3-(2-propenylsulfinyl)-, (S)-
Formula: C6 H11NO3S CAS RN:556-27-4 Melting Point:165 deg C M.W.:177.222 g/mol
allitol:a carbohydrate product resulting from the reduction of the aldehyde functional group in D-allose.
Allitol, C6 H14 O6.
Allium:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, bisporic (the spores chalazal) and 8-celled, all nuclei haploid, cf. Adoxa, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
allogamy:fertilisation involving gametes from different flowers or plants, a rather vague term, cf. cross pollinationgeitonogamy, cf. also autogamy, self pollination.
allopatric:of the distribution of two speces, when the areas inhabited are mutually exclusive, cf. parapatricsympatric.
allopolyploid:a plant with a chromosome number that is the product of the addition of the diploid numbers of the parent plants, hybridisation having been involved, cf. aneuploid, autopolyploid, diploid, dysploid, haploid, polyploid.
Allyl alcohol [107-18-6]:Synonyms:1-Propen-3-ol, 1-Propenol-3, 1-Propenol-3-ol, 10008640, 107-18-6, 2-propen-1-o, 2-Propen-1-ol, 2-Propene-1-ol, 2-Propenol, 2-Propenyl alcohol, 3-Hydroxy-1-propene, 3-Hydroxypropene, 4-Quinolinecarboxylic acid, 2-phenyl-, AA, Aaalcool allilco, AI3-14312, AIDS-005093, AIDS005093, Alcool allilco, Alcool allilco [Italian], Alcool allylique, Alcool allylique [French], Allilowy alkohol, Allilowy alkohol [Polish], AllOH, Allyl al, Allyl alcohol, Allyl alcohol [UN1098] [Poison], Allylalkohol, Allylalkohol [German], Allylic alcohol, C02001, Caswell No. 026, CCRIS 747, CH2=CHCH2OH, EINECS 203-470-7, EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 068401, HSDB 192, NISTC107186, NSC 6526, NSC6526, Orvinylcarbinol, PROP-2-EN-1-OL, Propen-1-ol-3, Propene-1-ol, Propenol, Propenol-3, Propenyl alcohol, RCRA waste no. P005, Rcra waste number P005, Shell unkrautted A, Shell Unkrauttod A, UN 1098, UN1098, Vinyl carbinol, Vinylcarbinol, Weed drench
Formula: C3 H6O. Molecular Weight:58.08 CAS RN:107-18-6 Melting Point:-129 Boiling Point:97 deg C
Alpha-Amyrin [638-95-9]:Synonyms:alpha-amyrin acetate;(3.beta.)-Urs-12-en-3-ol;(3S,4aR,6aR,6bS,8aR,11R,12S,12aR,14aR,14bR)-4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,12,14b-Octamethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,14,14a,14b-eicosahydro-picen-3-ol;.alpha.-Amyrenol;.alpha.-Amyrin;638-95-9;AIDS-070313;AIDS070313;alpha-Amyrenol;alpha-Amyrin;alpha-Amyrine;C08615;EINECS 211-352-1;NSC 114787;Urs-12-en-3-ol, (3beta)- (9CI);Urs-12-en-3beta-ol;Viminalol
Chemical Name:Urs-12-en-3-ol, (3beta)- (9CI);Urs-12-en-3beta-ol
CAS RN:638-95-9 ACX Number:X1035985-8. Formula:C30H50O M.W.:426.717 g/mol Melting Point.:186 deg C
alpha-caryophyllene [6753-98-6]:See Humulene.
alpha-Cedrene[469-61-4]:Synonyms:3-05-00-01095 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 3196861;Cedr-8-ene;EINECS 207-418-4;Laevo-alpha-cedrene;Levo-alpha-cedrene;alpha-Cedrene;beta-cedrene;cedrone
Cas Type 1 Name:(3R-(3alpha,3Abeta,7beta,8aalpha))-2,3,4,7,8,8a-hexahydro-3,6,8,8-tetramethyl-1H-3a,7-methanoazulene Substance Name:alpha-Cedrene
Formula: C15H24 CAS RN:469-61-4 11028-42-5
alpha-copaene [3856-25-5]:See Copaene.
alpha-curcumene[644-30-4]:Synonyms:1-(1,5-Dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methylbenzene;2-Heptene, 2-methyl-6-p-tolyl-;2-Methyl-6-p-tolyl-2-heptene;644-30-4;alpha-Curcumene;Ar-Curcumene;ar. curcumene;aromatic curcumene;Benzene, 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl-;Curcumene,NISTC644304;(R)-isomer of alpha-curcumene;(S)-isomer of alpha-curcumene;1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methylbenzene;2-methyl-6-p-tolyl-2-heptene;ar-curcumene
Cas Type 1 Name:Benzene, 1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl- Substance Name:alpha-Curcumene
Formula: C15H22 CAS RN:644-30-4 Molecular Weight:202.335 g/mol Note:Antilipemic agents
alpha-humulene [6753-98-6]:See humulene.
alpha-Humulon [469-02-3]:See Humulon:[469-02-3].
alpha-Linoleic acid [60-33-3]:See Linoleic acid.
alpha-Phellandrene [99-83-2]:Synonyms:1,5-Menthadiene; 1-Isopropyl-4-methyl-2,4-cyclohexadiene; 1-Isopropyl-4-Methyl-2,4-Cyclohexadiene, 70%; 2-Methyl-5-isopropyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene; p-mentha-1,5-diene; alpha-Phellandrene; Dihydro-p-cymene; Phellandrene;
Formula: C10 H16. Molecular Weight:136.2364 CAS RN:99-83-2 1330-17-2 13811-01-3 Melting Point:< 25 deg C Boiling Point:172 deg C
alpha-Pinene:Synonyms:(1S)-(1)-alpha-Pinene; (1S)-2,6,6-Trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-2-ene; (1S)-(-)-alpha-Pinene; (-)-alpha-Pinene; Dipentene; pinene;
Formula: C10 H16. Molecular Weight: 136.2364 CAS RN:7785-26-4 Melting Point: -64 . ACX Number:X1005777-7. Boiling Point:155 - 156. Density 0.874 Boiling Point:33
alpha-Santalol[115-71-9]:Synonyms: (Z)-alpha-Santalol;2-Penten-1-ol, 5-(2,3-dimethyltricyclo(126.96.36.199(2,6))hept-3-yl)-2-m;2-Penten-1-ol, 5-(2,3-dimethyltricyclo(188.8.131.52(sup 2,6))hept-3-yl)-2-methyl;2-Penten-1-ol, 5-(2,3-dimethyltricyclo(2.2.1.02,6)hept-3-yl)-2-methyl-, stereoisomer;5-(2,3-Dimethyltricyclo(184.108.40.206(2,6))hept-3-yl)-2-methyl-2-penten-1-ol;5-(2,3-Dimethyltricyclo(2.2.1.02,6)hept-3-yl)-2-methyl-2-penten-1-ol stereoisomer; Argeol;Arheol;EINECS 204-102-8;HSDB 3421;Sandal;Santalol A;Santalol a;cis-alpha-Santalol;d-alpha-Santalol
Chemical Name:2-Penten-1-ol, 5-(2,3-dimethyltricyclo(220.127.116.11(sup 2,6))hept-3-yl)-2-methyl-, (R(Z))-
CAS RN:115-71-9 Other RN:14490-13-2 Formula:C15H24O M.W:220.35
alpha-Terpinene:[99-86-5]:Synonyms:gamma-terpinene;1,4-p-menthadiene;alpha-terpinene;beta-terpinene;1,3-Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-;1,3-Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl-4-isopropyl-;1-Isopropyl-4-methyl-1,3-cyclohexadiene;1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-1,3-cyclohexadiene;1-Methyl-4-isopropylcyclohexadiene-1,3;AI3-26467;CCRIS 9058;EINECS 202-795-1;FEMA No. 3558;Terpilene;alpha-Terpinen;alpha-Terpinene;p-Mentha-1,3-diene
Cas Type 1 Name:1,3-Cyclohexadiene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-;p-Mentha-1,3-diene;alpha-Terpinene
Formula: C10 H16. Molecular Weight: 136.2364 CAS RN:99-86-5 Melting Point: -64 . ACX Number:X1005777-7. Boiling Point:155 - 156. Density 0.874 Boiling Point:33
alpha-Terpineol:[98-55-5]:Synonyms:1-alpha-terpineol;alpha-terpineol, sodium salt;D-alpha-terpineol;DL-alpha-terpineol;1-Menthene-8-ol;1-Methyl-4-isopropyl-1-cyclohexen-8-ol;1-Methyl-4-isopropyl-1-cyclohexene-8-ol;1-p-Menthen-8-ol;2-(4-Methyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-2-propanol;2-06-00-00067 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha,alpha,4-trimethyl-;AI3-00275;BRN 1906604;CARVOMENTHENOL;CCRIS 3204;EINECS 202-680-6;EINECS 219-448-5;FEMA No. 3045;FEMA Number 3045;HSDB 5316;NSC 21449;PC 593;Terpenol;Terpilenol, alpha-;Terpineol 350;Terpineol schlechthin;alpha,alpha,4-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanol;alpha-Terpinenol;alpha-Terpineol (natural);dl-alpha-Terpineol;p-Menth-1-en-8-ol
Cas Type 1 Name:alpha,alpha,4-trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanol; (1)-alpha,alpha,4-Trimethylcyclohex-3-ene-1-methanol;3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha,alpha,4-trimethyl-;alpha,alpha,4-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methanol;alpha-Terpineol;p-Menth-1-en-8-ol
Formula: C10 H18O. Molecular Weight:154.2516 CAS RN:98-55-5 Melting Point:34.5 . ACX Number:X1006276-9. Boiling Point:218. Density0.933
alpha-terpinyl acetate [8007-35-0]:Synonyms:3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha,alpha,4-trimethyl-, acetate;4-06-00-00253 (Beilstein Handbook Reference); AI3-00522;BRN 3198769;EINECS 201-265-7;EINECS 234-183-5;FEMA No. 3047;Terpinyl acetate (natural);alpha,alpha,4-Trimethyl-3-cyclohexene-1-methyl acetate;alpha-Terpineol, acetate;alpha-Terpinyl acetate;p-Menth-1-en-8-ol, acetate;p-Menth-1-en-8-yl acetate
Cas Type 1 Name:(1)-alpha,alpha,4-Trimethylcyclohex-3-ene-1-methyl acetate ; 3-Cyclohexene-1-methanol, alpha,alpha,4-trimethyl-, acetate;Terpinyl acetate ;alpha-Terpineol acetate
Formula: C12 H20O2. CAS RN:8007-35-0 Other RN:104806-93-1 10581-37-0 21090-64-2 80-26-2
Cas Type 1 Name:5-Isopropyl-2-methylbicyclo(3.1.0)hex-2-ene;Bicyclo(3.1.0)hex-2-ene, 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-
Formula: C10 H16. CAS RN:2867-05-2 Other RN:1406-51-5 75715-79-6 Boiling Point:151 deg C
alpha-Tocopherol:[59-02-9]:See Vitamin E.A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Synonyms:2H-1-Benzopyran-6-ol, 3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-, [2R-[2R*(4R*,8R*)]]-; 5,7,8-trimethyltocol; antisterility vitamin; Aquasol E; Alpha-Tocopherol; covirel; D-alpha-tocopherol; ephynal; Eprolin; eprolin-s; epsilan; Esorb; etavit; E-vimin; Evion; E-vitamin succinate; Pheryl-E; phytogermine; profecundin; syntopherol; tokopharm; vascuals; Vitamin E; Vita plus E; viteolin;
alternate:of leaves or other lateral organs, borne singly at different heights on the axis, when used to describe leaf insertion, often vague and including the more precise spiral and distichous, cf. also bijugate, decussate, opposite, pseudoverticillate, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled.
alternate:of floral parts, with members of adjacent whorls borne on alternating radii, e.g. used when describing the position of stamens with respect to petals (alternipetalous), sepals (alternisepalous), etc., cf. opposite.
alternate:of pits, when they are in diagonal rows and, when crowded, hexagonal in surface view, cf. opposite.
alternation of generations:the characteristic life cycle of land plants or embryophytes: the haploid plant body produces gametes via mitotic divisions, the gametes fuse producing the multicellular diploid sporophyte, this produces haploid spores after meiotic events, and the spores germinate to produce the multicellular haploid gametophyte again; a haplodiplontic life cycle.
Aluminum [7429-90-5]:Synonyms:Aluminum; Aluminum, molten; ALUMINUM POWDER; Aluminum powder, pyrophoric;A 00;A 95;A 99;Allbri aluminum paste and powder; Alumina fibre;Aluminium;Aluminium bronze;Aluminium flake;Aluminium, elementar;Aluminum;Aluminum 27;Aluminum A00;Aluminum dehydrated;Aluminum powder
CAS Type 1 Name:Aluminum
CAS RN:7429-90-5 Other RN: 113962-66-6
Molecular Formula:Al Molecular Weight:26.98154 Melting Point:660.1 Boiling Point:2327 Flashing Point:645
Description:An element that is in the alkali group of metals. It has an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte and it plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the water-electrolyte balance.
alveolate:pitted or honeycombed on the surface.
Alzheimer's disease:the most common cause of dementia in older adults. Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaque in the brain and nerve cell degeneration. Symptoms include memory loss and confusion, which worsen over time.
Amarogentin[21018-84-8]:Synonyms:(1,1'-Biphenyl)-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3',5-trihydroxy-;2-ester with 5-ethenyl-6-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano(3,4-c)pyran-1-one, (4aS-(4aalpha,5beta,6alpha))-;1H,3H-Pyrano(3,4-c)pyran-1-one, 5-ethenyl-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-6-((2-O-((3,3',5-trihydroxy(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-yl)carbonyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-, (4aS,5R,6S)-;2-(4aS-(4aalpha,5beta,6alpha))-3,3',5-Trihydroxy-(1,1'-biphenyl)-2-carboxylate,21018-84-8,Amarogentin,C09767
Chemical Name:(1,1'-Biphenyl)-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3',5-trihydroxy-, 2-ester with 5-ethenyl-6-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-4,4a,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,3H-pyrano(3,4-c)pyran-1-one, (4aS-(4aalpha,5beta,6alpha))- CAS Type 1 Name:Amarogentin
Formula: C29 H30O13 CAS RN:21018-84-8 M.W.:586.541 g/mol Note.:Enzyme inhibitors
amb:a general pollen shape descriptor, the outline as seen in a polar view, cf. boat-shaped, globose, oblate, prolate, spherical, terms used for the outline as seen in equatorial view.
ament:= catkin, amentiferous = catkin-bearing.
Amides [67700-97-4]:Synonyms:(C10-C16) Alkylcarboxylic acid amide;EINECS 266-921-7
Chemical Name:Amides, C10-16; Amides, C1O-16
Note:TSCA Definition 2005: This substance is identified by SDA Substance Name: C10-C16 alkyl carboxylic acid amide and SDA Reporting Number: 15-020-00. Consult SDA Substance Identification Procedure.
Description:Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Formula:No Speficied. CAS RN:67700-97-4
amine:amino acid with the carboxyl group removed - very smelly!
Amino acids:organic (carbon-containing) molecules that serve as the building blocks of proteins.
amoeboid:of tapetum, where the walls break down, the protoplasts enter the anther sac, fuse, and form a syncytium (= plasmodium?) around the developing microspores or pollen, cf. glandular.
amphi- (prefix):both, two, complete - so rather confusing.
amphibious:of the general habitat, a plant growing both in water and on land, cf. aquatic, epilithic, epiphytic, lithophytic, terrestrial.
amphicarpy:producing two kinds of fruit, one aerial and one subterranean (or amphi-geocarpy), see also geocarpy, heterocarpy.
amphicribral:vascular bundles with phloem completely surrounding the xylem, cf. amphivasal, bicollateral, collateral, also internal phloem, intraxylary phloem.
amphimixis:reproducing sexually, cf. apomixis s. str.
amphiphloic:of a vascular bundle that is surrounded by phloem, the xylem being in the middle, as in a dictyostele, cf. ectophloic.
amphistomal:where the two integuments are at about the same level at the micropyle of an ovule, cf. bistomal, endostomal, exostomal, naked, zigzag.
amphistomatic:of leaves in which stomata are borne on both sides, cf. epistomatic and hypostomatic.
amphitropous:of an ovule, the chalaza basal and the rest of the ovule including the embryo sac being bent as the hypostase into the main body of the ovule, the micropyle ending up next to the funicle, cf. anatropous, atropous, campylotropous, circinotropous, hemitropous.
amphivasal:of vascular bundles, with xylem completely surrounding the phloem, cf. amphicribral, bicollateral, collateral, also internal phloem, included phloem.
amplexicaul:of a leaf base, clasping and more or less encircling the stem yet free from it, cf. perfoliate.
Amyloid plaque:aggregates of a peptide called amyloid-beta, which accumulate and form deposits in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease.
amyloplast:a colorless plastid in which carbohydrate is stored as starch, cf. chromoplast, chloroplast, sieve tube plastid.
amylose:See polysaccharides.9005-82-7;An unbranched glucan in starch.A Linear, water-soluble glucan, a lesser constituent of starch (the greater being AMYLOPECTIN). It consists of a chain of glucose residues in alpha-(1,4) linkage. It stains blue with iodine. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Amylase[9000-92-4]:Synonyms: 8049-91-0;9000-92-4;9000-93-5;9014-71-5;AMYLASE;Amylase;alkaline;Amylopol P;Amzyme TX 8;An amylolytic enzyme mainly prepared from malt;Dabiase K-27;Diastase;Diastase [JAN];Diastase, malt;EINECS 232-567-7;Enzyme, amylolytic;Glycogenase;Kleistase M 20;Kleistase TU 20;Malt diastase;Maltin;Mylase 100;Neospitase K;Ptyalin;Rapidase 2M;Termoamylase;Termozym
CAS Type 1 Name:Amylase;An amylolytic enzyme mainly prepared from malt
CAS RN:9000-92-4 9014-71-5 8049-91-0 9000-93-5 Formula:C32H52O2 M.W.:472.717 g/mol
Amyrin acetate [863-76-3]:Synonyms:NSC 160881;alpha-Amyrenyl acetate;beta-Amyrin acetate
CAS Type 1 Name :urs-12-en-3 beta-ol(acetate);Urs-12-en-3-ol, acetate, (3beta)- (9CI);Urs-12-en-3beta-ol(acetate);Urs-12-en-3beta-ol, acetate (8CI)
CAS RN:863-76-3 Formula:C32H52O2 M.W.:472.717 g/mol
ana-:(prefix, of pollen apertures), located at or towards the distal pole, cf. cata-, rugate, zono-.
Anaerobic:refers to the absence of oxygen or the absence of a need for oxygen.
Analog:a chemical compound that is structurally similar to another but differs slightly in composition (e.g., the replacement of one functional group by another).
Anaphylaxis:a rapidly developing and severe systemic allergic reaction. Symptoms may include swelling of the tongue, throat, and trachea, which can result in difficulty breathing, shock and loss of consciousness. If not treated rapidly, anaphylaxis can be fatal.
anastomosis:fusion to form a network, e.g. of veins in a leaf blade.
anasulcate:of pollen grains, a common form having an elongate aperture at the distal pole of the grain, cf. tricolpate, tricolporate.
anatomy:internal structure, sometimes opposed to morphology, which is then restricted to external form.
anatropous:of an ovule, inverted 180o so that the chalaza is apical and the micropyle is basal and faces the placenta, the body of the ovule being parallel to the funicle, cf. amphitropous, atropous, campylotropous, circinotropous, hemitropous.
anauxotelic:applied to inflorescences, parts of inflorescences or axes that terminate in a flower, and in which growth does not continue beyond the flowering region, see also cyme, cf. auxotelic.
ancestral:of a character, a feature of a clade more basal on the tree than that with which it is (implicitly) being contrasted, cf. derived, cf. also plesiomorphic.
ancipital, ancipitous:= flattened and two-edged.
androdioecious:having perfect and staminate flowers on separate plants, probably very rare (most apparent examples are functionally dioecious), cf. andromonoecious, dioecious, gynodioecious, gynomonoecious, monoecious, perfect.
androecium:collectively the stamens of one flower, cf. gynoecium, perianth, see diadelphous, fasciculate, monadelphous, phalangiate, syngenesious (connation, etc.), see also didynamous, tetradynamous (different lengths), see also diplostemonous, haplostemonous, obdiplostemonous, obhaplostemonous (general arrangement).
androgynophore:a receptacular stalk bearing both the androecium and gynoecium of a flower above the level of insertion of the perianth, cf. androphore, anthophore, gynophore, stipe.
androgynous:having staminate and carpellate flowers in the same inflorescence, a variant of monoecious.
andromedotoxins:a class of diterpenes causing poisoning in animals.
Rhodojaponin VI, C20 H34 O7. Grayanotoxin, C22 H36 O7.
andromonoecious:having perfect and staminate flowers on the same plant, cf. androdioecious, dioecious, gynodioecious, gynomonoecious, monoecious, perfect.
androphore:a stalk or tube bearing separate stamens at its apex, cf. androgynophore, anthophore, gynophore, stipe.
Anemia:the condition of having less than the normal number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, resulting in diminished oxygen transport. Anemia has many cause, including: iron, vitamin B-12, or folate deficiency, bleeding, abnormal hemoglobin formation (e.g., sickle cell anemia), rupture of red blood cells (hemolytic anemia), and bone marrow diseases.
anemochory:dispersal of diaspores by wind, cf. autochory, hydrochory, zoochory.
anemophilous:pollinated by wind, cf. hydrophilous, zo?philous.
Anencephaly:a birth defect, known as a neural tube defect, resulting from failure of the upper end of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. Anencephaly is a devastating and sometimes fatal birth defect resulting in the absence of most or all of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain.
aneuploid:a plant with a chromosome number that is not an exact multiple of the haploid number of related plants, but is clearly similar to it, cf. allopolyploid, autopolyploid, diploid, dysploid, haploid, polyploid.
Angelicin [523-50-2]:Synonyms:2-Propenoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl)-, delta-lactone;2H-Furo(2,3-H)-1-benzopyran-2-one;3-(4-Hydroxy-5-benzofuranyl)-2-propenoic acid gamma-lactone;4-Hydroxy-5-benzofuranacrylic acid gamma-lactone;5-19-04-00447 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);Angecin;Angelicin;Angelicin (VAN);Angelicin (coumarin deriv);Angelicin (coumarin derivative);BRN 0153970;CCRIS 4276;Furo(2,3-h)coumarin;Furo(5',4':7,8)coumarin;HSDB 3554;Isopsoralen;NSC 404563
Chemical Name:Stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3beta)-; 24-Ethylcholest-5-en-3.beta.-ol
CAS RN:523-50-2 Other RN:39310-13-9 Formula:C11H6O3 M.W:186.164 g/mol
Angina pectoris:pain generally experienced in the chest, but sometimes radiating to the arms or jaw, due to a lack of oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
Angiogenesis:the development of new blood vessels.
Angiography (coronary):imaging of the coronary arteries used to identify the location and severity of any obstructions. Coronary angiography typically involves the administration of a contrast medium and imaging of the coronary arteries using an X-ray based technique.
angiosperm:a seed-bearing plant with the ovules borne enclosed by a sporophyll whose margins are fused, i.e., the ovules are borne in an ovary, cf. gymnosperm.
angustiseptate:a fruit flattened at right angles to the septum so the septum crosses the narrowest part of the ovary, cf. latiseptate.
Anion:a negatively charged ion.
Anisic Acid [100-09-4]:Synonyms:p-Anisic Acid; p-Methoxybenzoic acid; Anisic Acid; Methoxybenzoic acid;
Formula: C8 H8O3. Molecular Weight:152.1494 CAS RN:100-09-4 ACX Number:X1006329-5. Melting Point:184. Boiling Point:275. Flashing Point:185. RTECS:BZ4395000.
anisocytic:of stomata, with three subsidiary cells, two large and one smaller, surrounding the guard cells, cf. actinocytic, allelocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, paracytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
anisophyllous:having leaves of very different sizes and/or shapes at the same node, cf. heteroblastic, heterophyllous, juvenile.
annual:of plant duration, a plant whose life span ends within one year after germination, e.g. a winter annual germinating in the autumn and flowering in the spring (esp. in Mediterranean climates), approximately synonymous to therophyte, cf. biennial, ephemeral, perennial, cf. also of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic.
annular:arranged in or forming a ring; annulus, a ring, in ferns, the elastic ring of cells in the sporangium wall that initiates dehiscence, see stomium.
annulus:in ferns, the elastic ring of cells in the sporangium wall that initiates dehiscence,see stomium.
annulus:an area of the exine of a pollen grain surrounding a pore that is sharply differentiated from the rest either in ornamentation or in thickness, see colpate, colporate, porate, pororate, sulcate, ulcerate for different kinds of apertures, operculum, pontoperculum for the covering of apertures, stephano- for the distribution of apertures, and os for an element of some apertures.
anomalous:a term of convenience, kinds of secondary growth that differ from the "ordinary" ones.
anomocytic:stomata lacking subsidiary cells surrounding the guard cells, cf. actinocytic, allelocytic, anisocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, paracytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
Antagonist:a substance that counteracts or nullifies the biological effects of another, such as a compound that binds to a receptor but does not elicit a biological response.
ante- (prefix):equals in front of, e.g. antepetalous inserted in front of (adaxially to, "opposite") the petals, antesepalous, the sepals.
anterior (as used of floral organs):= abaxial, cf. posterior.
anther:the pollen-bearing part of a stamen, with which its connective is usually described as being basifixed, dorsifixed, embedded, or versatile as it joins the filament, made up of endothecium, exothecium, placentoid, and tapetum, opening by slits or ostioles, pores or valves in either the extrorse, latrorse or introrse directions , see also theca.
antheridium:the fertile organ of a male gametophyte or the male organ of a bisexual gametophyte, in which male gametes are formed, cf. archegonium.
antherode:the non-funational anther of a staminode.
antherozoid:a flagellated male gamete.
anthesis:the time of full opening of a flower when pollen is presented and/or the stigma is receptive.
anthocarp:a true fruit surrounded by all or just the base of the perianth, as in Nyctaginaceae and many Rosaceae-Pomoideae, really a particular kind of accessory fruit but a term of some use, perhaps also to be used for fruits with persistent sepals, as in Dipterocarpaceae, cf. aggregate fruit, multiple fruit.
anthochlors:a group of usually yellow flavonoids made up of aurones and chalcones, yellow pigments that turn red in an alkaline solution of, say ammonium, or with cigarette or cigar smoke.
anthocyanidins:a class of coloured anthocyanin aglycones formed from flavan-3,4-diols, also when proanthocyanidins are hydrolyzed with acid (note that they are not formed from proanthocyanidins in the plants); major determinnat of flower colour.
Anthocyanidin Polymers:See Proanthocyanidins,Equivalent name as Condensed Tannin; Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
anthocyanins:a class of flavonoids based on the cyanidin structure, differing in the presence or absence of hydroxyl groups by methylation or glycosylation, forming colored pigments.A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
Anthocyanin base. Pelargonidin, C15 H11 O5. Delphinidin, C15 H11 O7 Cl. Cyanidin, C15 H11 O6.
anthophore:a receptacular stalk bearing the corolla, androecium and gynoecium of a flower on a stalk above the level of insertion of the calyx, cf. androgynophore, androphore, gynophore, stipe.
anthoxanthins:yellow, cream or colorless flavonoids occuring in cell saps.
Anthoxanthin, C21 H20 O12
anthraquinones:quinones in which the aromatic ring is fused to both sides of a benzoquinone ring, occuring as glycosides in plants, often colored.
Anthraquinone, C14 H8 O2. Chrysophanol, C15 H10 O4. Asphodelin, C30 H18 O8.
anti- (prefix):in front of, e.g. antipetalous inserted in front of (adaxially to, "opposite") the petals, antisepalous, the sepals.
Antibodies:specialized proteins produced by white blood cells (lymphocytes) that recognize and bind to foreign proteins or pathogens in order to neutralize them or mark them for destruction.
anticlinal:e.g. of cell walls, those at right angles to the surface of the organ, cf. periclinal.
Anticoagulant:a class of compounds that inhibit blood clotting.
Anticonvulsant:a class of medication used to prevent seizures.
anticous:as used of floral organs, = abaxial, cf. posticous.
Antigen:a substance that is capable of eliciting an immune response.
Antihistamine:a chemical that blocks the affect of histamine in a susceptible tissues. Histamine is released by immune cells during an allergic reaction and also during infection with viruses which cause the common cold. The interaction of histamine with the mucus membranes of the eyes and nose results in "watery eyes" and the "runny nose" often accompanying allergies and colds. Antihistamines can alleviate such symptoms.
antipodals:cells, commonly three in number as in the eight-nucleate embryo sac, located at the other end of the embryo sac from the female gamete, more or less persistent, multiplicative or not, cf. also central cell, egg apparatus, polar nuclei, synergids.
Antioxidant:any substance that prevents or reduces damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS).
antiraphe:on the other side of the ovule to the raphe, cf. also chalaza, funicle, embryo sac, integument, micropyle, nucellus, obturator.
Antiresorptive agents:medications or hormones that inhibit bone resorption.
antirrhinoid:(of a floral aestivation) descending cochleate.
antitropous:of the curvature of an ovule with respect to the carpel margin that bears it, curvature in the opposite direction to the curvature of the margin, cf. syntropous, see also apotropous, epitropous, pleurotropous.
antrorse:bent, and pointing towards the apex, cf. retrorse, erect.
apert:(of aestivation) = open.
aperture:a distinctly delimited part of a pollen grain in which thick intine is covered by thin exine and through which the pollen tube emerges, whether a compound or simple aperture, see colpate, forate, porate, polycolpate, rugate, sulcate, trichotomosulcate, and ulcerate apertures, see also operculum, pontoperculum (covering of aperture), stephano-, also ana-, cata-, rugate, zono- (distribution of the aperture(s) with respect to the basic polarity of the pollen grain), also Fisher's rule, Garside's rule (distribution of apertures), and annulus and os (elements of apertures).
apetalous:without petals, cf. polypetalous, sympetalous.
apical:of placentae, at the top of the ovary, and hence the ovules pendulous, c.f. axile, basal, free central, laminar, marginal, parietal.
apical cell:the upper (chalazal) cell formed after the first division of the zygote, which further divides to produce the bulk of the embryo proper, cf. basal cell.
apical:a hook-like strucutre which develops at the apical part of the of an hypocotyl in dark-grown seedlings of broad-leaved angiosperms with epigeal germination.
apical meristem:the meristem at the apex of stem or root, of which the ground meristem, intercalary meristem, procambium, protoderm can rather loosely be considered parts, cf. lateral meristem, see corpus, tunica (a histological zonation of the shoot apical meristem in angiosperms and Gnetales), initial and morphogenetic zones (terms describing cytohistological differentiation that can be applied to all land plants), closed meristem, open meristem (two kinds of root apical meristemns), and also histogens (descriptors used in an old theory of the construction of the apical meristem).
apiculum:a short, abrupt, flexible point, adj. apiculate, but it has other meanings as well, and overall it is better replaced (along with cuspidate) by a suitably-qualified mucronate (see Rickett 1956), cf. acumen, acute, attenuate, arista, awn, cuneate, emarginate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
Apigenin[520-36-5]:a deoxyanthocyanin occurring in leaves and flowers.
Synonyms:4',5,7-Trihydroxyflavone; 5,7,4'-Trihydroxyflavone; apigenin; Naringenin chalcone;Apigenin;Versulin;ND-9076;NSC83244;2-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxychromone;4',5,7-Trihydroxyflavone; 5-18-04-00574 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);Apigenin;Apigenine;Apigenol;BRN 0262620;C.I. Natural Yellow 1;CCRIS 3789;Chamomile;EINECS 208-292-3;NSC 83244;Pelargidenon 1449;Spigenin;UCCF 031;Versulin
CAS Type 1 Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)- (9CI) ; 5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone ;Apigenin ; Flavone, 4',5,7-trihydroxy-
Formula: C15 H10 O5. Molecular Weight:270.24 CAS RN:520-36-5 ACX Number:X1009643-2.
Apiin[26544-34-3]:Synonyms:6''-acetylapiin;26544-34-3;7-((2-O-beta-D-Apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyranone;7-((2-O-D-Apio-beta-D-furanosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one;7-O-(beta-D-Apiofuranosyl-1,2-beta-D-glucosyl)-5,7,4'-;7-[(2-O-D-Apio-beta-D-furanosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-5-;Apigenin 7-O-[beta-D-apiosyl-(1->2)-beta-D-glucoside];Apiin;Apioside;C04858;EINECS 247-780-0;hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one;trihydroxyflavone
CAS Type 1 Name:7-((2-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)- 5-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyranone
Formula: C26 H28 O14. Molecular Weight:564.492 g/mol CAS RN:26544-34-3
Apiole [523-80-8]:Synonyms:1,3-Benzodioxole, 4, 7-dimethoxy-5- (2-propenyl)-;1,3-Benzodioxole, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-;1-Allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3, 4-(methylenedioxy)benzene;1-Allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-(methylenedioxy)benzene;1-Allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-methylenedioxybenzene;4,7-Dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-1,3-benzodioxole;5-19-03-00307 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);5-Allyl-4,7-dimethoxy-1,3-benzodioxol;5-Allyl-4,7-dimethoxy-1,3-benzodioxole;523-80-8;83382-66-5;AI3-14843;Apiol;Apiole;Apiole (parsley);Apioline;Benzene, 1-allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3, 4- (methylenedioxy)-;Benzene, 1-allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-(methylenedioxy)-;BRN 0195747;C10429;Camphre de Persil;EINECS 208-349-2;NISTC523808;NSC 9070;NSC9070;Parsley apiol;Parsley apiole;Parsley camphor;Petersiliencampher
Chemical Name:1,3-Benzodioxole, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)-
CAS Type 1 Name:5-Allyl-4,7-dimethoxy-1,3-benzodioxole;Benzene, 1-allyl-2,5-dimethoxy-3,4-(methylenedioxy)-
Formula: C12 H14O4. Molecular Weight:222.237 g/mol CAS RN:83382-66-5 Other RN:523-80-8 Melting Point:29.5 deg C Boiling Point:294 deg C
apocarpous:of the gynoecium, consisting of two or more carpels which are free from one another or almost so, or a single carpel (but not a pseudomonomerous gynoecium), see paracarpous, coenocarpous, syncarpous.
apogamy:of reproduction, production of seeds from gametophytes without fertilisation, cf. adventitious embryony, agamospermy, apomixis, apospory, vegetative reproduction.
apogeotropic:of roots which grow upwards, cf. geotropic.
apomixis:of reproduction, in the strict sense the production of viable seed without fertilisation, equals agamospermy above, or, in a more general sense, includes the production of vegetative propagules, i.e. vegetative reproduction, see adventitious embryony, apospory, diplospory, polyembryony.
apomorphy:of a character, derived, an evolutionary novelty arising in the immediate ancestor of a clade and characterising it, cf. autapomorphic, plesiomorphic, synapomorphic.
apoptosis:programmed cell death.gene-directed cell death or programmed cell death that occurs when age, condition, or state of cell health dictates. Cells that die by apoptosis do not usually elicit the inflammatory responses that are associated with necrosis. Cancer cells are resistant to apoptosis.
aporphine alkaloids:group of isoquinoline alkaloids.Aporphine, C17 H17 N.
apospory:a kind of agamospermy where unreduced embryo sacs develop from ovular tissue, cf. adventitious embryony, apogamy, diplospory, polyembryony.
apostapetalum:referring to that part of the corolla tube and lobes above the zone with fused/adnate stamens, a term of dubious utility, cf. stapetalum.
apotracheal:of axial parenchyma, parenchyma not associated with the vessels, see banded, boundary, diffuse, cf. paratracheal (aliform, banded).
apotropous:of the curvature of an ovule with respect to the ovary axis, abaxial, cf. epitropous, pleurotropous, see also antitropous, syntropous.
appendage:a general term for any structure that is not one of the conventional parts of an angiosperm plant that arises from the surface of another.
appendicular:of tissues or parts of the plant formed from leaves or structures considered "homologous" with them, cf. axial.
appendicular epigyny:of epigyny, when the floral apex is initially convex, but it early flattens and a central concavity develops due to toral upgrowth of the floral cup. i.e. due to development of appendicular tissues (Kuzoff et al. 2001), cf. receptacular epigyny.
apposition:of branching, as in the formation of a plagiotropic branching system by a series of units, each consisting of a vigorous axillary branch that is initially plagiotropic but whose apex becomes orthotropic, the terminal meristem still remaining active, as in plagiotropy by apposition as in Terminalia branching, cf. substitution.
apposition:in cell wall formation, growth by deposition of layer after layer of wall material, cf. intussusception.
appressed:pressed closely against a surface, often that of another organ, but not united with it, cf. adherent, adnate, coherent, connate, connivent,fasciate, fasciculate, fastigiate, free, phalangiate.
aquatic:of the general habitat, a plant living in or on water for all or a substantial part of the life span, cf. amphibious, epilithic, epiphytic, epiphyllous, terrestrial.
Arabinose:[147-81-9]:(C5 H9 O4)-OH - an aldopentose epimeric with ribose at the 2 carbon, occurring naturally in both D- and L-forms, widely distributed in the form of complex polysaccharides, glycosides, and mucilages; arabinoside is a glycoside of arabinose and occurs widely in plant species as a component of sugars, also in gum arabic.
Synonyms:Arabinose;EINECS 205-699-8;EINECS 243-619-3
Formula: C5 H10 O5. CAS RN:147-81-9 Other RN:20235-19-2 Molecular Weight:150.131 Melting Point:158.5 deg C
log P (octanol-water): -3.02E+00 Water Solubility: 5.00E+05 mg/L at 25 deg C Vapor Pressure: 1.11E-06 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant: 2.00E-13 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant: 8.93E-11 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
Arachic acid:[94266-33-8]:See Arachidic acid.
Arachidic acid:[506-30-9]:Synonyms:Arachidic Acid; icosanic acid; icosanoic acid; n-icosanoic Acid;arachidic acid, ammonium salt;arachidic acid, barium salt;arachidic acid, calcium salt;arachidic acid, magnesium salt;arachidic acid, potassium salt;arachidic acid, sodium salt;zinc arachidate
CAS Type 1 Name:Arachidic acid;Eicosanoic acid;Icosanoic acid
Formula: C20 H40 O2. Molecular Weight:312.5348 CAS RN:506-30-9 Melting Point:74 - 76 Boiling Point:328
arachnoid:especially of hairs, looking rather lik a spider's web.
arborescent:of habit, resembling a tree, a term applied to non-woody plants attaining tree height and to shrubs tending to become tree-like in size, cf. acaulescent, dendroid, frutescent, fruticose, herb, liane, rheophyte, suffrutescent, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, tree, vine, see also life forms.
arbuscular mycorrhiza:an endomycorrhizal association between a fungus and a plant root where the fungal hyphae form coils and/or arbuscules or arbusculate coils within the plant cell, see also Arum and Paris types, cf. VAM.
arbuscular:like a small tree, applied to hairs and the complex intrusions of hyphae into the cells in arbuscular and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae.
archegonial chamber:a cavity or space between the megasporangium and the female gametophyte, cf. egg, neck, venter.
archegonium:the fertile organ of a female gametophyte or the female organ of a bisexual gametophyte of an embryophyte, in which female gametes or eggs are formed, see archegonial chamber, neck, venter, and egg, cf. antheridium.
archesporium:= tissue that gives rise to megasporocytes or microsporocytes as well as parietal tissue, including the endothecium (in the anther) and the nucellar tissue (in the ovule).
Arctigenin [7770-78-7] :Synonyms:(-)-Arctigenin;Arctigenen;Dibenzylbutyrolactone lignanolide; (-)-Arctigenin;2(3H)-Furanone, 4-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl)dihydro-3-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-, (3R,4R)-;2(3H)-Furanone, 4-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl)dihydro-3-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-, (3R-trans)-;26687-78-5;41328-87-4;7770-78-7;AIDS-002466;AIDS002466;Arctigenen;Arctigenin;C10545;Dibenzylbutyrolactone lignanolide
Chemical Name:2(3H)-Furanone, 4-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl)dihydro-3-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-, (3R-trans)- Note:Precursor to catechols; in many plants.
Formula:C21H24O6. CAS RN:7770-78-7 Other RN:26687-78-5;41328-87-4 M.W.372.412 g/mol
Arctiin [20362-31-6]:Synonyms:2(3H)-Furanone;4-((3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl)-3-((4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)dihydro-, (3R-trans)- (9CI);2(3H)-Furanone, 4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3-[[4-(b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]methyl]dihydro-, (3R,4R)-;20362-31-6;AIDS-002468;AIDS002468;Arctigenin-4-glucoside;Arctiin;Arctiin (8CI);NSC 315527
Chemical Name:2(3H)-Furanone, 4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3-[[4-(b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]methyl]dihydro-, (3R,4R)- Systematical Name:Arctiin (8CI);Arctigenin-4-glucoside
Formula:C27H34O11. CAS RN:20362-31-6 M.W.534.552 g/mol Note:From fruits of Arctium lappa L.
arcuate:curved like a bow.
areole:any small, discretely bounded area; a cluster of hairs/spines/bristles borne at the node of (in Cactaceae) a usually leafless stem; in Fabaceae-Mimosoideae a distinct, oblong or elliptical area on the face of a seed, bounded by a fine line, the linea fissura; in leaf venation, the space bounded by the finest veins on the lamina, adj. areolate.
Arginine [74-79-3]:Synonyms:2-Amino-5-guanidinovaleric acid; 2-Amino-5-guanidinopentanoic acid; Arg; Arginine; L-Arginine; L-(+)-Arginine; L-ARGININE FREE BASE SIGMA GRADE CRYSTALLINE; (S)-(+)-Arginine; ;(L)-Arginine;(S)-2-Amino-5-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)pentanoic acid;1-Amino-4-guanidovaleric acid;4-04-00-02648 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-24165;Arginina [INN-Spanish];Arginine;Arginine (VAN);Argininum [INN-Latin];BRN 1725413;CCRIS 3609;EINECS 200-811-1;HSDB 1429;L-(+)-Arginine;L-Norvaline, 5-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)-;L-Ornithine, N5-(aminoiminomethyl)-;L-alpha-Amino-delta-guanidinovaleric acid;NSC 206269;Pentanoic acid, 2-amino-5-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)-, (S)-
CAS Type 1 Name:Arginine;Arginine, L-;L-Arginine;Argamine;Argivene;Detoxargin;L-Arginine hydrochloride;L-Arginine monohydrochloride;L-Arginine, monohydrochloride;Levargin;Minophagen A;R-Gene
Formula:C6H14N4O2. CAS RN:74-79-3 Other RN:142-49-4 7004-12-8 M.W.174.2022 Melting Point:223 - 224
aril:in the strict sense, an often fleshy outgrowth partly or wholly covering a seed and developed from the funicle or raphe, but also used more generally to refer to a similar structure derived from any part of the ovule, adj. arillate, cf. arillode, caruncle, coma, elaiosome, sarcotesta, strophiole. There has been much and sometimes acrimonious debate over the correct definition of the term, but it seems that the term, rather like obturator, is best used rather broadly, with its origin being given for clarity.
arillode:not a very useful term - a fleshy structure partly or wholly covering a seed and developed from any part of the ovule, cf. aril, caruncle, elaiosome, sarcotesta, strophiole.
arista:of the apex of a structure, having a stiff, bristle-like awn or tip, adj. aristate, cf. acumen, acute, attenuate, apiculum, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
aristolochic acid:a phenanthrene-carboxylic acid derivative of a benzoisoquinoline precursors.
Aristolochic acid, C17 H11 N O7.
Arrhythmia:an abnormal heart rhythm. The heart rhythm may be too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia) or irregular. Some arrhythmias, such as ventricular fibrillation, may lead to cardiac arrest if not treated promptly.
article:a segment of a jointed stem, or of a fruit with constrictions between the seeds.
articulated:jointed, e.g. the more or less swollen apex of a petiolule in particular that has a line across the broadest part, with separation commonly occuring here when the leaflets fall, articulation, cf. pulvinus; of a stem, having prominent nodes; of a laticifer, having cross walls, cf. non-articulated.
Arum-type arbuscular mycorrhiza:an arbuscular mycorrhiza association between a fungus and a plant root where the fungal hyphae form arbuscules within the plant cell, see also Paris type.
arylphenalenones:phenalenones with aryl radicals, pigments found in Haemodoraceae, derived from 9-phenylphenalenone.Haemocorin, C32 H34 O14.
ascending:growing erect after an oblique or semi-horizontal beginning, cf. decumbent, procumbent, repent.
ascending:cochleate aestivation in which one petal has its two edges outside those of the adjacent petals, one has its two edges both inside, and the other petals have one edge outside and the other inside, the petal with the two edges inside being in the median-adaxial position, cf. descending.
ascidiate:pitcher-shaped, more or less tubular and often widening towards a flared mouth and then subpeltate, esp. used of the leaves of several carnivorous plants, or of carpels, cf. conduplicate.
Ascorbic Acid:[50-81-7]:Synonyms:Ascorbic Acid; Acid Ascorbic; L-(+)-Ascorbic Acid; Sunkist; Cebid; Cecon; Cevalin; Cemill; Ascorbicap; Vitamin C; L-3-ketothreohexuronic acid; L-ascorbic acid; Xitix; vitamisin; vitascorbol; vicelat; Vicin; vicomin c; viforcit; viscorin; vitace; vitacee; vitacimin; Hicee; hybrin; IDO-C; lemascorb; liqui-cee; Meri-c; natrascorb injectable; 3-oxo-L-gulofuranolactone (enol form); planavit c; redoxon; ribena; roscorbic; scorbacid; scorbu-c; secorbate; testascorbic; cemagyl; ce-mi-lin; cenetone; cereon; cergona; cescorbat; cetamid; cetemican; cevatine; Cevex; cevibid; cevimin; ce-vi-sol; cevital; cevitamin; cevitan; cevitex; Cewin; ciamin; Cipca; citriscorb; c-level; C-Long; colascor; concemin; C-Quin; C-Span; c-vimin; dora-c-500; davitamon c; duoscorb; L-threo-hex-2-enonic acid, gamma-lactone; antiscorbic vitamin; antiscorbutic vitamin; cevitamic acid; 3-keto-L-gulofuranolactone; L-3-ketothreohexuronic acid lactone; laroscorbine; L-lyxoascorbic acid; 3-oxo-L-gulofuranolactone; L-xyloascorbic acid; adenex; allercorb; cantan; proscorbin; vitacin; AA; arco-cee; ascoltin; ascorb; ascorbajen; ascorbicab; ascor-b.i.d.; ascorbutina; ascorin; ascorteal; ascorvit; cantaxin; catavin c; cebicure; cebion; cee-caps td; cee-vite; cegiolan; ceglion; celaskon; ce lent; Celin;
CAS Type 1 Name:Ascorbic acid;L-Ascorbic acid;Vitamin C
Formula:C6H8O6. CAS RN:50-81-7 M.W.:176.1256 Melting Point.:190 - 192 Water Solubility.:>=10 g/100 mL at 23 C
Description:A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
asexual (of reproduction):= apomixis s. lat., sometimes equated with vegetative reproduction.
asiatic acid [464-92-6]:Synonyms:NSC 166063
Chemical Name:Asiatic acid ; Urs-12en-28-oic acid, 2,3,23-trihydroxy-, (2alpha, 3beta, 4alpha)-
CAS Type 1 Name:Urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,3,23-trihydroxy-,(2alpha,3beta,4alpha)-
Formula: C30 H48O5. CAS RN:464-92-6
Asiaticoside [16830-15-2]:Synonyms:Centelase;Madecassol;(O-alpha-L-Rhamnopyranoxyl-(1-4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxy-12-ursen-28-oat ; 2alpha,3beta,23-Trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-saeure(O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-O-beta-;D-glucopyranosyl)ester;4-17-00-03627 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);Asiaticosid; Asiaticoside;BRN 0078195;Ba 2742;Blastoestimulina;CCRIS 8995;Centelase;Dermatologico;EINECS 240-851-7;Emdecassol;Madecassol;NSC 166062; O-6-Desoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-beta-D-;glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ;2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxy-12-ursen-28-at
Chemical Name: O-6-Deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1.4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1.6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (2alpha,3beta,4alpha)-2,3,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oate ; Urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2-alpha,3-beta,23-trihydroxy-, O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-4)-o-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-o-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester
CAS Type 1 Name:Urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2,3,23-trihydroxy-, O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester, (2alpha,3beta,4alpha)-
Formula: C48 H78O19. CAS RN:16830-15-2
Asparagine [70-47-3]:Synonyms:2-Amino-3-carbamoylpropanoic acid; 2-Aminosuccinamic acid; Asparagine; Asn; L-Asparagine; N; (S)-(-)-Asparagine;
Formula: C4 H8N2O3. Molecular Weight:132.1188 CAS RN:70-47-3 ACX Number:X1009229-2.
Asparamide [70-47-3]:Synonyms:(S)-2,4-Diamino-4-oxobutanoic acid;alpha-Aminosuccinamic acid
Formula: C4 H8N2O3. Molecular Weight:132.1181 CAS RN:70-47-3
Aspartic acid [56-84-8]:Synonyms:2-Aminobutanedioic acid; 2-aminosuccinic acid; Asp; Aspartic acid; D; L-2-Aminobutanedioic acid; L-Aminosuccinic acid; L-Aspartic acid; L-ASPARTIC ACID FREE ACID SIGMA GRADE CRYSTALLINE; (S)-(+)-Aspartic Acid; sparaginic Acid;
Formula: C4 H7NO4. Molecular Weight:133.1036 CAS RN:56-84-8 ACX Number:X1007043-4
asperulate:slightly rough to the touch.
asphodelin:a yellow colored anthraquinone.
Aspirin:[50-78-2]:See Acetylsalicylic Acid.
Asthma:a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, characterized by recurrent episodes of reversible airflow obstruction.
Astragalin[480-10-4]:Synonyms:kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside; Astragalin;Astragaline,K5,Kaempferol-3-D-glucoside,Kaempferol-3-beta-glucopyranoside,Kaempferol-3-beta-monoglucoside,Kaempferol-3-glucoside
Chemical Name:3,4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone-3-glucoside; 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-
CAS TYPE 1 Name:3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone-3-glucoside
Formula: C21 H20O11 CAS RN:480-10-4
astrosclereid:a sclereid cell with rather short, stout branches, cf. brachysclereid, macrosclereid, trichosclereid.
asymmetric:with no plane of symmetry, such that dividing the structure down its axis does not produce mirror-image or identical halves, e.g. oblique leaf bases; when considering floral asymmetry, there are two main kinds, one is not very striking and is found in the haplomorphic flowers of e.g. Magnolia, where the halves are very similar, but not identical, the differences seemingly being inconsequential(!), and the other, as in Canna, is more striking, and the asymmetry, primarily in the androecium and gynoecium, is clearly connected with the pollination mechanism, see also enantiomorphic, enantiostylous, cf. bisymmetric, monosymmetric, oblique, polysymmetric.
atactostele:a variant of a stele in which the vascular bundles are scattered through the ground tissue, cf. eustele, dictyostele, protostele, siphonostele.
Ataxia:a lack of coordination or unsteadiness usually related to a disturbance in the cerebellum, a part of the brain that regulates coordination and equilibrium.
atectate:pollen in which the sexine is represented only by isolated baculae, pilae, granules or other elements, cf. semitectate, tectate.
Atherosclerosis:an inflammatory disease resulting in the accumulation of cholesterol-laden plaque in artery walls. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaque results in clot formation, which may result in myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke.
ATP:adenosine triphosphate. An important compound for the storage of energy in cells, as well as the synthesis of nucleic acids.
Atria:(singular: atrium) two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and contract to force that blood into the ventricles.
Atrial fibrillation:a cardiac arrhythmia, characterized by rapid, uncoordinated beating of the atria, which results in ineffective atrial contractions. Atrial fibrillation is known as a supraventricular arrhythmia because it originates above the ventricles.
Atrophic gastritis:a chronic inflammation of the lining of the stomach, which ultimately results in the loss of glands in the stomach (atrophy) and decreased stomach acid production.
Atrophy:decrease in size or wasting away of a body part or tissue.
Atropine[51-55-8]:Synonyms: (+,-)-Tropyl tropate;1alphaH,5alphaH-Tropan-3alpha-ol (+-)-tropate (ester);2-Phenylhydracrylic acid 3-alpha-tropanyl ester; AI3-60219;Atropin;Atropin [German];Atropin-flexiolen;Atropina [Italian];Atropine;Atropinol;Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-8-methyl-8-;azabicyclo(3,2,1)oct-3-yl ester, endo-(+-)-;CCRIS 3080;DL-Tropanyl 2-hydroxy-1-phenylpropionate;EINECS 200-104-8;Eyesules;HSDB 2199;Isopto-atropine;Tropic acid, 3-alpha-tropanyl ester;Tropic acid, ester with tropine;Tropine tropate;Tropine, tropate (ester); Troyl tropate;alpha-(Hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-;azabicyclo(3.2.1)oct-3-yl ester;beta-Phenyl-gamma-oxypropionsaeure-tropyl-ester [German];beta-Phenyl-gamma-oxypropionsaure-tropyl-ester [German];dl-Hyoscyamine; dl-Tropyltropate;8-Methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octan-3-yl 3-hydroxy-2-phenylpropionate; Atropine; Atropt; Belladenal; Bellergal-s; Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-(hydroxymethyl)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester endo-(+-)-; beta-(Hydroxymethyl)benzeneacetic acid 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl ester; Butibel; DL-Hyoscyamine; Donnagel; Donnatal; Hycodan; Lomotil; Lonox; Minims; Neo-Diophen; Urised;
CAS Type 1 Name:Benzeneacetic acid, alpha-(hydroxymethyl)- 8-methyl-8-azabicyclo(3.2.1)oct-3-yl ester endo-(+-)-
Formula:C17H23NO3. CAS RN:51-55-8 Other RN:78597-12-3 M.W.289.37 Melting Point:114 - 118
Note:A toxic alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly Solanaceae.
atropous:a erect, straight ovule with funicle, chalaza and micropyle in a straight line, cf. amphitropous, anatropous, campylotropous, circinotropous, hemitropous.
attenuate:tapering gradually to a point, a vague term that is probably better replaced by narrowly acute or acuminate where appropriate, cf. acumen, acute, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
aucubin:bitter-tasting route II decarboxylated iridoid.
CAS Type 1 Name:1,4a,5,7a-tetrahydro-5-hydroxy-7-hydroxymethylcyclopenta(c)pyran-1-yl-beta-D-glucopyranoside Formula:C15H22O9 CAS RN:479-98-1 M.W.346.33 g/mol Water Solubility:3.56E+05 mg/L at 20 deg C
aulacospermous:referring to seeds in which individual endothelial cells protrude into the endosperm, the endosperm becoming alveolate (it may appear to be ruminate in crosss section), cf. bothrospermous.
auricle:an ear-shaped appendage at the base of a leaf, leaflet or corolla lobe, adj. auriculate.
aurones:golden-colored flavonoids isomeric with cf. flavones with Z-sterochemistry at the double bond, often found in flowers, cf. chalcones; they are anthochlors.
Benzofuranone, C15 H10 O2.
Sulfuretin, C15 H10 O5.
autapomorphic:of a character, derived, an evolutionary novelty of a terminal clade in a particular study, at a finer level of analysis a synapomorphy of all members of that clade, cf. also apomorphic, plesiomorphic, synapomorphic.
auto- (prefix):self, alone, single.
autochory:dispersal of diaspores without the aid of any external agent, e.g. by explosive dehiscence of the fruit, cf. anemochory, hydrochory, zoochory.
autoecious:referring to rust fungi in which the aecial and telial stages are on the one host plant, cf. heteroecious.
autogamy:pollination and fertilisation occuring by pollen from within the same flower, cf. allogamy, cross pollination, cf. also geitonogamy, self pollination.
Autoimmune disease:A condition, in which the body's immune system reacts against its own tissues.
autopolyploid:a plant with a chromosome number that is a multiple of base number (n) of its parent, hybridisation not being involved, represented as 3x, 4x, etc., cf. allopolyploid, aneuploid, diploid, dysploid, haploid, polyploid.
Autosomal:refers to a trait or gene that is not located on the X or Y chromosome (not sex-linked).
autotroph:an organism independent of others in respect of organic nutrition, being able to fix carbon dioxide by photosynthesis, to form carbohydrates, cf. heterotroph.
autumn wood:= late wood.
auxoblast:= long shoot.
auxotelic:applied to inflorescences, parts of inflorescences or to axes that do not end in a flower, and in which growth continues beyond the flowering region, cf. anauxotelic, see also raceme.
awn:of the apex of a structure, a long bristle-like appendage, e.g. on the tip or back of the lemma of a grass floret, cf. acute, attenuate, acumen, apiculum, arista, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
axial:of tissues or parts of the plant formed from stem (or root) or structures considered "homologous" with them, cf. appendicular.
axial parenchyma:longitudinally-elongated parenchyma cells in among the tracheary tissue, see aliform, apotracheal, banded and paratracheal, cf. ray parenchyma.
axil:the angle formed by an axis and a leaf borne on it, it; adj. axillary, e.g. of a bud, inflorescence, etc., subtended by a leaf, cf. intercalary, leaf-opposed, supra-axillary, also cauliflorous, ramiflorous, terminal (of inflorescence or infructescence position).
axile:of the placentation of an ovary, usually (unless pseudomonomerous) with septae separating loculi, the ovules being borne on the central axis, cf. apical, basal (these two really just variants of axile placentation), free central, laminar, marginal, parietal.
axis:a stem, the term being commonly used for the main stem of a plant or of an inflorescence, see inflorescence axis.
Azelaic Acid [123-99-9]:Synonyms:Azelaic Acid; Azelaic acid, flakes; Nonanedioic acid;
Formula: C9 H16O4. Molecular Weight:188.223 CAS RN:123-99-9 ACX Number:X1001316-8. Melting Point:98 - 102. Boiling Point:286 at 100 mm Hg. Flashing Point:210.
azetidine-2-carboxylic acid:C4 H7 N O2, a non-protein amino acid, an alpha-amino acid with a primary -imino group (-NH) and a carboxyl group attached to the same carbon atom.
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