Backward Glossary Phytochemicals B!

Glossary Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!

 Glossary Phytochemicals Icon01
 Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.

 Glossary Phytochemicals Icon02
 There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

 Contents: Bakkenolide A [19906-72-0] | banded | banner of a petal | barbed | bark | bars of Sanio | basal | basal cell | basal leaves | base number | base plate | basifixed | basifugal | basinerved | basipetal | basiscopic | basitonic | bast | baohuoside I:[113558-15-9] | baohuoside II:[55395-07-8] | Baohuoside VI:[119760-73-5 ] | baohuoside VII:[119730-89-1] |beak | bee purple | begonioid | Benzaldehyde[100-52-7] | benzene | benzofuran | Benzoic Acid [65-85-0] | Benzoic acid derivatives | benzoisoquinolines | benzopyran | benzoquinones |Benzylacetone [2550-26-7] | Benzyl ethyl ether[539-30-0] | Benzyl isovalerate [103-38-8] | benzylisoquinoline alkaloids | berberine | berry | | Bergapten[484-20-8] | Beta-Amyrin [559-70-6] | Beta-bisabolene [495-61-4] | betacyanins |beta-carbaline alkaloids | beta carotene:[7235-40-7] | beta-caryphyllene |beta-Cyclocitral [432-25-7] | beta-Elemene[33880-83-0] | Beta-Escin[11072-93-8] | beta-eudesmol [473-15-4] | beta-farnesene[18794-84-8] | Beta-Guaienel:[88-84-6] | Betaine [107-43-7] | betaines | beta-ionone[14901-07-6] | betalains | beta-Ocimene[13877-91-3] |beta-pinene:[127-91-3] | beta-phellandrene [555-10-2] | beta-Santalene[511-59-1] |beta-selinene[17066-67-0] | Beta-sitosterol | Beta-sitosterolglucoside | Beta-terpinene | beta-thujone:[1125-12-8] | betaxanthins | Betulic acid | Betulin[473-98-3] | Betulinic acid[4481-62-3] | bi- (prefix) | bicollateral |bicolor unit | biennial | bifacial |bifid | biflavonoids | biflavonyls | bifoliolate | biforine | bigeminate | bijugate | bilabiate | bilateral | Bile acids | bilocular |binate | binucleate | Biochanin A [491-80-5] |biotroph | Biotin:[58-85-5] | Biotin function | Biotransformation enzymes (phase I and phase II) | bipartite | bipinnate | biradial (of symmetry) | Bisabolene [495-62-5] | biseriate | biserrate | bisexual (of flowers) |bistomal | bisymmetric | BLA |blade (of leaf) | blastotelic | blastozone | boat-shaped | bole | Boron [7440-42-8] | bordered | Borneol [507-70-0] | Bornyl acetate [76-49-3] | Boschnaloside [72963-55-4] | bostryx |bothrospermous | boundary | brachy- (prefix) |brachyblast | brachyparacytic | brachysclereid | bract | bracteole | bractlet | broad(ly) | broad-transverse | brochi | brochidodromous | brush presentation |bud |bud scale | bufadienolides | bulb |bulbil | bullate | bulliform cells | bundle | burr | Butanedioic acid | Butanedionic acid | Butanone [78-93-3] | buttress | butyric acid [107-92-6] | buzz pollination |

  BakkenolideA BakkenolideA
 Bakkenolide A [19906-72-0]:Synonyms:Bakkenolid A;Bakkenolide A;FUKINANOLIDE;Fukinanolid;NSC 292655;19906-72-0;Bakkenolid A;Bakkenolide A;Fukinanolid;FUKINANOLIDE;NSC292655;Spiro[furan-3 (2H),2'-indan]-2-one, 3'a,4,4',5,5',6', 7',7'a.beta.-octahydro-3'a.beta.,4'.beta.-dimethyl-4-methylene-, (2'R)-;Spiro[furan-3 (2H),2'-[2H]inden]-2-one, decahydro-3'a,4'-dimethyl-4-methylene-, [2'R-(2'.alpha., 3'a.alpha.,4'.alpha.,7'a.alpha.)]-;Spiro[furan-3(2H),2'-indan]-2-one, 3'a,4,4',5,5',6',7',7'abeta-octahydro-3'abeta,4'beta-dimethyl-4-methylene-, (2'R)-;Spiro[furan-3(2H),2'-[2H]inden]-2-one, decahydro-3'a,4'-dimethyl-4-methylene-, [2'R-(2'alpha,3'aalpha,4'alpha,7'aalpha)]-
Chemical Name:2(3H)-Furanone, 4-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-3-[[4-(b-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]methyl]dihydro-, (3R,4R)-  Systematical Name:Arctiin (8CI);Arctigenin-4-glucoside
Formula:C15H22Ow.  CAS RN:19906-72-0  M.W.234.334 g/mol  
 banded:of axial parenchyma, the parenchyma cells forming bands, whether or not associated with vessels, i.e. either apotracheal, cf. boundary, diffuse, or paratracheal, cf. aliform.
 = standard.
 barbed:terminal or lateral retrorse projections on a structure, each projection being a barb, cf. glochidiate; barbellae, short, straight, stiff hairs or barbs, adj. barbellate.
 bark:a non-technical term for that part of the stem or root outside the vascular cambium, see inner bark, outer bark.
 bars of Sanio:two bar-like thickenings (crassulae) made up largely of primary cell wall material that are found on either side of a bordered pit.
 basal:at the base; of placentation, at the base of the ovary, the ovules then usually ascending or erect, cf. apical, axile, free-central, intrusive-parietal, laminar, marginal, parietal.
 basal cell:the basal, i.e. micropylar, cell formed after the first division of the zygote, which further divides to produce the suspensor, cf apical cell.the basal, i.e. micropylar, cell of the suspensor in the proembryo, often enlarged or even haustorial, cf. hypophysis, also the lowermost cell formed after the first division of the zygote, which further divides to produce the suspensor, cf apical cell.
 basal leaves:the leaves at the base of the stem, cf. also rosette leaves, cf. cauline.
 base number:the haploid chromosome number of the common ancestor of a group, represented as "x" followed by the actual number.
 base plate:the inner periclinal wall of an endothecial cell bearing a more or less plate-like and lignified thickening, coming in a variety of forms (see Manning 1996).
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 basifixed:attached at or by the base, e.g. of anthers, attached by the base to the filament, cf. dorsifixed, embedded, versatile.
 basifugal:= acropetal.
 basinerved:= palmate.
 basipetal:produced or differentiated in succession towards the base of an organ, e.g. of an inflorescence, with flowers arising or developing in a sequence beginning at the apex and proceeding towards the base, see also centrifugal, cf. acropetal.
 basiscopic:= retrorse.
 basitonic:branching particularly well developed near the base of the stem or innovation, cf. acrotonic.
 bast:the portion of the inner bark represented by the phloem.
 BaohuosideI BaohuosideI
 baohuoside I:[113558-15-9]Synonyms:3,5,7-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyl-8-prenylflavone-3-O-rhamnopyranoside;
CAS Type 1 Name :4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-  
CAS RN:113558-15-9  
 BaohuosideII BaohuosideII
 baohuoside II:[55395-07-8]:Synonyms: Baohuoside II
CAS Type 1 Name :4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-alpha-L-mennopyranosyl)oxy)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
Formula: C26 H28 O10. CAS RN:55395-07-8  
 BaohuosideVI BaohuosideVI
 Baohuoside VI:[119760-73-5 ]:Synonyms:3,5,7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-prenylflavone-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl(4-1)rhamnopyranosyl-rhamnopyranosyl(4-1)-glucopyranoside
CAS Type 1 Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3-((6-deoxy-4-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)oxy)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-
CAS RN:119760-73-5
 BaohuosideVII BaohuosideVII
 baohuoside VII:[119730-89-1]:Synonyms:3,5,7-(trihydroxy)-4'-methoxyl-8-prenylflavone-3-O-rhamnopyranosyl(4--1)-glucopyranoside
CAS Type 1 Name:1135-24-6  
CAS RN:119730-89-1  
 beak:a prominent terminal projection, especially of a carpel or fruit.
 bee purple:in mellitophily or bee pollination, the color of yellow ultra-violet reflecting flowers; since bees can see in the ultraviolet, the combination is a very distinctive color. Yellow flowers that absorb in the ultraviolet appear pure yellow to the bee.
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 begonioid:a leaf tooth in which there is a translucent apical pad of densely packed cells, one lateral vein strengthened at the expense of the apical and the other lateral vein, perhaps a close to a cucurbitoid tooth, cf. also chloranthoid, cunonioid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
 Benzaldehyde Benzaldehyde
 Benzaldehyde[100-52-7]:almond artificial essential oil; artificial almond oil; Artificial Bitter Almond Oil; Artificial essential oil of almond; Benzaldehyde; Benzaldehyde? benzenecarbonal; benzenecarboxaldehyde; Benzenemethylal; Benzoic aldehyde; Benzoyl hydride; oil of bitter almond; Phenylmethanal;AI3-09931 ;Almond artificial essential oil;Artificial almond oil;Artificial essential oil of almond;Benzaldehyde;Benzaldehyde (natural);Benzaldehyde FFC;Benzene carbaldehyde;Benzene carboxaldehyde;Benzenecarbonal;Benzenecarboxaldehyde;Benzenemethylal;Benzoic aldehyde;Bitter almond oil, synthetic;CCRIS 2376;Caswell No. 076;EINECS 202-860-4;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 008601;FEMA No. 2127;HSDB 388;NCI-C56133;NSC 7917;Oil Of bitter almond;Phenylmethanal;Synthetic oil of bitter almond
CAS Type 1 Name:Artificial almond oil;Benzaldehyde;Benzaldehyde [USAN];benzaldehyde, formyl-(14)C-labeled
Chemical Name:Benzaldehyde  Formula: C7 H6O.  Molecular Weight:106.1238  CAS RN:100-52-7   Melting Point:-26
ACX Number:X1000931-1.  Density3.6   Flashing Point:62   Boiling Point:179.   Water Solubility:<0.01 g/100 mL at 19.5 C
 benzene:an aromatic 6-carbon ring.
 benzofuran:a type of terpene formed from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and an acetate-derived polyketide precursor.
 Benzoic Acid [65-85-0]:Synonyms:Benzenecarboxylic Acid; benzeneformic acid; benzenemethonic acid; Benzoic acid; Benzoic acid? Diacylic acid; Carboxybenzene; Oracylic acid; phenyl carboxylic acid; phenylformic acid; retarded ba; retardex; tennplas;
Formula: C7 H6O2.  Molecular Weight:122.1232   CAS RN:65-85-0   ACX Number:X1001262-5.  Melting Point:122.4.  Density:1.08.  Vapor Density:4.2.  Boiling Point:249.  Flashing Point:121.  Water Solubility:Slightly soluble. 0.34 g/100 mL  RTECS:DG0875000.
 Benzoic acid derivatives
 Benzoic acid derivatives:Formula:(C6-C1)
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid;Vanillic acid;Gallic acid;Syringic acid;etc.
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid:H H
Vanillic acid:H,OCH3
Gallic acid:OH-OH
Syringic acid:OCH3OCH3
 benzoisoquinolines:organic compounds where the benzene ring added to an isoquinoline nucleus.
 benzopyran:a type of terpene, pigments, a class of chromone.
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 benzoquinones:simple quinones in which an aromatic ring is fused to two oxygen atoms, there being two carbonyl groups, usually in the para (1,4) position; often yellow in color.
Benzoquinone base.Arbutin, C12 H16 O7.
benzoquinone base
Embelin, C17 H26 O4.
Maesaquinone, C26 H42 O4.
 Benzylacetone Benzylacetone
 Benzylacetone [2550-26-7]:Synonyms:1-Phenyl-3-butanone,2-Butanone,4-phenyl-,2550-26-7,4-07-00-00713 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),4-Phenyl-2-butanone,4-Phenylbutan-2-one,AI3-15123,Benzylacetone,beta-Phenylethyl methyl ketone,BRN 1907123,EINECS 219-847-4,Methyl 2-phenylethyl ketone,Methyl phenethyl ketone,Methyl phenylethyl ketone,NISTC2550267,NSC 44829,NSC 813,NSC44829,NSC813,Phenethyl methyl ketone
Chemical Name:2-Butanone, 4-phenyl-; 4-Phenylbutan-2-one   CAS RN:2550-26-7  Formula:C10H12O  Molecular Weight:148.2042   Melting Point:-1.30E+01 deg C  Boiling Point:233.5 deg C
 Benzyl ethyl ether[539-30-0]:Synonyms:(Ethoxymethyl)benzene;AI3-02270;Benzene, (ethoxymethyl)-;Benzyl ethyl ether;Benzyl ethyl oxide;EINECS 208-714-6;Ether, benzyl ethyl;Ethyl benzyl ether;FEMA No. 2144;NSC 8066
Chemical Name:Benzene, (ethoxymethyl)-;Benzyl ethyl ether;Ether, benzyl ethyl (8CI)
CAS RN:539-30-0  Formula:C19H12O  Molecular Weight:136.1932   Boiling Point:62 at 30 mm
 Benzyl isovalerate
 Benzyl isovalerate [103-38-8]:Synonyms:4-06-00-02266 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-02953;BRN 2503435;Benzyl 3-methyl butyrate;Benzyl 3-methylbutanoate;Benzyl 3-methylbutyrate;Benzyl isopentanoate;Benzyl isovalerate;Benzyl isovalerate (natural);Benzyl isovalerianate;Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, phenylethyl ester;Butanoic acid, 3-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester;EINECS 203-106-7;FEMA No. 2152; Isopentanoic acid, phenylmethyl ester;Isopropyl acetic acid, benzyl ester;Isovaleric acid, benzyl ester;NSC 46124;Phenylmethyl 3-methylbutanoate;Benzyl 3-methyl butanoate; Benzyl isovalerate;
Formula: C12 H16 O2.  Molecular Weight:192.2572   CAS RN:107-92-6  ACX Number:X1019605-5.  Density:0.985
 benzylisoquinoline miltanthaline
 benzylisoquinoline alkaloids:a group of isoquinoline alkaloids, usually poisonous; modified dimers of tyrosine derived from 3.4-dihydroxytyramine (dopamine) condensed with a carbonyl compound (4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde), a benzene ring added to an isoquinoline nucleus.
 berberine:a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid.
 berry:strictly speaking, a usually fleshy or pulpy indehiscent fruit s. str. with the seed(s) surrounded by the more or less fleshy tissue of the pericarp, adj. baccate, cf. drupe, used more generally, any dispersal structure that consists of fleshy tissue surrounding seeds, as in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) or small, hard dispersal units in general, as in the blackberry (Rubus spp. - pyrenes), or bearing such units on the surface, as in the strawberry (Fragaria spp. - achenes).
 Bergapten[484-20-8]:Synonyms:O-Methylbergaptol; 4-methoxy-7H-furo(3,2-g)(1)benzopyran-7-one; 4-methoxyfuro(3,2-g)chromen-7-one; 5-methoxy-6,7-furanocoumarin; 5-Methoxypsoralen; 5-MOP; 6-hydroxy-4-methoxy-5-benzofuranacrylic acid, gamma-lactone; bergapten; heraclin; majudin; psoraderm;
Formula: C12 H8 O4.  Molecular Weight:216.1928   CAS RN:484-20-8   Melting Point:188.
ACX Number:X1008782-0.  Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 19 C   See 5-Methoxypsoralen [484-20-8].
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 Beta-Amyrin Beta-Amyrin
 Beta-Amyrin [559-70-6]:Synonyms:amyrin;amyrin, (3alpha)-isomer;(3-.beta.)-Olean-12-en-3-ol;(3S,4aR,5R,6aR,6bR,8S,8aR,12aR,14aR,14bR)-4,4,6a,6b,8a,11,11,14b-Octamethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,6,6a,6b,7,8,8a,9,10,11,12,12a,14,14a,14b-eicosahydro-picen-3-ol;559-70-6;AIDS-058054;AIDS058054;Amyrin;beta-Amyrenol;beta-Amyrin;beta.-Amyrenol;beta.-Amyrin;C08616;EINECS 209-204-6;NSC 527971;Olean-12-en-3-ol, (3beta)- (9CI);Olean-12-en-3beta-ol
Chemical Name:Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(5-methyl-1-methylene-4-hexenyl)-, (S)-
CAS RN:559-70-6  ACX Number:X1035986-5.  Formula:C30H50O  M.W.:426.717 g/mol  Melting Point.:197 deg C
 Beta-bisabolene [495-61-4]:Synonyms:beta-bisabolene;(S)-1-Methyl-4-(5-methyl-1-methylene-4-hexenyl)cyclohexene
Chemical Name:Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(5-methyl-1-methylene-4-hexenyl)-, (S)-
CAS RN:495-61-4   ACX Number:X1055660-2.  Formula:C15H24
 betacyanins:red-violet betalains.
 beta-carbaline alkaloids:a class of indole alkaloids which are derived from the amino acid L-tryptophan.
Beta-carbaline base.
beta carbaline base
Methoxyharmalan, C13 H14 N2 O.
Harmine, C13 H12 N2 O.
 betacarotene betacarotene
 beta carotene:[7235-40-7]Synonyms:Betacaroteno [INN-Spanish];Betacaroteno [Spanish];Betacarotenum [INN-Latin];Betacarotenum [Latin];C.I. 75130;C.I. Food Orange 5;CCRIS 3245;Carotaben;Karotin [Czech];NSC 62794;Natural Yellow 26;Provatene;Provitamin A;Serlabo;Solatene;Solatene (caps);Zlut prirodni 26 [Czech];all-trans-beta-Carotene;beta Carotene;beta-Carotene; beta-Carotene, all-trans-;trans-B-Carotene
Systematic Name:Cyclohexene, 1,1'-(3,7,12,16-tetramethyl-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-octadecanonaene-1,18-diyl)bis(2,6,6-trimethyl-, (all-E)-
Chemical Name:beta,beta-Carotene; beta-Carotene, all-trans-
Formula:C40 H56.  CAS RN:7235-40-7  Other RN:116-32-5 31797-85-0 
Note:A Carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria. It has also been used as a coloring agent in food and studied as an antioxidant with possible protective benefits in a number of disorders. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
 beta-caryphyllene:See Caryophyllene.
 beta-Cyclocitral [432-25-7]:432-25-7.
 beta-Elemene[33880-83-0]:Synonyms:(- )-bete-elemene;EINECS 251-713-0;beta-Elemene
Chemical Name:(1alpha,2beta,4beta)-1-Methyl-2,4-bis(methylvinyl)-1-vinylcyclohexane;Cyclohexane, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2,4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-,(1R,2R,4S)-rel-;Cyclohexane, 1-ethenyl-1-methyl-2,4-bis(1-methylethenyl)-, (1alpha,2beta,4beta)-
Formula:C15 H24.  Molecular Weight:204.3546  CAS RN:33880-83-0
 Beta-Escin[11072-93-8]:See Escin.
Chemical Name:beta-Escin   Synoms:Beta-Escin, beta-Reparil, beta-Aescinu.
Formula: 2C55 H86O24.  Molecular Weight:2262.52   CAS RN:11072-93-8
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 beta-eudesmol beta-eudesmol
 beta-eudesmol [473-15-4]:Synonyms:beta-Eudesmol;beta-Selinenol;beta-eudesmol, (2s-(2alpha,4aalpha,8abeta))-isomer;gamma-eudesmol
Chemical Name:2-Naphthalenemethanol, decahydro-8-methylene-alpha,alpha,4a-trimethyl-, (2R-(2-alpha,4a-alpha,8a-beta)- ; 2-Naphthalenemethanol, decahydro-alpha,alpha,4a-trimethyl-8-methylene-, (2R,4aR,8aS)- ;Eudesm-4(14)-en-11-ol (8CI)
Formula: C15 H26O1.  Molecular Weight:136.2364   CAS RN:473-15-4
 beta-farnesene beta-farnesene
 beta-farnesene[18794-84-8]:Synonyms:(6E)-7,11-Dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene;(6Z)-7,11-Dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene;(E)-7,11-Dimethyl-3-methylenedodeca-1,6,10-triene;(Z)-beta-Farnesene;1,3,6,10-Dodecatetraene, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, (3E,6E)-;1,6,10-Dodecatriene;7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-;1,6,10-Dodecatriene, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-, (6E)-;1,6,10-Dodecatriene;7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-, (E)-;1,6,10-Dodecatriene, 7,11-dimethyl-3-methylene-, (Z)-;18452-58-9;18794-84-8;2,6,10-Trimethyldodeca-2,6,9,11-tetraene;21499-64-9;28973-97-9;3,7,11-Trimethyl-1,3,6,10-dodecatetraene;502-60-3;502-61-4;7,11-Dimethyl-3-methylene-1,6,10-dodecatriene;7,11-Dimethyl-3-methylenedodeca-1,6,10-triene,77129-48-7,alpha-Farnesene,alpha-Farnesene (natural),beta-Farnesene,C09666,cis-beta-Farnesene,EINECS 207-948-6,EINECS 242-582-0,EINECS 278-628-1,Farnesene,NISTC18794848,NISTC28973979
Cas Type 1 Name: (E)-7,11-Dimethyl-3-methylenedodeca-1,6,10-triene  Substance Name:beta-Farnesene
Formula: C15H24  CAS RN:18794-84-8  Other RN:502-61-4  Molecular Weight:204.351 g/mol  Melting Point:NMT 25 deg C
 Beta-Guaienel:[88-84-6]:See Guaiene.
 Betaine1 Betaine1
 Betaine [107-43-7]:Synonyms:2-(Trimethylammonio)ethanoic acid, hydroxide, inner salt; Betaine; (Carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt; Glycine betaine; Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, inner salt; Trimethylammonioacetate;;(Carboxymethyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide, inner salt ; 2-(Trimethylammonio)ethanoic acid, hydroxide, inner salt; 4-04-00-02369 (Beilstein Handbook Reference); AI3-24187;AI3-52598;Abromine;BRN 3537113;Betaine;EINECS 203-490-6;Glycine betaine;Glycine, trimethylbetaine;Glycocoll betaine;Glycylbetaine;Glykokollbetain [German];Jortaine;Loramine AMB 13;Lycine;NSC 166511;Oxyneurine;Rubrine C;Trimethylaminoacetic acid;Trimethylglycine;Trimethylglycocoll;alpha-Earleine
Chemical Name:1-Carboxy-N,N,N-trimethylmethanaminium hydroxide, inner salt ; Betaine ; Methanaminium, 1-carboxy-N,N,N-trimethyl-, hydroxide, inner salt ; Trimethylglycine
Formula: C5 H11N O2.  Molecular Weight:117.1474   CAS RN:107-43-7  Other RN:11042-12-9  24980-93-6 45631-77-4 590-30-7 ACX Number:X1006403-6.
 betaines:alkaloid-like compound, a quaternary ammonium basic derivative, may play a role in osmotic regulation in halophytes.
Betaine, C5 H11 N O2.
Homobetaine, C6 H13 N O2.
 beta-ionone beta-ionone
 beta-ionone[14901-07-6]:Synonyms:4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one; 4-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1-cyclohexenyl)-3-buten-2-one; beta-cyclocitrylidenacetone; beta-cyclocitrylideneacetone; beta-Ionone; beta-Ionone, synthetic; Beta-irisone; irisone;trans-beta-Ionone;trans-4-(2,6,6-Trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one; (E)-beta-Ionone
Cas Type 1 Name:4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-1-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2-one  Substance Name:beta-Ionone (trans)
Formula: C13H20O  CAS RN:79-77-6  Molecular Weight:192.3004 g/mol  Boiling Point:229 deg C  Flash Point:122 deg C  Solubility:Slightly soluble
 betalains:type of alkaloid, a chromalkaloid (coloured alkaloid); although not really anthocyanins, they are often called "nitrogenous anthocyanins", including betacyanins and betaxanthins.
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 beta ocimene
 beta-Ocimene[13877-91-3]:Synonyms:3,7-Dimethyl-1,3,6-octatriene; beta-Ocimene; Ocimene; trans-beta-Ocimene;
Formula: C10 H16.  Molecular Weight:136.2364  CAS RN:13877-91-3   ACX Number:X1026171-5.  
 beta-pinene beta-pinene
 beta-pinene:[127-91-3]:Synonyms:2(10)-Pinene; Bicyclo[3.1.1]heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-; beta-Pinene; Nopinene; Pseudopinene;2(10)-Pinene;2,2,6-Trimethylbicyclo(3.1.1)hept-2-ene;6,6-Dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo(3.1.1)heptane;6,6-Dimethyl-2-methylenenorpinane;AI3-24483;Bicyclo(3.1.1)heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene-;EINECS 204-872-5;EINECS 245-424-9;FEMA No. 2903;HSDB 5615;Monoterpenes;NSC 21447;Nopinen;Nopinene;PINENE, BETA;Pseudopinen;Pseudopinene;Rosemarel;Terebenthene;beta-Pinene;beta-Pinene (natural)
Systematic Name:(1)-6,6-Dimethyl-2-methylenebicyclo(3.1.1)heptane; 6,6-Dimethyl-2-methylene-bicyclo(3.1.1)heptane;Bicyclo(3.1.1)heptane, 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylene- ;Pin-2(10)-ene
Chemical Name:Terbenthene;beta-Pinene
Formula: C10 H16.  Molecular Weight:136.2364   CAS RN:127-91-3   Other RN:23089-32-9  Melting Point:-61.  ACX Number:X1002807-8.  Boiling Point:167.  Density0.859   Refractive Index:1.4782  
 beta phellandrene
 beta-phellandrene [555-10-2]:Synonyms:1(7)-2-p-Menthadiene; beta-phellandrene;
Formula: C10 H16.  Molecular Weight:136.2364   CAS RN:555-10-2   ACX Number:X1011758-9.  
 beta-Santalene[511-59-1]:Synonyms:EINECS 208-130-1;beta-Santalene
Chemical Name:(1S-exo)-2-Methyl-3-methylene-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)bicyclo(2.2.1)heptane;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptane, 2-methyl-3-methylene-2-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-, (1S,2R,4R)-
CAS RN:511-59-1  Formula:C15H24
 beta-selinene beta-selinene
Chemical Name:Naphthalene, decahydro-4a-methyl-1-methylene-7-(1-methylethenyl)-, (4aR-(4aalpha,7alpha,8abeta))-
CAS RN:17066-67-0 Other RN:18423-23-9 Formula:C15H24
 Beta-sitosterol:The same as Sitosterol, CAS RN.[5779-62-4].
 Beta-sitosterolglucoside:The same as lyoniside,or Sitogluside,CAS RN.[474-58-8].
 Beta-terpinene:See alpha-Terpinene
 beta-thujone:[1125-12-8]:See Thujone;Synoms:3-isothujone;3-thujanone;beta-thujone, (1alpha,4alpha,5alpha)-isomer;beta-thujone, (1S-(1alpha,4alpha,5alpha))-isomer;beta-thujone, 1S-(1alpha,4beta,5alpha)-isomer;thujone
 betaxanthins:yellow betalains.
 Betulic acid:See Betulinic acid[4481-62-3].
 Betulin Betulin
 Betulin[473-98-3]:Synonyms:Betulin;Triterpenoid;Betulinol;Trochol;Betuline;NSC4644;(3.beta.)-Lup-20(29)-ene-3,28-diol, 18211-63-7, 473-98-3, AI3-62999, AIDS-002710, AIDS002710, Betulin, Betuline, Betulinol, Betulol, C08618, C08631, EINECS 207-475-5, Lup-20(29)-ene-3,28-diol, (3beta)-, Lup-20(29)-ene-3beta,28-diol, Lup-20(30)-ene-3beta,28-diol, Messagenin, NSC 4644, NSC4644, NSC692218, Triterpenoid, Trochol
Chemical Name:(3.beta.)-Lup-20(29)-ene-3,28-diol  Chemical Synonym:lup-20(29)-ene-3alpha,28-diol
Formula: C30 H50O2.  Molecular Weight:442.72 g/mol  CAS RN:473-98-3 472-15-1  CAS Type 1 Name:lup-20(29)-ene-3 beta,28-diol  Note:Antineoplastic agents
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 Betulinicacid Betulinicacid
 Betulinic acid[4481-62-3]:Synonyms:Betulinic acid;Mairin;Betulic acid;RL9-080;NSC113090; NSC677578;(1R,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR)-1-Isopropenyl-5a,5b,8,8,11a-pentamethyl-9-oxo-eicosahydro-cyclopenta[a]chrysene-3a-carboxylic acid, 3-Deoxy-3-oxo-betulinic acid, 3-Oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 4481-62-3, AIDS-051817, AIDS051817, Betulinic Acid, Lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxo-;betulinic acid ;3-Deoxy-3-oxo-betulinic acid;AIDS051817;AIDS-051817;3-Oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid;Lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3-oxo-;4481-62-3;(1R,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR)-1-Isopropenyl-5a,5b,8,8,11a-pentamethyl-9-oxo-eicosahydro-cyclopenta[a]chrysene-3a-carboxylic acid
Chemical Name:(1R,3aS,5aR,5bR,7aR,9S,11aR,11bR,13aR,13bR)-9-Hydroxy-1-isopropenyl-5a,5b,8,8,11a-pentamethyl-eicosahydro-cyclopenta[a]chrysene-3a-carboxylic acid; Lup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid, 3-hydroxy-, (3.beta.)-  Equivalent Name:betulic acid.
Formula: C30 H48O3.  Molecular Weight:456.71 g/mol  CAS RN:4481-62-3 472-15-1  CAS Type 1 Name:3-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid   Note:Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal;Antimalarials;Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic;Prostaglandin Antagonists,Anti-HIV Agents
 bi- (prefix):two, having two of anything, sometimes (and confusingly), two different things, for which the prefix "hetero" is preferable.
 bicollateral:of vascular bundles with phloem on both abaxial and adaxial sides, cf. amphicribral, amphivasal, collateral, also internal phloem, intraxylary phloem.
 bicolor unit:a unit of the inflorescence in many Malvaceae consisting of a modified cyme with three bracts, the latter sometimes forming an epicalyx, cf. drepanium, helicoid cyme, rhipidium, scorpioid cyme.
 biennial:of life span, a plant which lives for more than one but less than two years after germination, cf. annual, ephemeral, perennial, of flowering with respect to architecture, hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic.
 bifacial:of flattened structures, especially leaves, having distinct adaxial and abaxial surfaces, see dorsiventral, isobifacial, cf. unifacial.
 bifid:forked or divided for about half the length of the structure, or into two parts, cf. bipartite.
 biflavonoids:class of flavonoids, most of which are flavone and flavanone dimers with a simple 5, 7-4'- or 5,7,3',4'-oxygenation pattern, derived from the oxidative coupling of two chalcone units and subsequent modification of the central C3 units.
Amentoflavone, C30 H18 O10. amentoflavone
 biflavonyls:a class of flavonoids formed by the dimerization of the flavone apigenin.
Kayaflavone, C33 H24 O10. kayaflavone
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 bifoliolate:of leaves, having two leaflets.
 biforine:raphide-containing cells that have thickened, lignified walls, but usually with thin-walled papillae at the end through which raphides are quickly extruded when the side walls are deformed, the "defensive raphide cells" of some.
 bigeminate:in two pairs.
 bijugate:of leaves and other lateral organs; in opposite pairs, the pairs being not quite at right angles to each other, cf. alternate, decussate, distichous, opposite, pseudoverticillate,spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled.
 bilabiate:two-lipped, e.g. of a monosymmetric flower in which the corolla has distinct adaxial and abaxial lobes surrounding the mouth, see also personate, cf. papilionoid, slit-monosymmetric.
 bilateral:(of symmetry) when loosely used, = monosymmetric, strictly speaking, = bisymmetric.
 Bile acids:components of bile, which are formed by the metabolism of cholesterol, and aid in the digestion of fats.
 bilocular:having two cavities.
 binate:borne in pairs, e.g. the two leaflets of some compound leaves.
 binucleate:of pollen grains in which the male gametophyte has two nuclei when shed from the anther, cf. trinucleate.
 Biochanin A Biochanin A
 Biochanin A [491-80-5]:Synonyms:4'-Methylgenistein;5,7-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone;Biochanin;Biochanin A;CCRIS 5449;EINECS 207-744-7;NSC 123538;biochanin A, 14C-labeled;genistein 4-methyl etherBiochanin A 
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 5,7-dihydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-;5,7-Dihydroxy-3-p-methoxyphenyl-4H-chromen-4-one;5,7-Dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone;Biochanin A;Isoflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy- (8CI)
Formula: C16 H12 O5.  Molecular Weight:284.2678   CAS RN:491-80-5   ACX Number:X1036283-3.  
 biotroph:a parasite that derives its nutrition from the living cells of its host, cf. necrotroph.
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 Biotin Biotin
 Biotin:[58-85-5]Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin, generally classified as a B-complex vitamin. After the initial discovery of biotin, nearly forty years of research were required to establish it as a vitamin. Biotin is required by all organisms but can only be synthesized by bacteria, yeasts, molds, algae, and some plant species.
Synonyms:(+)-Biotin; 1H-Thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-pentanoic acid, hexahydro-2-oxo-, [3aS-(3aalpha,4beta,6aalpha)]-; Biotin; Biotin (Pure and Triturations); D-Biotin; Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno[3,4-d]imidazole-4-pentanoic acid; Vitamin B7; Vitamin H;
CAS Type 1 Name:1H-Thieno(3,4-d)imidazole-4-pentanoic acid, hexahydro-2-oxo-, (3aS-(3aalpha,4beta,6aalpha))-  Vitamin H
Formula:C10H16N2O3S.  CAS RN:58-85-5 Other RN:3672-05-7  M.W.:244.308  
Note:A water-soluble, enzyme co-factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk. Hexahydro-2-oxo-1H-thieno(3,4-d)imidazole-4-pentanoic acid. Growth factor present in minute amounts in every living cell. It occurs mainly bound to proteins or polypeptides and is abundant in liver, kidney, pancreas, yeast, and milk.The biotin content of cancerous tissue is higher than that of normal tissue.
 Biotin function:In its physiologically active form biotin is attached at the active site of four important enzymes, known as carboxylases. Each carboxylase catalyzes an essential metabolic reaction.
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the binding of bicarbonate to acetyl-CoA to form malonyl-CoA. Malonyl-CoA is required for the synthesis of fatty acids.
Pyruvate carboxylase is a critical enzyme in gluconeogenesis, the formation of glucose from sources other than carbohydrates, for example, amino acids and fats.
Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes an essential step in the metabolism of leucine, an indispensable (essential) amino acid.
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes essential steps in the metabolism of amino acids, cholesterol, and odd chain fatty acids (fatty acids with an odd number of carbon molecules).
Histones are proteins that bind to DNA and package it into compact structures to form chromosomes. The compact packaging of DNA must be relaxed somewhat for DNA replication and transcription to occur. Modification of histones through the attachment of acetyl or methyl groups (acetylation or methylation) has been shown to affect the structure of histones, thereby affecting replication and transcription of DNA. The attachment of biotin to another molecule, such as a protein, is known as "biotinylation". The enzyme biotinidase has recently been shown to catalyze the biotinylation of histones, suggesting that biotin may play a role in DNA replication and transcription.
 Biotransformation enzymes (phase I and phase II):enzymes involved in the metabolism and elimination of a variety of exogenous (drugs, toxins and carcinogens) and endogenous compounds (steroid hormones). In general, phase I biotransformation enzymes, including those of the cytochrome P450 family, catalyze reactions that increase the reactivity of fat-soluble compounds and prepare them for reactions catalyzed by phase II biotransformation enzymes. Reactions catalyzed by phase II enzymes generally increase water solubility and promote the elimination of these compounds.
 bipartite:divided, nearly to the base, into two parts, cf. bifid.
 bipinnate:of compound leaves, twice pinnately divided, cf. pinnate.
 biradial(of symmetry):= bisymmetric.
 Bisabolene Bisabolene
 Bisabolene [495-62-5]:Synonyms:1-Methyl-4-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenylidene)-1-cyclohexene, 11003-31-9, 2-Heptene, 2-methyl-6-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ylidene)-, 2-Heptene, 2-methyl-6-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ylidene)- (7CI,8CI), 2-Methyl-6-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ylidene)-2-heptene, 4-(1,5-Dimethyl-4-hexenylidene)-1-methylcyclohexene, 495-62-5, 6-Methyl-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)hept-1,5-diene, Bisabolene, Bisabolene (6CI), Bisabolene (natural), CYCLOHEXENE, 4-(1,5-DIMETHYL-4-HEXENYLIDENE)-1-METHYL-, EINECS 207-805-8, FEMA No. 3331, Limene
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Heptene, 2-methyl-6-(4-methyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ylidene)- (7CI,8CI)   Chemical Name: 6-Methyl-2-(4-methylcyclohex-3-enyl)hept-1,5-diene  Systematic Name:Cyclohexene, 4-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenylidene)-1-methyl-
Formula: C15 H24 CAS RN:495-62-5 Molecular Weight:204.351 g/mol
 biseriate:arranged in two rows or whorls, especially of the perianth and androecium.
 biserrate:of the margin of a leaf, with larger and smaller asymmetrical forwardly-pointing teeth more or less regularly arranged, cf. crenate, dentate, entire, serrate, sinuate, undulate.
 bisexual (of flowers):= perfect.
 bistomal:where the micropyle of an ovule is formed from both integuments, cf. amphistomal, endostomal, exostomal, naked, zigzag.
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 bisymmetric:especially of a flower, with two main planes of symmetry, as in Dicentra, cf. asymmetric (see enantiomorphy, enantiostyly), haplomorphic, monosymmetric, oblique, polysymmetric.
 BLA:broad-leaved angiosperms, in old textbooks called dicotyledons, cf. monocotyledons.
 blade (of leaf):= lamina.
 blastotelic:= indeterminate.
 blastozone:see marginal blastozone.
 boat-shaped:a general pollen shape descriptor, a grain in which the polar axis is short and one equatorial axis is longer than the other, i.e. the grain is boat-shaped, cf. globose and its variants, oblate, prolate, spherical.
 bole:the trunk of a tree below the lowest branch, cf. crown.
 Boron [7440-42-8]:Boron. A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight 10.81. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.
Synonyms:Boron;Boron, metallic;EINECS 231-151-2;HSDB 4482;13283-31-3;7440-42-8;BH3;Borane;Borane(3);BORON;Boron;metallic;EINECS 231-151-2;HSDB 4482;NISTC13283313  CAS Type 1 Name:Boron  CAS RN:7440-42-8  Molecular Formula:BH3  Molecular Weight:13.8348 g/mol  Melting Point:2180  Boiling Point:3650.
 bordered:a pit in which the pit membrane is overarched by the secondary wall, so forming a border, see margo, bars of Sanio, torus, cf. scalariform, simple, vestured.
 Borneol Borneol
 Borneol [507-70-0]:Synonyms:borneol; DL-Borneol, remainder isoborneol; endo-1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-ol; L-borneol; 1,7,7-Trimethyl-bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, endo-; 2-Bornanol, endo-; 2-Camphanol; 2-Hydroxy-1,7,7-trimethylnorbornane, endo-; 2-Hydroxybornane; 2-Hydroxycamphane; 2-endo-Bornyl alcohol; AI3-00116;Baros;Baros camphor;Bhimsaim camphor;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, endo- ;Borneo camphor;Borneocamphor;Bornyl alcohol;CCRIS 7300;Camphane, 2-hydroxy-;Camphol;Dryobalanops camphor;EINECS 208-080-0;FEMA No. 2157;HSDB 946;Malayan camphor;Sumatra camphor ;trans-Borneol
CAS Type 1 Name:Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, (1R,2S,4R)-rel- ;  Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, endo- (9CI) ;  DL-Borneol
Formula: C10 H18 O.  Molecular Weight:154.2516   CAS RN:76-49-3 Other RN:6627-72-1 ACX Number:X1003692-1.  Melting Point:206 - 207  Boiling Point:210
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 Bornylacetatee Bornylacetatee
 Bornyl acetate [76-49-3]:Synonyms:Bornyl acetate; endo-1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl acetate; endo-bornyl acetate;1,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol acetate;1,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-yl acetate, endo-;2-Camphanol acetate;2-Camphanyl acetate;AI3-00665;Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate, endo-;Borneol, acetate;Bornyl acetate;Bornyl acetic ether;Bornyl ethanoate;EINECS 200-964-4;FEMA No. 2159;NSC 407158;endo-2-Camphanyl ethanoate
CAS Type 1 Name:Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate,(1R,2S,4R)-rel-; Bicyclo(2.2.1)heptan-2-ol, 1,7,7-trimethyl-, acetate, endo- ;Borneol, acetate (8CI) ; endo-1,7,7-Trimethylbicyclo(2.2.1)hept-2-yl acetate
Formula: C12 H20 O2.  Molecular Weight:196.2888   CAS RN:76-49-3 Other RN:15313-72-1 36386-52-4 76306-81-5 ACX Number:X1038936-7.
 Boschnaloside Boschnaloside
 Boschnaloside [72963-55-4]:Synonyms:Boschnaloside;72963-55-4,8-Epiiridotrial glucoside;Boschnaloside;C11652;Cyclopenta(c)pyran-4-carboxaldehyde, 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1,4a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-7-methyl-, (1S,4aS,7R,7aR)-
CAS Type 1 Name:Cyclopenta(c)pyran-4-carboxaldehyde, 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1,4a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-7-methyl-,(1S,4aS,7R,7aR)- ;Cyclopenta(c)pyran-4-carboxaldehyde, 1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-1,4a,5,6,7,7a-hexahydro-7-methyl-, (1S-(1alpha,4aalpha,7beta,7aalpha))-
Formula: C16 H24 O8.  Molecular Weight:344.357 g/mol   CAS RN:72963-55-4 
 bostryx:= helicoid cyme.
 bothrospermous:referring to seeds in which the inpushings of individual endothelial cells into the endosperm become confluent in vertical rows, the endosperm becoming more or less alveolate or ruminate in crosss section, cf. aulacospermous.
 boundary:of apotracheal parenchyma, parenchyma occuring at the beginning or end of a growth period, cf. banded, diffuse.
 brachy- (prefix):short, cf. dolicho-.
 brachyblast:= short shoot.
 brachyparacytic:of paracytic stomata, with two subsidiary cells parallel to the guard cells but not entirely enveloping them, cf. laterocylic.
 brachysclereid:a sclereid cell about as long as broad, lacking processes, a stone cell, cf. astrosclereid, macrosclereid, trichosclereid.
 bract:a leaf, usually different in form from the foliage leaves, subtending a flower, quite often called a floral bract, cf. bracteole, inflorescence bract.
 bracteole:a small leaf or leaves borne singly or two together and more or less opposite on the pedicel, the prophyll(s) of the flower-shoot (pedicel plus flower), cf. bract.
 bractlet:a vague term, referring either to a small bract, to a floral prophyll or bracteole, or to some other small inflorescence bract, etc.
 broad(ly):a qualifier of terms used for outlines and plane shapes when the length:breadth ratio is 4:3 - 1:1, cf. broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, the terms qualified being elliptic, obovate, oblong, ovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate.
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 broad-transverse:a qualifier of terms used for outlines and plane shapes when the length:breadth ratio is 1:1 - 4:5, cf. broadly, narrowly, transverse, the terms qualified being elliptic, obovate, oblong, ovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate.
 brochi:of pollen grains, lacunae in the tectum.
 brochidodromous:of leaf venation, pinnate venation (camptodromous in particular) in which the secondary veins do not terminate at the margins but are joined in a series of prominent arches, cf. eucamptodromous, reticulodromous in particular, cf. also acrodromous, actinodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, dichotomous, flabellate, parallelodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous.
 brush presentation:a type of secondary pollen presentation in which the pollen in presented to the pollinator entangled in a mass of hairs, cf. pump presentation.
 bud:any stem meristem - vegetative or floral - in an embryonic stage, whether resting or not and whether protected by bud scales or not, see neoformation, preformation and prolepsis, syllepsis, different aspects of the growth of buds, also naked, perulate, aspects of the protection of buds.
 bud scale:a scale leaf more or less surrounding a perulate resting bud, cf. naked bud.
 bufadienolides:subclass of triterpenoids (nortriterpenoid) composed of 24 carbon atoms; heart poisons and toxins.
 bulb:a storage organ, usually underground, made up of a relatively inconspicuous stem and large leaf bases, the food reserves being stored in the inner, fleshy leaf bases, cf. bulbil, caudex, corm, lignotuber, pseudobulb, rhizome, runner, tuber, turion.
 bulbil:a small, deciduous "bulb", i.e. a rounded structure of variable construction, formed in the axil of a leaf or replacing flowers in an inflorescence, and functioning to propagate the plant vegetatively,cf. bulbil, caudex, corm, lignotuber, pseudobulb, rhizome, runner, tuber, turion.
 bullate:having a blistered or puckered surface, e.g. of a leaf surface, prominently raised (almost like a subcutaneous bubble) between veins.
 bulliform cells:large thin-walled epidermal cells that often occur in bands down the leaf, especially in monocots.
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 bundle:often short for vascular bundle, often visible as a bundle scar marking the course of a vascular bundle in the outer cortex and evident when the leaf falls from the stem; the number of bundle scars allows one to infer (sometimes incorrectly!) the number of leaf traces and hence aspects of nodal anatomy, also bundle cap, sclerenchyma or collenchyma that forms a cap on either/both the adaxial and abaxial sides of a vascular bundle, bundle sheath, distinctive cells that entirely surround the vascular bundle, see mestome sheath, parenchyma sheath, starch sheath.
 burr:a rough or prickly propagule consisting of a seed or fruit and associated floral parts or bracts.
 Butanedioic acid:See Succinic acid [110-15-6] ,A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851);synoms:1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid; Amber acid; asuccin; dihydrofumaric acid; Butanedioic acid; Butanedionic acid; katasuccin; Succinic acid; SUCCINIC ACID CRYSTALLINE; wormwood; wormwood acid;
 Butanedionic acid:See Succinic acid [110-15-6] ,A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851);synoms:1,2-ethanedicarboxylic acid; Amber acid; asuccin; dihydrofumaric acid; Butanedioic acid; Butanedionic acid; katasuccin; Succinic acid; SUCCINIC ACID CRYSTALLINE; wormwood; wormwood acid;
 Butanone [78-93-3]:Synonyms:10009267;135311-02-3;2-butanon;2-Butanone;2-Oxobutane;3-Butanone;78-93-3;Acetone, methyl-;Aethylmethylketon;Aethylmethylketon [German];AI3-07540;AI3-07540 (USDA);Butan-2-one;Butanone;Butanone 2;Butanone 2 [French];C02845;C2H5COCH3;Caswell No. 569;CCRIS 2051;EINECS 201-159-0;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 044103;Ethyl methyl cetone;Ethyl methyl cetone [French];Ethyl methyl ketone;Ethyl methyl ketone or methyl ethyl ketone [UN1193] [Flammable liquid];Ethylmethylcetone [French];Ethylmethylketon;Ethylmethylketon [Dutch];FEMA No. 2170;HSDB 99;Ketone, ethyl methyl;Ketone, methyl ethyl;Meetco;MEK;Meketone;Methyl acetone;Methyl ethyl ketone;Methylethyl ketone;Methylethylketone;Metiletilcetona [Spanish];Metiletilchetone;Metiletilchetone [Italian];Metyl ethyl ketone;Metyloetyloketon;Metyloetyloketon [Polish];NISTC78933;Oxobutane;RCRA waste no. U159;Rcra waste number U159;UN 1193;UN 1232;UN1193
Formula: C4 H8 O.  Molecular Weight:72.1057 g/mol  CAS RN:78-93-3 135311-02-3 Melting Point:-8.66E+01 deg C Boiling Point:79.5 deg C
Note:Solvent; colorless synthetic resins, smokeless powders; may be irritating to eyes, mucous membranes; may be toxic in high concentrations.
 buttress:a vertical flange of tissue protruding from the base of the trunk of a tree or where a leaf joins the stem. .
 butyric acid [107-92-6]:Synonyms:1-propanecarboxylic acid; Butanoic acid; Butyrate; Butyric Acid (Nat. C-4 Acid); Ethylacetic acid; n-Butyric Acid; Propylformic Acid;1-Butyric acid;1-Propanecarboxylic acid;4-02-00-00779 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-15306;BRN 0906770;BUTYRIC ACID;Butanic acid;Butanoic acid;Buttersaeure [German];Butyrate;Butyric acid (natural);CCRIS 6552;EINECS 203-532-3;Ethylacetic acid;FEMA No. 2221; FEMA Number 2221;HSDB 940;Kyselina maselna [Czech];NSC 8415;Propylformic acid;n-Butanoic acid;n-Butyric acid
Formula: C4 H8 O2.  Molecular Weight:88.106   CAS RN:107-92-6   Melting Point:-7.9.
ACX Number:X1001278-3 .  Density0.958   Flashing Point:69   Boiling Point:163.5
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 buzz pollination:a variant of mellitophily where the bee vibrates a pendulous flower (its own wing muscles vibrate) causing the pollen to fall out of the anthers, the bee then collecting it; the flowers are polysymmetrical, the anthers often form a cone, and the petals are also reflexed, i.e. a very different floral morphology from that of many bee-pollinated flowers.

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