Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: Fallacinol[569-05-1] |facultative |falcarinone |falcate |false |family |farinaceous |fascicle |fasciate |fascicular cambium |fastigiate |fatty acid |Fatty acids:[67254-79-9] |female (of a flower) |female gamete |female gametophyte |fenestrate |fertilisation |ferulic acid |fiber, fibre |fiber tracheid |Fibonacci series |fibrous root system |fiddlehead |filament |filiform |filiform apparatus |fimbrial |fimbriate |Fisher's rule |fistular |flabellate |flaccid |flag (of leaves in grasses) |flag |flagelliform |flank bridges |flat |flavanones |flavones |flavonoids |Flavonoid derivatives (C6-C3-C6) |flavonoid sulphates |flavonols |flexistyly |floccose |floral bract |floral cup |floral diagram |floral envelope |floral formula |floral tube |florescence |florets |flower |flowering |Fluoride:[16984-48-8] |Fluorine |flush |Simple Aperture |Folacin |foliaceous |folic acid:[59-30-3] |follicle |foot layer |foramen |forate |forb |-form (suffix) |Formic acid [64-18-6] |Formononetin [485-72-3] |form genus |fornix |fossulate |foveate |foveolate |free |free-central |free nuclear |Free Radicals |Free Radical Scavengers |Friedelin [559-74-0] |Fritillaria |frond |fructans |fructose[30237-26-4] |fruit |fruitlet |frutescent |fruticose |Fucosterol:[17605-67-3] |fugacious |fukinanolid |fulvous |fumaric acid [110-17-8] |funicle |furan |furanocoumarins |furacte |fused |fusiform |fusiform initials |
Chemical Name:9,10-Anthracenedione, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methoxy- ;Anthraquinone, 1,8-dihydroxy-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methoxy-
Formula: C16 H12O6 CAS RN:569-05-1
facultative:of parasites, an association that is optional, not essential, cf. obligate.
falcarinone:a type of polyacetylene.
false:of fruit, involving structures other than those derived from a single gynoecium, esp. when more than one flower is involved - a term of little use.
family:a group of one to many genera that is hypothesised to be monophyletic, usually morphologically separable from other such groups, a major rank in the taxonomic hierarchy between genus and order and with the termination -aceae, cf. also class, species.
farinaceous:containing starch grains, mealy, resembling flour, farina (n).
fascicle:a small cluster or bundle, adj. fasciculate, of an inflorescence, a cluster of flowers in a leaf axil, but lacking both an axis and any obviously cymose construction (for which see verticillaster), or of the androecium, cf. diadelphous, free, phalangiate, monadelphous, syngenesious, cf. also adnate, adherent, appressed, coherent, connate, connivent, fasciate, fastigiate, free.
fasciate:an often irregularly flattened structure, formed esp. because of the failure of meristems to separate, fasciation, cf. adnate, adherent, appressed, coherent, connate, connivent, fascicle, fastigiate, free, phalangiate.
fascicular cambium:a lateral meristem developing from undifferentiated procambium in a vascular bundle, and, with the interfascicular cambium, making up the vascular cambium.
fastigiate:with branches (in the usual meaning) more or less erect and close together, but not fused, cf. adnate, adherent, appressed, coherent, connate, connivent, fastigiate, free.
fatty acid:an organic acid molecule consisting of a chain of carbon molecules and a carboxylic acid (COOH) group. Fatty acids are found in fats, oils, and as components of a number of essential lipids, such as phospholipids and triglycerides. Fatty acids can be burned by the body for energy.
Fatty acids:[67254-79-9]:straight chain monocarboxylic acids, either saturated, with no double bonds, or unsaturated, with one or more double bonds, see oils, waxes.
Synonyms:Fatty acids;Mixed fatty acids;Fatty Acids, Esterified;Fatty Acids, Saturated
Formula: C10 H10 O4. CAS RN:67254-79-9
Description:Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
female (of a flower):= carpellate; strictly speaking female applies to the female gametophyte and its gametes alone.
female gamete:a.k.a. egg cell, in flowering plants, a cell at the apex of the embryo sac immediately adjacent to the micropyle and associated with the synergid cells, see also antipodals, central cell, polar nuclei.
female gametophyte:a haploid organism, in flowering plants called the embryo sac, usually made up of antipodals, egg cell, polar nuclei, synergids, see also Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum "types", the eleven main variants.
fenestrate:having openings or translucent areas ('windows'), e.g. in leaves or corollas, fenestration (n).
fertilisation:the process by which the haploid male and female gametes fuse to produce a diploid zygote, see chalazogamy, mesogamy, porogamy, see also siphonogamy, zooidogamy, cf. pollination.
ferulic acid:derived from cinnamic acid.
Synonyms: 3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid; 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid; 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-trans-cinnamate; 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; ferulic acid; trans-Ferulic acid;
Formula: C10 H10 O4. Molecular Weight: 194.1866 CAS RN:1135-24-6 Melting Point: 168 - 171.
fiber, fibre:a cell that is a component of sclerenchyma, much elongated often dead cells that often have lignified walls, rarely having processes, cf. sclereid, see fiber tracheids, libriform fibres; more generally, any tough and flexible structure.
All fibers are resistant to digestion in the small intestine, meaning they arrive at the colon intact. Although most fibers are carbohydrates, one important factor that determines their susceptibility to digestion by human enzymes is the conformation of the chemical bonds between sugar molecules (glycosidic bonds). Humans lack digestive enzymes capable of hydrolyzing (breaking apart) most beta-glycosidic bonds, which explains why amylose, a glucose polymer with alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds is digestible by human enzymes, while cellulose, a glucose polymer with beta-1,4 glycosidic bonds is indigestible
fiber tracheid:a fiber with thick walls and pointed ends that has simple pits and is found in wood tissue, cf. libriform fibre.
Fibonacci series:a series of numbers formed by the addition of the preceeding two numbers, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, ....., used to describe the spirals of parts in phyllotactic series.
fibrous root system:a root system made up of many fine "adventitious" roots, cf. tap root.
fiddlehead:= crozier roots.
filament:the stalk of a stamen, cf. anther, connective; more generally, any thread-like structure one or more cells thick.
filiform apparatus:a complex of cell wall invaginations in synergids, see also transfer cells.
fimbrial:of leaf venation, high order veins joining and forming a continuous vein running just inside the margin of the blade, cf. intramarginal vein.
fimbriate:of a margin, fringed with long slender hair-like processes, pl. fimbriae; fimbrillate, minutely fimbriate.
Fisher's rule:in pollen grains with three, equidistant polar apertures and which occur in tetrahedral tetrads, these apertures are in an interradial position, so meeting at points where only two grains are in contact, i.e. there are six groups of two apertures. This is the common arrangement, cf. Garside's rule .
fistular:hollow throughout its length.
flabellate:of leaf venation, with several veins approximately equal in prominence diverging radially at the base and branching and running to the apex of the lamina, more generally, fan-shaped, cf. acrodromous, actinodromous, brochidodromous, campylodromous, craspedodromous, dichotomous (closest), eucamptodromous, reticulodromous, parallelodromous, semicraspedodromous, simple-craspedodromous..
flaccid:limp, cf. turgid.
flag (of leaves in grasses):the leaf immediately below the inflorescence..
flag:(of petals in a papilionoid flower) = standard.
flagelliform:long and very slender, like a whip-lash..
flank bridges:it is as if two adjacent leaf traces formed split laterals,one branch from each fusing in the middle and forming the bridging bundle; from this bundle, bundles may leave and proceed into the petiole, cf. multilacunar, trilacunar, unilacunar.
flat:of leaf ptyxis, more or less plane, cf. circinate, conduplicate, conduplicate-flat, conduplicate-involute, conduplicate-plicate, curved, involute, plicate, revolute, supervolute, supervolute-curved, supervolute-involute.
flavanones:flavonoids isomeric with chalcones, differing from flavones in lacking the double-bond in the 2,3-position, usually colorless or slightly yellow.
Base structure, C15 H12 O2.
Hesperetin, C16 H14 O6.
flavones:flavonoids that lack the 3-hydroxy group of flavonols, derived from flavanones by oxidation, yellow in color, isomeric with , cf. aurones.
Luteolin, C15 H10 O6.
flavonoids:a C-15 skeleton with a chroman ring bearing an aromatic ring in position 2, 3, or 4; there are two benzene rings in the flavonoid nucleus, one derived from condensation of acetate units (three malonyl units), the other from the shikimic acid pathway (cinnamic acid), and these are joined by a C3 structure which may be open or closed; the flavonoid nucleus is usually attached to a sugar, forming a water-soluble glycoside, see also glycoflavones; the major classes are based on the oxidation level of the central ring, see anthocyanins, aurones, biflavonoids, C-glygosylflavones, chalcones, coumestans, dihydrochalcones, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, isoflavans, isoflavones, neoflavonoids, phytoalexins, pterocarpans, and rotenoids. .
Flavonoids are a large family of compounds synthesized by plants that have a common chemical structure. The basic structure of a flavonoid is shown in figure 1. Flavonoids may be further divided into subclasses (see table 1). Over the past decade, scientists have become increasingly interested in the potential for various dietary flavonoids to explain some of the health benefits associated with fruit and vegetable-rich diets. These potential health benefits are being used to promote the consumption of flavonoid-rich foods, beverages and dietary supplements. This article reviews the scientific evidence for the hypothesis that dietary flavonoids promote health and prevent disease in humans. For more detailed information on the health effects of isoflavones, a subclass of flavonoids with estrogenic activity, see the separate article on Soy Isoflavones. For more information on the health benefits of foods that are rich in flavonoids, see separate articles on Fruits and Vegetables, Legumes and Tea.
Flavonoid derivatives (C6-C3-C6):Formula:(C6-C3-C6)
These compounds are based on the flavonoid skeleton which is a three rings molecule, two of them aromatic connected by heterocyclic center ring.
To be familiar with the many flavonoid skeleton compounds, here are the sub-flavonoid groups according to the modifications on the flavan's center ring:
flavonoid sulphates:flavonoids esterified with sulfate groups, mono- to tetrasulfate esters of common flavones and flavonols or their methyl ethers.
Quercetin 3,4`-disulfate, C15 H10 O13 S2.
flavonols:flavonoids that differ from flavones in having a 3-hydroxyl substituent; they are yellow copigments.
Kaempferol, C15 H10 O6.
Quercetin, C15 H10 O7.
Myricetin, C15 H10 O8.
flexistyly:styles that bend during anthesis, moving to and from (or vice versa) a position that allows pollination..
floccose:bearing tufts of soft hairs or wool which tend to rub off and adhere in small masses..
floral bract:= bract.
floral cup:= hypanthium.
floral diagram:a useful stylised plan diagram of a flower showing its general orientation and the number and relationships (aestivation, connation, adnation, etc.) of its parts..
floral envelope:a vague term, = perianth.
floral formula:a formula showing the number and some of the relationships (connation, adnation, etc.) of the parts of a flower; some information about the fruit can also be incorporated.
floral tube:a vague term, often = hypanthium.
florescence:the cluster of flowers that terminates the main axis of a synflorescence, cf. coflorescence, enrichment zone, paraclade, cf. also inflorescence.
florets:small flowers, esp. of the spikelets of Poaceae and Cyperaceae and the capitula of Asteraceae..
flower:the characteristic reproductive structure of angiosperms, a heterosporangiate strobilus, typically consisting of androecium, gynoecium, usually surrounded by a perianth and borne on an axis or receptacle, the parts showing various kinds of symmetry relationships to each other and to the inflorescence axis.
flowering:various terms are used to describe the pattern of flowering of an individual over its life time, e.g. hapaxanthic, monocarpic, pleonanthic, also iteroparous, semelparous, and more strictly of plant duration, annual, biennial, ephemeral, perennial. There are also terms describing how flowers open on a plant during a single season; these affect pollinator behaviour and/or the identity of the pollinators of a particular plant.
Fluoride:[16984-48-8]:Synonyms:Drinking water,fluoride treated;Fluoride;Fluoride ion;Fluoride ion(1-);Fluoride ion(F-);Fluoride(1-);Fluorine ion;Fluorine ion(1-);Perfluoride
CAS Type 1 Name:Fluoride;Fluoride dust Formula:F. CAS RN:16984-48-8 M.W.:18.9984
Fluorides:Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Fluorine:Fluorine occurs naturally in the Earth's crust, water, and food as the negatively charged ion, fluoride (F-). Fluoride is considered a trace element because only small amounts are present in the body (about 2.6 grams in adults), and because the daily requirement for maintaining dental health is only a few milligrams a day. About 95% of the total body fluoride is found in bones and teeth. Although its role in the prevention of dental caries (tooth decay) is well established, fluoride is not generally considered an essential mineral element because humans do not require it for growth or to sustain life. However, if one considers the prevention of chronic disease (dental caries), an important criterion in determining essentiality, then fluoride might well be considered an essential trace element
flush:(of growth) = innovation.
simple aperture:of pollen where the aperture membranes are more or less uniform, cf. compound aperture, see colpate, forate, porate, polycolpate, rugate, sulcate, trichotomosulcate, and ulcerate apertures..
Folacin:See folic acid:[59-30-3]A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
CAS Type 1 Name:L-Glutamic acid, N-(4-(((2-amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)- Equivalent Terms:Pteroylglutamic Acid;Vitamin M; CAS Registry No.:59-30-3
folic acid:[59-30-3]:The terms folic acid and folate are often used interchangeably for this water-soluble B-complex vitamin. Folic acid, the most stable form, occurs rarely in foods or the human body, but is the form most often used in vitamin supplements and fortified foods. Naturally occurring folates exist in many chemical forms. Folates are found in foods as well as in metabolically active forms, in the human body.
Synonyms:Pteroylglutamic Acid;Vitamin M; PGA;PGA (VAN);Pteglu;Pteroyl-L-glutamic acid;Pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid;Pteroylglutamic acid;Pteroylmonoglutamate;Pteroylmonoglutamic acid;USAF CB-13;Vitamin B11;Vitamin B9;Vitamin Bc;Vitamin Be;2-amino-6-((p-((1,3-dicarboxypropyl)carbamoyl)anilino)methyl)-4-pteridinol; acifolic; Vitamin B; Vitamin B11; Vitamin BC; Vitamin M; cytofol; folacid; folacin; Folic Acid; folbal; folcysteine; folettes; foliamin; folipac; folsaure; folsav; foluite; incafolic; liver lactobacillus casei factor; L-pteroylglutamic acid; millafol; N-(4-(((2-amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid; N-(p-(((2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid; PGA; pteglu; Pteroylglutamic Acid; pteroyl-L-glutamic acid; pteroyl-L-monoglutamic acid; pteroylmonoglutamic acid;
CAS Type 1 Name:L-Glutamic acid, N-(4-(((2-amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-
Formula:C19H19N7O6. CAS RN:59-30-3 Other RN:33609-88-0 Related RN: 36653-55-1 (mono-potassium salt) 6484-89-5 (mono-hydrochloride salt) M.W.:441.4024 Melting Point:250 dec deg C
Note:N-(4-(((2-Amino-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-6-pteridinyl)methyl)amino)benzoyl)-L-glutamic acid. A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses. Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
Description:A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
follicle:a dry, dehiscent fruit formed from one carpel and dehiscing along the line of fusion of its edges, i.e. its adaxial side (note that single carpoels can also dehisce abaxially), cf. capsule, schizocarp.
foot layer:of a pollen grain, a continuous innermost layer of the ectexine, not always present, = nexine 1, pedium and sole, cf. infratectum, tectum, and supractectal structures, see caveate pollen..
forate:of pollen grains with rounded simple apertures all over the surface, usually more than six in number and often more than twelve (fororate when a compound aperture), cf. colpate, porate, polycolpate, rugate, sulcate, trichotomosulcate, and ulcerate apertures..
forb:a non-woody plant other than a grass, sedge, or rush, cf. herb.
-form (suffix):superficially resembling, e.g. umbelliform, an inflorescence resembling but not truly an umbel..
Formic acid [64-18-6]:Synonyms:aminic acid; Methanoic acid; Formic acid; Formic acid,FORMIC ACID, 88%; formylic acid; Hydrogencarboxylic acid;AI3-24237;Acide formique [French];Acido formico [Italian];Add-F; Ameisensaeure [German];Aminic acid;Bilorin;C1 acid;CCRIS 6039;Collo-bueglatt;Collo-didax;EINECS 200-579-1;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 214900;FEMA No. 2487;Formic acid;Formic acid (natural);Formira;Formisoton;Formylic acid;HSDB 1646;Hydrogen carboxylic acid;Kwas metaniowy [Polish];Kyselina mravenci [Czech];Methanoic acid;Mierenzuur [Dutch];Myrmicyl;RCRA waste number U123
Chemical Name:Formic acid Formula: CH2 O2. Molecular Weight:46.0256 CAS RN:64-18-6 Other RN:8006-93-7 82069-14-5 Related RN: 141-53-7 (hydrochloride salt);15843-02-4 (unspecified nickel salt);15907-03-6 (unspecified copper salt);27115-36-2 (chromium(+3) salt);3349-06-2 (nickel(+2) salt);3495-35-0 (rubidium salt);3495-36-1 (cesium salt);4464-23-7 (cadmium salt);540-69-2 (ammonium salt);544-17-2 (calcium salt);544-18-3 (cobalt(+2) salt);544-19-4 (copper(+2) salt);556-63-8 (lithium salt);557-39-1 (magnesium salt);557-41-5 (zinc salt);590-29-4 (potassium salt);592-89-2 (strontium salt);63182-21-8 (chromium(+3)-hydrochloride[4:1:1] salt);68134-59-8 (unspecified copper-nickel salt);68310-83-8 (unspecified copper-ammonium salt);70179-79-2 (ammonium[4:1] salt);7056-83-9 (unspecified lead salt);7360-53-4 (aluminum salt);811-54-1 (lead(+2) salt);992-98-3 (thallium(+1) salt) ACX Number:X1001282-7 Melting Point:8.3 Boiling Point:100.7 Flashing Point:69
Formononetin [485-72-3]:Synonyms:Formononetin;7-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone;Biochanin B;EINECS 207-623-9;Formononetin;Formononetol;NSC 93360
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 7-hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)- (9CI);7-Hydroxy-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-benzopyrone;7-Hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone;Isoflavone, 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy- (8CI)
Formula: C16 H12 O4. Molecular Weight:268.27 CAS RN:485-72-3 ACX Number:X1036306-1.
form genus:of fossils, where a genus includes only fossils of a particular part of the organism..
fornix:crest or inpushing in the mouth of a corolla, pl. fornices..
fossulate:a term referring to the surface of a pollen grain which is more or less grooved, cf. baculate, echinate, foveolate, gemmate, pilate, lophate, psilate, reticulate, retipilate, rugulate, scabrate, striate, verrucose..
foveolate:diminutive of the above, a term also used to describe the pollen surface, more or less rounded depressions or lumina where the distance between the foveolae is greater than their width, cf. baculate, echinate, foveolate, gemmate, pilate, lophate, psilate, reticulate, retipilate, rugulate, scabrate, striate, verrucose..
free:especially of floral organs, not fused or united with other similar organs, cf. adherent, adnate, appressed, coherent, connate, connivent, fasciate, fascicle, fastigiate, phalange.
free-central:of placentation, with the ovules borne on a free-standing central placenta within the ovary, septae being absent, cf. apical, axile, basal, laminar, intrusive-parietal, marginal, parietal.
free nuclear:of helobial and nuclear endosperm formation, where nuclear divisions are at least initially not accompanied by cell wall formation.
Free Radicals:Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Free Radical Scavengers:Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Friedelin [559-74-0]:Synonyms:559-74-0,C08626,D:A-Friedooleanan-3-one,D:A-Friedooleanan-3-one (VAN) (8CI)(9CI),EINECS 209-205-1,Friedelan-3-one,Friedelin,Friedeline,Friedlein,NSC 55141
Chemical Name:3(2H)-Picenone, eicosahydro-4,4a,6b,8a,11,11,12b,14a-octamethyl-, (4R,4aS,6bR,8aR,12bS,14aS)-
Formula: C30-H50-O. CAS RN:559-74-0 Molecular Weight:426.72 Melting Point:263 deg C
Fritillaria:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, tetrasporic, three spores (congregating at the chalazal end), 8-celled (the antipodals polyploid), cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Oenothera, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum..
frond:a rather vague term, a kind of megaphyll, especially of a fern, cycad or palm..
fructans:polysaccharides derived from fructose, e.g. inulin.
fructose[30237-26-4]:a hexose sugar forming a 5-membered ring...a very sweet 6-carbon sugar abundant in plants. Fructose is increasingly common in sweeteners such as high-fructose corn syrup.
Synonyms:Arabino-hexulose; beta-D-fructopyranose; Fructopyranose; Fructose;(+-)-Fructose;DL-Fructose;Fructose;Methose;arabino-2-Hexulose;dl-Fructose;Levulose
Note:A Carbohydrate in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
Formula: C16 H12O6. Molecular Weight:180.1572 CAS RN:30237-26-4 Other RN:6035-50-3 7660-25-5 ACX Number:X1011808-4.
fruit:the seed-bearing structure in angiosperms (when the seeds are ready for dispersal), formed from the ovary after flowering, either dehiscent, for which see capsule,follicle, lomentum, schizocarp, indehiscent and dry, for which see achene, or fleshy, for which see berry, drupe, see compound and simple fruits, also accessory, aggregate, and multiple fruits..
fruitlet:strictly speaking, a seed-bearing structure derived from a single free carel.
frutescent:becoming shrub-like (woody), cf. acaulescent, arborescent, dendroid, fruticose, herb, liane, rheophyte, suffrutescent, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, tree, vine, see also life forms.. .
fruticose:shrub-like, cf. acaulescent, arborescent, dendroid, fruticose, herb, liane, rheophyte, suffrutescent, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, tree, vine, see also life forms.. .
Fucosterol:[17605-67-3]:Synonyms:(24E)-24-N-Propylidenecholesterol;24-Isoethylidenecholest-5-en-3beta-ol, delta(5)-avenasterol;28-Isofucosterol ;Stigmasta-5,24-dien-3beta-ol ;(24E)-24-N-propylidenecholesterol;24-isoethylidenecholest-5-en-3 beta-ol,delta(5)-avenasterol;24Z-ethylidenecholest-5-en-3B-ol;28-isofucosterol;delta(5)-avenasterol;fucosterol, (3beta)-isomer;fucosterol, 28-(14)C-labeled cpd, (E)-isomer;stigmasta-5,24-dien-3 beta-ol
CAS Type 1 Name:stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3-ol, (3beta,24E)-
Chemical Name: Stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3-ol, (3beta,24E)-
Formula: C29 H48O CAS RN:17605-67-3
fugacious:esp. of the calyx and corolla, falling or withering away very early, cf. accrescent, caducuous, deciduous, deliquescent, persistent, marcescent..
fukinanolid:See Bakkenolide A [19906-72-0].fukinanolide
fulvous:dull yellowish brown or yellowish grey..
fumaric acid [110-17-8]:Synonyms:ammonium fumarate;fumarate;magnesium fumarate;sodium fumarate;2-Butenedioic acid (E)-; allomaleic acid; boletic acid; Butenedioic acid; (E)-1,2-ethenedicarboxylic acid; (E)-2-butenedioic acid; (E)-butenedioic acid; Fumaric acid; lichenic acid; trans-1,2-ethenedicarboxylic acid; trans-Butenedioic acid; U-1149;
Chemical Name:trans-1,2-Ethylenedicarboxylic acid Formula: C4 H4O4. Molecular Weight:116.0732 CAS RN:110-17-8 Other RN:623158-97-4 ACX Number:X1003809-6. Water Solubility:slightly. <0.1 g/100 mL at 22 C Melting Point:299 - 300 Flashing Point:230
funicle:the stalk of an ovule, cf. antiraphe, chalaza, embryo sac, integument, lagenostome, megaspore, micropyle, nucellus, pollen chamber, obturator, raphe..
furan:a heterocyclic ring that is the basis of the furanoses and found in limonoids, etc..
Furan ring, C4 H4 O.
furanocoumarins:group of complex coumarins in which the coumarin structure is prenylated (i.e., a five-carbon unit derived from mevalonic acid is attached); this five-carbon mevalonate-derived unit is usually reduced to two carbons which are part of a furan ring that is attached to a benzene ring; immediate precursors for furanocoumarin synthesis are umbelliferone and isoprene; linear furanocoumarins have the furan ring in line with the benz-2-pyrone nucleus, angular furanocoumarins have the furan ring oriented at an angle to the nucleus.
Psoralen, C11 H6 O3.
fused:a rather vague term meaning 'joined together', often best replaced by the more specific adnate, adherent, appressed, coherent, connate, connivent (kind of fusion), diadelphous, fasciate, fascicle, monadelphous, phalangiate, syngenesious (fusion of the androecium), and for the timing of fusion, see congenital, postgenital, cf. free.
fusiform:= lens-shaped, i.e. narrower at both ends than at the centre.
fusiform initials:a kind of cambial initial found in the vascular cambium, vertically elongated cells the division and differentiation of which produces the vertically-elongated members of the vascular tissue, sieve tubes, vessels, etc., cf. ray initials.
Table 1. Common Dietary Flavonoids (Click the highlighted text to see chemical structures.)
Dietary Flavonoids Some Common Food Sources Anthocyanidins
Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin, Pelargonidin, Peonidin, Petunidin
Red, blue and purple berries, red and purple grapes, red wine
Catechin, Epicatechin, Epigallocatechin Epicatechin gallate, Epigallocatechin gallate
Dimers and Polymers:
Theaflavins, Thearubigins, Proanthocyanidins
Catechins: Teas (particularly green and white), chocolate, grapes, berries, apples
Theaflavins,Thearubigins: Teas (particularly black and oolong)
Proanthocyanidins:Chocolate, apples, berries, red grapes, red wine
Flavanones Hesperetin,Naringenin, Eriodictyol Citrus fruits and juices, e.g., oranges, grapefruits, lemons Flavonols
Quercetin,Kaempferol, Myricetin, Isorhamnetin Widely distributed:yellow onions, scallions, kale, broccoli, apples, berries, teas Flavones Apigenin,Luteolin Parsley,thyme, celery, hot peppers, Isoflavones Daidzein,Genistein, Glycitein Soybeans,soy foods, legumes
group name center ring group name center ring
flavan diol flavanol flavone flavylium ion
The main groups and related compounds are shown below:
The flavanol compounds have bitter taste.
3,4-flavandiol name R1 R2 leucopelargonodin H H leucocyanidin OH H leucodelphinidin OH OH 3-flavone-ol (flavonol) name R1 R2 kaempferin H H quercetin OH H myricetin OH OH anthocyanins
name R1 R2 pelargonidin H H cyanidin H OH delphinidin OH OH peonidin H OCH3 petunidin OH OCH3 malvidin OCH3 OCH3
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