Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: Daidzein [486-66-8] | Daidzein-4,7-diglucoside [53681-67-7] | Daidzin [552-66-9] | Daphnoretin[65-46-3] | Duacosterol | decarboxylated iridoids | Decarboxylation | deciduous | declinate | decompound | decumbent | decurrent | decurved | decussate | defensive raphide cells | definite | definite (of an inflorescence) | deflexed | dehiscent | deliquescent | delphinidin | delta-limonene | deltoid | dendritic | dendroid | dentate | deoxyanthocyanins | deoxyloganic acid | Deoxyschisandrin:[61281-38-7] | depressed | derived | dermatogen | descending | determinate | deutzioside | dextrorse | Dextrose | di- (prefix) | diacytic | diadelphous | diallelocytic | Diallyl Disulfide [2179-57-9] | dialy | dialypetalous | diaphanous | diaspore | dichasium | dichlamydeous | dichogamous | dichotomous | diclinous | dicotyledon | dictyostele | didymous | didynamous | diffuse | diffuse | diffuse porous | Dihydrocapsaicin [19408-84-5] | dihydrochalcones | dihydroflavones | digitate | dillenioid | Dimer | dimidiate | dimorphic | Dioscin[19057-60-4] | Diosgenin[19057-60-4] | dioecious | Diosmetin[520-34-3] | Diosmin[520-27-4] | Diphenylpyraline [147-20-6] | diplecolobous | diploid | diplophylly | diplospory | diplostemonous | disc | disc floret | discolorous | dissected | dissepiment | distal | dispersal mechanism | distinct | distichous | distyly | diterpenes | dithecal | diurnal | divaricate | d-limonene | Dodecane [112-40-3] | dolicho | domatia | Dopamine [51-61-6] | dorsal | dorsally compressed | dorsifixed | dorsiventral | double fertilisation | drepanium | drupe | Drusa | druse | d-Sesamin [607-80-7] | dulcitol | duramen | Durio | dysoxlin | dysploid |
Daidzein [486-66-8]:Synonyms:4',7-Dihydroxyisoflavone; 5-18-04-00089 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);7,4'-Dihydroxyisoflavone;7-Hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one;BRN 0231523;CCRIS 7600;Daidzein (6CI);Daidzeol;EINECS 207-635-4;K 251b
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-;7,4'-Dihydroxyisoflavone;7-Hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone;Daidzein;Isoflavone, 4',7-dihydroxy- (8CI)
Formula: C15 H10O4 CAS RN:486-66-8 M.W.:254
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-(4-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)phenyl)-
Formula: C27 H30O14 CAS RN:53681-67-7
Daidzin [552-66-9]:Synonyms:4-18-00-01808 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),7-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-,benzopyran-4-one,BRN 0059741,Daidzein 7-O-glucoside,Daidzein 7-glucoside,Daidzin,Daidzoside
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-;Daidzein-7-glucoside
Formula: C21 H20O9 CAS RN:552-66-9
Daphnoretin[65-46-3]:Synonyms: 2034-69-7;2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-((2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy)-;2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-((2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy)- (9CI);BRN 1299325;C09216;COUMARIN, 7-HYDROXY-6-METHOXY-3,7'-OXYDI-;Daphnoretin;NSC 291852;NSC291852;Thymelol;ZINC00689683;7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,7'-dicoumaryl ethercoumarin;7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,7'-oxydi-
Chemical Name:2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3-((2-oxo-2H-1-benzopyran-7-yl)oxy)- Substance Name:Daphnoretin Formula: C19 H12O7 M.W.:352.3 g/mol CAS RN:2034-69-7 4395-95-3 Note:Isolated from the whole plant Wikstroemia indica.
decarboxylated iridoids:a kind of route II iridoid derived from epi-deoxyloganic acid via decarboxylation at the Cll position, cf. carboxylated (normal) iridoids.
Catalpol, C15 H22 O10.
Aucubin, C15 H22 O9.
Decarboxylation:a chemical reaction involving the removal of a carboxyl (-COOH) group from a compound.
deciduous:falling seasonally, e.g. of the leaves or bark of some trees, cf. evergreen, also cladoptosis, or, of the calyx or corolla, abscising and falling completely from the flower, cf. accrescent, caducous, deliquescent, fugacious, marcescent, persistent.
declinate:angled downwards or forwards, cf. decurved.
decompound:any leaf that is more than once compound.
decumbent:of stems, spreading horizontally but then growing upwards, cf. ascending, procumbent, repent.
decurrent:extending downwards beyond the point of insertion, e.g. of a leaf lamina extending downwards to form a flange along the petiole.
decurved:angled downwards and curved or curled, cf. declinate.
decussate:of leaves or other lateral organs, in opposite pairs, the successive pairs being borne at right angles to each other, a variant is bijugate, cf. also (of leaves) alternate, distichous, opposite, pseudoverticillate, spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled, and (of imbricate floral parts) cochleate, contorted, contortiplicate, crumpled, quincuncial.
defensive raphide cells:= biforines.
definite:of a constant number; of stamens, twice as many as the petals or sepals, or fewer, cf. indefinite.
definite (of an inflorescence):= determinate.
deflexed:bent abruptly downwards, cf. inflexed.
dehiscent:breaking open at maturity to release the contents, see anther, fruit.
deliquescent:of the corolla in particular, becoming a slimey mass after death, cf. accrescent, caducuous, deciduous, fugacious, marcescent, persistent.
deltoid:triangular, with the sides of about equal length, deltate.
dendritic:of a trichome, with branches arising along the main axis, i.e. tree-like, cf. colleter, malpighiaceous, pearl gland, snail gland, stellate, T-shaped hair.
dendroid:of habit, tree-like in form but not in size, used for whole plants, hairs, etc., cf. acaulescent, arborescent, frutescent, fruticose, herb, liane, rheophyte, suffrutescent, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, tree, vine, see also life forms.
dentate:of margins, with symmetrical teeth pointing laterally, denticle, a small tooth, denticulate, cf. biserrate, crenate, entire, serrate, sinuate, undulate.
deoxyanthocyanins:red-colored flavonoids, anthocyanins have no oxygen in the 3 position.
Luteolinidin, C15 H11 O5 Cl.
Apigeninidin, C15 H11 O4 Cl.
deoxyloganic acid:precursor of iridoids.
Deoxyloganic acid, C16 H24 O9.
Deoxyschisandrin:[61281-38-7]:See Schizandrin A
depressed:flattened as if pressed down from the top or end.
derived:of a character, an evolutionary novelty compared with the feature with which it is (implicitly) being contrasted, cf. ancestral.
dermatogen:a now little-used term for the outer of the three histogen layers that were supposed to make up the apical meristem, cf. periblem and plerome.
descending:of cochleate aestivation, one petal with its two edges outside those of the adjacent petals, one with the two edges both inside, and the other petals with one edge outside and the other inside, the petal with the two edges inside being in the median-abaxial position, cf. ascending.
determinate:of growth, a general term, with the apical meristem producing only a limited number of lateral organs, the axis ceasing extension growth, of inflorescence, with a flower or flower terminating the growth of the axis, cf. indeterminate, see also cymose, sympodial.
deutzioside:a route I secoiridoid.
Dextrose:Equivalent to Glucose.A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
di- (prefix):two of something.
diacytic:of stomata, with two subsidiary cells surrounding the guard cells, their radial walls at right angles to the long axis of the guard cells, cf. actinocytic, allelocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, paracytic, parallelocytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
diadelphous:having the stamens connate and forming two groups, or all but one stamen connate and the other one free, cf. monadelphous, polyadelphous, cf. also fascicle, phalangiate, syngenesious.
diallelocytic:of stomata, with an alternating complex of three or more C-shaped subsidiary cells of graded sizes at right angles to guard cells, i.e., a variant of diacytic, cf. parallelocytic.
Diallyl Disulfide [2179-57-9]:Synonyms:2-Propenyl disulfide, 2-Propenyl disulphide, 2179-57-9, 3-(Allyldisulfanyl)-1-propene, 4,5-Dithia-1,7-octadiene, 4-01-00-02098 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), AI3-35128, AIDS-005092, AIDS005092, Allyl disulfide, Allyl disulphide, BRN 1699241, C08369, CCRIS 6290, Di(2-propenyl) disulfide, diAllS2, Diallyl disulfide, Diallyl disulphide, Disulfide, di-2-propenyl, EINECS 218-548-6, FEMA No. 2028, FEMA No. 3533, HSDB 595, NISTC2179579, NSC 29228, NSC29228
Formula: C6 H10S2. Molecular Weight:234.41 CAS RN:2179-57-9 Melting Point:146.265 g/mol
Note:Anticarcinogenic agents;Antihypertensive agents;Antimutagenic agents;Antineoplastic agents;Spermatocidal agents
dialy:- (prefix) = separate.
diaphanous:extremely thin and transparent.
diaspore:the dispersal unit of the plant, ranging from the whole plant, as is some tumbleweeds, to the seedling minus its cotyledons, as in Rhizophora.
dichasium:a cymose inflorescence with opposite branching below the flower which terminates each axis, each branch in turn terminating in a flower, etc., adj. dichasial, see fascicle, verticillaster, cf. monochasium, pleiochasium.
dichlamydeous:of a flower, having two whorls of perianth parts, = 2-whorled, cf. achlamydeous, heterochlamydeous, monochlamydeous.
dichogamous:of flowering, the separation in time of anther dehiscence and stigma receptivity in the one flower, see protandrous, protogynous, cf. heterogamoushomogamous.
dichotomous:forking into two equal branches because of equal division of the growing point or apical cell, or, of leaf venation, the veins dividing more or less equally, there being no midrib, flabellate being most similar, cf. palmate, parallel, pinnate, cf. also acrodromous, actinodromous, brochidodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, eucamptodromous, palmate, reticulodromous, parallelodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous (particular terms).
diclinous:having the stamens and the carpels in separate flowers, = imperfect as used here, cf. monoclinous.
dicotyledon:a paraphyletic group of angiosperms with broad leaves and two cotyledons, = BLA, cf. monocotyledon.
dictyostele:a siphonostele that is medullated and has more or less highly dissected vascular tissue, the vascular bundles making it up being amphiphloic (they consist of xylem surrounded by phloem), cf. eustele, protostele, siphonostele.
didymous:borne in pairs; e.g. of anthers, having two lobes, with scarcely any tissue connecting them.
didynamous:of an androecium consisting of four stamens, two being distinctly longer than the other two, cf. tetradynamous.
diffuse:loosely branching or spreading, of open growth, cf. divaricate, secund.
diffuse:of apotracheal parenchyma, parenchyma occuring scattered as single cells or as strands throughout the fibers in vascular tissue, cf. banded, boundary.
diffuse porous:of porous wood, with vessels scattered throughout the year's growth, cf. ring porous.
Dihydrocapsaicin [19408-84-5]:Synonyms:19408-84-5, 4-13-00-02588 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), 6,7-Dihydrocapsaicin, BRN 2815150, CCRIS 1589, Dihydrocapsaicin, N-((4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-8-methylnonanamide, Nonanamide, 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-, Nonanamide, N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-8-methyl- (9CI)
CAS Type 1 Name:Nonanamide, N-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methyl)-8-methyl- (9CI) Dihydrocapsaicin CAS RN:19408-84-5 Formula:C18H29NO3 Molecular Weight:307.432
dihydrochalcones:class of colorless flavonoids derived from chalcones by reduction of the alpha,beta double bond.
Dihydrochalcone, C15 H14 O.
Ceratiolin, C17 H18 O5.
dillenioid:a leaf tooth in which the medial vein ends in a clear expanded apex, the vein often projecting further, and no laterals are involved, cf. begonioid, chloranthoid, cucurbitoid, cunonioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
Dimer:a complex of two molecules, usually proteins. Heterodimers are complexes of two different molecules, while homodimers are complexes of two of the same molecule.
dimidiate:appearing to be halved, as when half an organ is so much smaller than the other that it seems absent.
dimorphic:of two different forms of the one structure on different organisms or of structures on the one organism.
Dioscin[19057-60-4]:Synonyms:CCRIS 4123;Collettiside III;Dioscine;Diosgenin bis-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-(1-2 and 1-4)-beta-D-;glucopyranoside
Chemical Name:Dioscin (6CI,7CI,8CI);beta-D-Glucopyranoside, (3beta,25R)-spirost-5-en-3-yl O-6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-2)-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl-(1-4))-
Formula: C45 H72O16 CAS RN:19057-60-4
Diosgenin[19057-60-4]:Synonyms:nitogenin;22alpha-Spirost-5-en-3beta-ol;5-19-03-00030 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),BRN 0094582,CCRIS 6803,Diosgenin,EINECS 208-134-3,NSC 33396,Nitogenin;SP 37
Chemical Name:(20R,25R)-Spirost-5-en-3beta-ol;Diosgenin;Spirost-5-en-3-beta-ol, (25R)-;Spirost-5-en-3-ol, (3-beta,25R)- (9CI);Spirost-5-en-3-ol, (3beta,25R)- (9CI);Spirost-5-en-3beta-ol, (25R)- (8CI)
Formula: C27 H42O3 CAS RN:19057-60-4 M.W.:414.627
Description:(25R)-Spirost-5-en-3-beta-ol. A steroid sapogenin which is isolated from various plants. Can be converted to ecdysone, pregnenolone, and progesterone.
dioecious:having the staminate and carpellate reproductive structures on separate plants, cf. androdioecious, andromonoecious, gynodioecious, monoecious, gynomonoecious, perfect.
Formula: C16 H12O6 CAS RN:520-34-3 M.W.:608.5518
Diosmin[520-27-4]:Synonyms:CCRIS 7915;Diosmin;Diosmin [INN-Spanish];Diosmine [INN-French];Diosminum [INN-Latin];EINECS 208-289-7
CAS Type 1 Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-((6-O-(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)oxy)-5-hydroxy-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-
Formula: C28 H32O15 CAS RN:520-27-4 M.W.:608.5518
Note:3',5,7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxyflavone-7-rutinoside. A bioflavonoid that strengthens vascular walls.
Diphenylpyraline [147-20-6]:Synonyms:1-Methyl-4-Piperidyl benzhydryl ether, 1-Methylpiperidyl-4-benzhydrylether hydrochloride, 132-18-3, 147-20-6, 1500258, 241778, 4-(Benzhydryloxy)-1-methylpiperidine, 4-(Diphenylmethoxy)-1-methylpiperidine, 4-DIPHENYLMETHOXY-1-METHYLPIPERIDINE, 4-Diphenylmethoxy-1-methylpiperidine hydrochloride, 5-21-01-00053 (Beilstein Handbook Reference), AIDS-033087, AIDS033087, Allergen, Allerzine, AN 1041, Belfene, Belfene hydrochloride, BRN 0245467, CHEMBANK1441, Dafen, Dayfen, Diafen, Diafen hydrochloride, Diafen, antihistamine, Diaphen, Difenilpiralina [INN-Spanish], Diphenpyraline hydrochloride, Diphenylpyralamine, Diphenylpyraline, Diphenylpyraline hydrochloride, Diphenylpyralinum [INN-Latin], Diphenylpyrilene, EINECS 205-686-7, Hispril, Hispril hydrochloride, Histalert, Histryl, Histyn, Hystryl, Lyssipoll, Mepiben, N-Methyl-4-(Benzhydryloxy)piperidine, N-Methylpiperidyl-(4)-benzhydrylaether salzsauren salze, N-Methylpiperidyl-(4)-benzhydrylaether salzsauren salze [German], Neargal, NISTC147206, NSC61825, P 253, Piperidine, 4- (diphenylmethoxy)-1-methyl-, hydrochloride, Piperidine, 4-(diphenylmethoxy)-1-methyl-, Sumadil, ZINC00056643
Formula: C19 H23NO. Molecular Weight:281.392 g/mol CAS RN:147-20-6 Related RN:132-18-3 (hydrochloride)
Note:Histamine H1 antagonists
diplecolobous:of an embryo with the cotyledons twice-folded tranversely, cf. accumbent, conduplicate, incumbent.
diploid:a plant with two of the basic haploid sets of chromosomes in each nucleus, characteristic of the sporophytic generation, commonly represented as 2n, cf. allopolyploid, aneuploid, autopolyploid, dysploid, haploid, polyploid.
diplophylly:isdolation of ad- and abaxial parts of a stamen, or development of additional more or less separate foliar structures on the adaxial part of the leaf.
diplospory:a kind of agamospermy where embryo sacs develop from the megaspore mother cell either directly or by a modified meiotic division, cf. adventitious embryony, apogamy, apospory, polyembryony.
diplostemonous:androecium with twice as many stamens as petals borne in two regularly alternating whorls, i.e. the outer whorl opposite the sepals or outer whorl of tepals, cf. haplostemonous, obdiplostemonous, obhaplostemonous.
disc:a plate or rim of tissue, whether or not lobed or interrupted, derived from the receptacle of a flower, occurring between whorls of floral parts, commonly found between the androecium and gynoecium or on top of the gynoecium when the ovary is inferior, and typically secreting nectar..
disc floret:an often polysymmetric tubular flower in the center part of a capitate inflorescence, esp. in Asteraceae, cf. ray floret.
discolorous:of different colours, having the two surfaces different in colour, cf. concolorous.
dissected:finely divided into more or less linear ultimate units.
distal:remote from the point of origin or attachment, cf. proximal.
dispersal mechanism:the means by which a propagule (seed, some other structure) of a plant is removed from the vicinity of the parent plant.
distinct:= free or separate, also used in the sense of "obvious".
distichous:of leaves or other lateral organs, arranged in two rows on opposite sides of a stem and thus in the same plane, two-ranked is a synonym, the branches on which such leaves are borne being often, but by no means always plagiotropous, cf. alternate, bijugate, decussate, opposite, pseudoverticillate, spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled.
distyly:of a heterostylous species, having plants that have either long styles and short stamens, or vice versa, cf. tristyly, also pin, thrum.
diterpenes:C20 compounds made up of four isoprene units, commonly occur in resins, rarely in essential oils, include gibberellins and phorbol esters.
Phorbol, C20 H28 O6.
Aconitine, C34 H47 N O11.
dithecal:of a tetrasporangiate anther in which the septae between adjacent sporangium/pollen sac pairs break down, see theca.
diurnal:of flowers, opening only during daylight, cf. nocturnal.
divaricate:of branching in general, widely spreading, cf. diffuse, secund.
Dodecane [112-40-3]:Synonyms:adakane 12; Alkane C(12); bihexyl; Dodecane; duodecane; n-Dodecane;
Formula: C12 H26. Molecular Weight:170.3374 CAS RN:112-40-3 Melting Point:-9.6. ACX Number:X1001586-0. Boiling Point:216.3. Density:0.749 Density:5.9 Refractive Index:1.4216 Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 25 C Flashing Point:71
dolicho:- (prefix), long or elongated, e.g. dolichoblast, = long shoot, cf. brachy-.
domatia:small structures on the lower surface of a leaf in some woody BLAs, located in the axils of the secondary veins in particular and usually consisting of depressions partly enclosed by leaf tissue or hairs, rarely vascularised, sing. domatium, cf. extrafloral nectary, hydathode.
Dopamine [51-61-6]:Synonyms:2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine; 3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine; 3-Hydroxytyramine; DA; dopamine; Dopamine hydrobromide; Intropin;1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-;2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine;3,4-Dihydroxyphenethylamine;3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethylamine;3-Hydroxytyramine;4-(2-Aminoethyl)-1,2-benzenediol;4-(2-Aminoethyl)catechol;4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol;ASL 279;DA;Dopamin;Dopamina [INN-Spanish];Dopamine;Dopaminum [INN-Latin];EINECS 200-110-0;HSDB 3068;Hydroxytyramin;KW-3-060;NSC 173182;Oxytyramine;Pyrocatechol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-;alpha-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane
CAS Type 1 Name:1,2-Benzenediol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-
Formula: C8 H11NO2 CAS RN:51-61-6 Related RN:62-31-7 (hydrochloride) Melting Point:218 - 220 deg C M.W.:153.1804
Description:One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from tyrosine and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action. A Catecholamine intermediate in the synthesis of norepinephrine and epinephrine and itself an important neurotransmitter. Central dopaminergic systems appear to be involved in psychiatric disorders and in movement disorders, and several important classes of therapeutic drugs act on dopaminergic systems. Dopamine is also used pharmacologically for its direct (beta adrenergic agonist) and indirect (adrenergic releasing) sympathomimetic effects including its actions as an inotropic agent and a renal vasodilator agent. It is used in cardiac emergencies, heart failure, hypotension, and shock.
dorsal:of a lateral organ, relating to the side facing away from the axis in early development, i.e. the 'back', so it is sometimes used to refer rather counter-intuitively to the underside of a leaf blade, = abaxial (generally to be preferred), cf. ventral.
dorsally compressed:of axillary structures, flattened ad-/abaxially, so extended in the lateral plane, cf. laterally compressed, see also angustiseptate and latiseptate fruits.
dorsifixed:attached at or by the back, e.g. of an anther cf. basifixed, embedded, versatile.
dorsiventral:of bifacial structures, especially leaves, having tissues derived from the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaf primordium, cf. bifacial, isobifacial, unifacial; of symmetry, = monosymmetric.
double fertilisation:in angiosperms, where both gametes are involved in the fertilisation process, one producing the endosperm and the other the zygote.
drepanium:a monochasial cymose inflorescence (probably), branching not from the adaxial prophyll, but from the leaf above it (and borne at 180o to it), the whole more or less coiled like the tail of a scorpion(!), cf. bicolor unit, helicoid cyme, rhipidium, scorpioid cyme.
drupe:a succulent fruit having the seed(s) enclosed by a stony endocarp, see pyrene, adj. drupaceous (which is often used to mean drupe-like but not strictly a drupe), cf. berry.
Drusa:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic, three cells congregating at the chalazal end, 16-celled, of which 11 congregate at the chalazal end, cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
druse:a crystalline form of calcium oxalate that is common in plant cells, a radiating mass of crystals, see also cristarque cells, cf. raphide, styloid, sand.
d-Sesamin [607-80-7]:See Sesamin.
Durio:a "type" of tile cell in which the radial files of dead, empty, erect cells in vascular rays are about the same height as the procumbent cells of the ray, cf. Pterospermum type.
dysploid:chromosome numbers that differ between species and do not show any regular pattern, cf. allopolyploid, aneuploid, autopolyploid, diploid, haploid, polyploid.
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