Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: L- (prefix) |labellum |laciniate |lactones |Lactucin[1891-29-8] |Lactucopicrin[6466-74-6] |Lactupicrine |lacuna |Laetrile[1332-94-1] |lagenostome |lamella |lamina |laminar |lateral |lateral |laterally compressed |lateral meristem |laterocylic |laterocytic |late wood |latex |laticifers |latiseptate |latrorse |lauric acid |Lauryl gallate[1166-52-5] |LBP |leaf |leaf base |leaf gap |leaflet |leaf-opposed |leaf trace |Lecithin[8002-43-5] |Lecithins |lectins |legume |lemma |lenticel |lenticular |leonurine [24697-74-3] |lepidote |leptocaul |leptom(e) |leptophyll |leptosporangium |Leucine [61-90-5] |leucoanthocyanins |leucodelphinidin |leucoplast |liane |libriform fibre |life forms |lignan |lignin |lignotuber |ligule |ligule |limb |Limonene [138-86-3] |limonoids |Linalool[78-70-6] |Linalool oxide[1365-19-1] |linea fissura |lineage |linea lucida |linear |linguiform, lingulate |Linoleic acid [60-33-3] |Linolenic acid [463-40-1] |Lipid Peroxides |liquiritigenin:[578-86-9] |liquiritigenin |Liriodendrin [96038-87-8] |lithocyst |lithophyte |lobed |locule, loculus |loculicidal |lodicule |loganin |lomentum |long-day |long shoot |lophate |lower |Lumbar spine |lumen |Lupeol[ 545-47-1] |lupinine |Lutein[127-40-2] |luteolin |luteone |Luteolin[491-70-3] |luteolin-7-glucoside[5373-11-5] |Lycopene [502-65-8] |lycopene beta cyclase |llycophyll |Lymphocytes |lyoniside:[5779-62-4] |lysigenous |Lysine [56-87-1] |Lysosome |
L- (prefix):laevo, handedness of isomers, all naturally-occurring amino acids are L-; see L-tryptophan, L-phenylalanine, etc.
labellum:a lip-like structure in a flower usually in the abaxial or lower position, e.g. in Orchidaceae, the distinctive median tepal of the inner whorl (see epichile, hypochile), in Zingiberaceae and Costaceae, in a similar position, but derived from petaloid staminodes.
laciniate:slashed into narrow, pointed lobes.
lactones:cyclic compounds with a 5-6-membered ring in which the chain is closed by ester formation between a carboxyl and a hydroxyl group in the same molecule; see iridoids, sesquiterpene lactones.
Parasorbic acid, C6 H8 O2.
Lactucin[1891-29-8]:Synonyms:1891-29-8;C09489;Lactucin;Azuleno(4,5-b)furan-2,7-dione, 3,3a,4,5,9a,9b-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-3-methylene-, (3aR-(3aalpha,4beta,9aalpha,9bbeta))-
Formula:C15H16O5. or C15H16O4 CAS RN:1891-29-8 M.W.:276.285 g/mol or 260,3 g/mol
Lactucopicrin[6466-74-6]:Synonyms:6466-74-6;Intybin;Lactucopicrin;Lactucopicrin3,3a,4,5,9a,9b-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-3-methyleneazuleno(4,5-b)furan-2,7-dione p-hydroxyphenylacetate hydrate;lactucopicrin3,3a,4,5,9a,9b-hexahydro-4-hydroxy-9-(hydroxymethyl)-6-methyl-3-methyleneazuleno(4,5-b)furan-2,7-dione p-hydroxyphenylacetate hydrate
CAS Type 1 Name:Lactucopicrin Equivalent Name:intybin,lactupicrine
Formula:C23H22O7. or C23H22O6 CAS RN:6466-74-6 M.W.:410.417 g/mol or 394,4 g/mol
Note:An component of lactucarium, Lactucopicrin is a bitter substance that has a sedative effect on the central nervous system.
lacuna:a gap or cavity, see nodal anatomy.
Laetrile[1332-94-1]:Synonyms:BRN 5608756;Cyanophenylmethyl-beta-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid;Laetrile;Mandelonitrile-beta-glucuronide;NSC 103055;Vitamin B(sub 17);Vitamin B17;beta-D-Glucopyranosiduronic acid, alpha-cyanobenzyl;l-Mandelonitrile-beta-glucuronoside
CAS Type 1 Name:Laetrile;beta-D-Glucopyranosiduronic acid, cyanophenylmethyl, (R)-(9CI)
Formula:C14H15NO17. CAS RN:1332-94-1 Other RN:57534-26-6
lagenostome:a pre-pollination pollen chamber formed at the apex of the megasporangium wall (nucellus) of some gymnosperms by cell degeneration in which pollen may collect, cf. antiraphe, chalaza, epistase, female gametophyte, funicle, hypostase, integument (see also endothelium), megaspore, micropyle, pollen chamber, obturator, raphe.
lamella:a thin, plate-like layer, see middle lamella.
lamina:the blade of a leaf, usually flattened, dorsiventral, and expanded, cf. hyperphyll, leaf base, petiole, stipule, see admedial, exmedial (positional terms); the lamina margin often with teeth, see also biserrate, crenate, dentate, entire, serrate, sinuate, undulate, see also venation.
laminar:placentation where the ovules are not localised on placentae but are scattered along the septa, cf. apical, axile, basal, free central, intrusive-parietal, marginal, parietal.
lateral:borne lateral to the axis of symmetry of the flower relative to the inflorescence axis, that is, lateral to the line joining the flower, the bract subtending it, the inflorescence axis on which it is borne, cf. abaxial, adaxial, median.
of a style or stylulus that arises from the side of the gynoecium, cf. gynobasic, terminal.
laterally compressed:of axillary structures, flattened laterally, so extended in the ad-/abaxially or median plane, cf. laterally compressed, see also angustiseptate and latiseptate fruits.
lateral meristem:a meristem of stem or root arranged parallel with the sides of the organ in which they occur, see cork cambium, polyderm, vascular cambium, cf. apical meristem.
laterocylic:of paracytic stomata where the subsidiary cells are parallel to the long axis of the stoma and completely surround the latter, cf. brachyparacytic.
laterocytic:of stomata, with three or more distinct subsidiary cells partially (not at the apex or base) surrounding the guard cells, see actinocytic, allelocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, paracytic, staurocytic, tetracytic.
late wood:wood, strictly speaking xylem, produced later in the growing season, often darker in colour and with narrower xylem elements, cf. early wood.
latex:a viscous fluid exuded from the cut surfaces of the leaves and stems, in the strict sense referring to polymers made up of isoprene units in the cis- configuration (gutta has those same units in the trans configuration), borne in laticifers, cf. gums, mucilages, oils, resins, waxes.
laticifers:a system of long multinucleate tubes in which latex is found, having cross walls (articulated) or non-articulated).
latiseptate:of a fruit that is flattened in a direction parallel to the septum, which thus traverses the broad axis of the ovary, cf. angustiseptate.
latrorse:turned sideways, i.e. neither towards or away from axis; of anthers, opening laterally towards adjacent anthers, cf. extrorse, introrse.
lauric acid:a saturated fatty acid.
Synonyms:Lauric acid;Dodecanoic acid;dodecanoic acid;lauric acid, ammonium salt;lauric acid, barium and cadmium salt (4:1:1);lauric acid, calcium salt;lauric acid, lithium salt;lauric acid, magnesium salt;lauric acid, nickel(2+) salt;lauric acid, potassium salt;lauric acid, sodium salt;potassium laurate;sodium laurate;1-Undecanecarboxylic acid;10008731;10124-65-9;13282-11-6;13841.16;13842.17;143-07-7;14379.5;14622-13-0;14685.2;15337-60-7;16314.5;16375.2;16719.3;20318.13;203714-07-2;22901.2;23390.5;2437-23-2;26615.3;27525.7;30899.20;4-02-00-01082 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4040-48-6;4696-56-4;5026;61070-13-1;629-25-4;7133.5; 7148.6;7632-48-6;8000-62-2;8045-27-0;8653.2;9442.2;Abl;AI3-00112;AIDS-049202;AIDS049202;Aliphat no. 4, BRN 1099477;C-1297;C02679;C12 fatty acid;CCRIS 669;CHEMBANK803953;Coconut oil fatty acids;DAO;Dodecanoate;Dodecanoic (Lauric) acid;dodecanoic aci;Dodecanoic acid;DODECANOIC ACID (LAURIC ACID);Dodecoic acid;Dodecylcarboxylate;Dodecylic acid;Duodecyclic acid;Duodecylic acid;EINECS 205-582-1;Emery 650;FEMA No. 2614;HSDB 6814;Hydrofol acid 1255;Hydrofol acid 1295;Hystrene 9512;LAU;Lauric acid;Lauric acid (natural);Lauric acid;pure;Laurostearic acid;Lunac L 70;MYR;n-Dodecanoate;n-Dodecanoic acid;Neo-fat 12;Neo-fat 12-43;Ninol aa62 extra;NISTC143077;NSC-5026;NSC141388;NSC5026;NSC58967;Philacid 1200;Prifrac 2920;Undecane-1-carboxylic acid;Univol u-314;Vulvic acid;Wecoline 1295
CAS Type 1 Name:Dodecanoic acid;Lauric acid; n-Dodecanoic acid
Formula: C12 H24O2 CAS RN:143-07-7 Other RN:203714-07-2;7632-48-6;8000-62-2;8045-27-0 Related RN:10124-65-9 (potassium salt);14622-13-0 (lithium salt);15337-60-7 (unspecified barium.cadmium salt);2437-23-2 (ammonium salt);4040-48-6 (magnesium salt);4696-56-4 (calcium salt);629-25-4 (hydrochloride salt) Molecular Weight:200.318 g/mol Melting Point:43.2 deg C Boiling Point:298.9 deg C Water Solubility:4.81 mg/L at 25 deg C
Lauryl gallate[1166-52-5]:Synonyms:antioxidant E 312;antioxidant E-312;dodecyl gallate;E 312 antioxidant;E-312 antioxidant;Nipagallin LA;Progallin LA;Dodecyl gallate;Gallic acid, dodecyl ester;Lauryl gallate;Nipagallin LA;Progallin LA;NSC133463;4-10-00-02006 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 2701981;Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, dodecyl ester;CCRIS 5568;Dodecyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Dodecyl gallate;Dodecylester kyseliny gallove [Czech];EINECS 214-620-6;Gallic acid, dodecyl ester;Gallic acid, lauryl ester;Lauryl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Lauryl gallate
CAS Type 1 Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, dodecyl ester;Dodecyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Gallic acid, dodecyl ester (8CI);Lauryl gallate Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, dodecyl ester
Formula: C19 H30O5 CAS RN:1166-52-5 Other RN:149030-04-6 Molecular Weight:338.44
LBP:short for Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide,Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharide is a kind of Proteoglycan composed from 6 kind of Monosaccharide,they are Arabinose,Glucose,Galactose, Mannose,Rhamnose and Xylose.
leaf:commonly thought of as one of the three basic parts of the seed plant body, a structure usually of determinate growth, without secondary thickening, and of superficial origin, often flattened and photosynthetic in part, and in the axil of which is found a bud, cf. root, stem (the other main parts of the seed plant body), see compound, hyperphyll, megaphyll, microphyll, scale, simple (kinds of leaves), also hyperphyll, lamina, leaf base, petiole, stipule (parts of leaves), also bifacial, dorsiventral, isobifacial, unifacial (leaf faces), also alternate, bijugate, decussate, distichous, opposite, pseudoverticillate,spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous, whorled (arrangement), see also teeth, venation.
leaf base:the bottom part of a leaf, cf. hyperphyll, lamina, petiole, stipule.
leaf gap:in nodal anatomy, a parenchymatous interruption in the central vascular cylinder that occurs as a vascular bundle, a leaf leaf trace, departs, see also reparatory strand.
leaflet:one of the ultimate segments of a compound leaf, see petiolule, stipel.
leaf-opposed:of an inflorescence or bud, arising from the stem opposite the point of insertion of a leaf, cf. axillary, intercalary, ramiflorous, supra-axillary, terminal.
leaf trace:in nodal anatomy, a vascular bundle supplying a leaf, cf. leaf gap, see also reparatory strand.
Lecithin[8002-43-5]:Synonyms:Acti-flow 68-sb;Alcolec S;CCRIS 7265;EINECS 232-307-2;Egg yolk;Emulthin M-35;Gliddex;Granulestin;HSDB 1903;Kelecin;Lecithin;Lecithin, soybean;Lecithins;Lecithol;Ovovitellin;Phosphatidylcholine;Phospholutein;Soybean lecithin;Vitellin;L-Alpha-Phosphatidyl Choline; Lecithin; Lecithin, granular; Lecithins; Soybean lecithin;
CAS Type 1 Name:Lecithine;Lecithins;Soybean lecithin
CAS RN:8002-43-5 Other RN:55128-59-1 8002-43-5 8030-76-0
TSCA Definition 2005:The complex combination of diglycerides of fatty acids linked to the choline ester of phosphoric acid.
Equivalent Name:Choline Phosphoglycerides;Lecithins
Note:Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
lectins:a group of hemagglutinating proteins (hemagglutinins) found primarily in plant seeds, which bind specifically to the branching sugar molecules of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of cells.
legume:the fruit of some Fabaceae, formed from one carpel and dehiscent along one or both sides, explosively so or not, sometimes also used for other fruits in the family whether dehiscent or indehiscent, winged or not, splitting transversely or not - hence a term of little use; also a crop species in the family Fabaceae.
lemma:in a grass floret, the lower of two bracts enclosing a flower, perhaps a bracts. str., cf. glume (of a spikelet), lodicule, palea.
lenticel:a loosely-packed mass of often more or less rounded cork cells occurring especially in the young stem, bark or even leaf of a plant, visible on the surface as a raised, often powdery-appearing spot, through which gaseous exchange occurs.
lenticular:shaped like a biconvex lens.
leonurine [24697-74-3]:Synonyms:4-guanidino-n-butyl syringate;24697-74-3;4-Guanidino-n-butyl syringate;7097-09-8;Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-, 4-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)butyl ester;Leonurine
CAS Type 1 Name:Benzoic acid, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-, 4-((aminoiminomethyl)amino)butyl ester Chemical Name:4-(diaminomethylideneamino)butyl 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-benzoate
Formula: C14 H21N3O5. Molecular Weight:311.334 g/mol CAS RN:24697-74-3 Other RN:7097-09-8 Note: Isolated from leaves of Leonurus artemisia; has uterotonic effect.
lepidote:of indumentum, made up of scales, cf. arbuscular, hirsute, hispid, puberulous, pubescent, sericeous, stellate, strigose, tomentose, villous, see also glabrescent and glabrate, which refer to stages in the loss of these hairs.
leptocaul:of trees, with more or less slender trunk and branches, cf. pachycaul, see habit.
leptom(e):the sieve elements and associated parenchymatic cells of phloem tissue, cf. hadrom(e), stereom(e).
leptophyll:in ecology, the blade of a leaf or leaflet <25 mm2 in surface area, cf. macrophyll, megaphyll, mesophyll, microphyll, nanophyll, notophyll.
leptosporangium:esp. used in ferns, a sporangium that develops from a single superficial cell, the wall of the sporangium being a single cell layer thick, cf. eusporangium.
Leucine [61-90-5]:Synonyms:2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid; 2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid; (2S)-alpha-2-amino-4-methylvaleric acid; (2S)-alpha-Leucine; L; L-2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid; Leu; Leucine; L-Leu; L-(-)-leucine; L-Leucine; (S)-(-)-Leucine;(S)-2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid; (S)-2-Amino-4-methylvaleric acid;(S)-Leucine;2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid, (S)-;AI3-08899;EINECS 200-522-0;FEMA No. 3297;L-(-)-2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid;L-Leucine;L-Norvaline, 4-methyl-;L-alpha-Aminoisocaproic acid;Leu;Leucin [German];Leucina [INN-Spanish];Leucina [Latin,Spanish];Leucine;Leucine (VAN);Leucinum [INN-Latin];NSC 46709;Pentanoic acid, 2-amino-4-methyl-, (S)-;Valeric acid, 2-amino-4-methyl-, (S)-
CAS Type 1 Name:2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid (L);2-Amino-4-methylvaleric acid (L) Chemical Name:L-Leucine; Leucine
Formula: C6 H13NO2. Molecular Weight:131.1742 CAS RN:61-90-5 Other RN:7005-03-0 ACX Number:X1009226-1. Melting Point:286 - 288 -293 dec deg C Water Solubility:2.15E+04 mg/L at 20 deg C
leucoplast:a plastid cf. amyloplast, chromoplast, chloroplast, sieve tube plastid.
liane:of habit, a climbing or twining plant, usually applied to woody climbers, cf. acaulescent, arborescent, dendroid, frutescent, fruticose, herb, rheophyte, suffrutescent, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, tree, vine, see also life forms.
libriform fibre:a fiber that has bordered pits found in wood tissue, cf. fiber tracheid.
life forms:a classification of the growth forms of plants based on the position of the resting buds and the duration of the life of the shoot, in part see chamaephyte, cryptophyte (geophyte, helophyte, hydrophyte), hemicryptophyte, phanerophyte, therophyte, see also habit.
lignan:colorless, crystalline, solid, dimeric compounds derived from precursors related to those involved in the formation of lignin, i.e. the union of two units of phenylpropane, cinnamic acid, or their derivatives, through their aliphatic side-chains, they occur in chiral forms (as opposed to lignins), cf. neolignans.
Sesamin, C20 H18 O6.
Justicidin, A C22 H18 O7.
lignin:a class of polymers formed from mostly C6-C3 monomeric units (cinnamic acid, coumarins), occuring in all plants; lignification, the deposition of lignin e.g. in secondary cell walls, see lignan, neolignans, cf. also cellulose, hemicellulose.
lignotuber:a woody swelling at the base of the shoot system below or just above the ground, containing adventitious buds from which new shoots develop if the top of the plant is cut off or burnt, common in many fire-tolerant shrubs, cf. bulb, bulbil, caudex, corm, pseudobulb, rhizome, runner, tuber, turion.
ligule:a strap-shaped structure; a membranous or hairy appendage on the adaxial surface of a leaf, at the junction between sheath and blade, especially in grasses, or a similar structure at the junction of two parts of a petal, e.g. claw and limb (see also corona); also, an adaxial appendage near the leaf base in some monocots and in Selaginellaceae, etc.; adj. ligulate.
ligule:the corolla limb in ray flowers of Asteraceae, adj. ligulate.
limb:the upper, free, spreading portion of a corolla or perianth that is connate at the base; the expanded portion of a sepal or petal above the claw.
Limonene [138-86-3]:Synonyms:(+-)-Dipentene;(+-)-Linonene;(+-)-alpha-Limonene;1,8(9)-p-Menthadiene;1,8-p-Menthadiene;1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene;1-Methyl-4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene;1-Methyl-p-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene;4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene;AI3-00739;Acintene DP;Acintene DP dipentene;Cajeputen;Cajeputene;Caswell No. 526;Cinen;Cinene;Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-;DL-4-Isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene;DL-Limonene;Di-p-mentha-1,8-diene;Dipanol;Dipenten;Dipentene;Dipentene 200;EINECS 205-341-0;EINECS 231-732-0;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 079701;Eulimen;Flavor orange;Goldflush II;HSDB 1809; Inactive limonene;Kautschin;Limonen;Limonene;Mentha-1,8-diene (DL);NSC 21446;NSC 844;Nesol;Orange flavor;PC 560;Unitene;alpha-Limonene;d,l-Limonene;delta-1,8-Terpodiene; dl-Limonene;p-Mentha-1,8-diene, (+-)-;p-Mentha-1,8-diene, DL- ;1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene; 4-(1-methylethenyl)-1-methyl-cyclohexene; 4-Isopropenyl-1-methyl-1-cyclohexene; p-Mentha-1,8-diene; Acintene DP dipentene; Dipenten; Dipentene, mixt. of limonene, 56-64%, and terpinolene, 20-25%; Cajeputene; Ciene; Cinene; Cyclil decene; Cyclohexene, 4-isopropenyl-1-methyl-; DL-p-mentha-1,8-diene; DL-LIMONENE; Eulimen; Limonene; Mentha-1,8-diene; Mentha-1,8-diene, DL; Menthadiene; Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene; Methyl-4-isopropenyl-1-cyclohexene; Methyl-4-isopropenylcyclohexene; Monocyclic terpene hydrocarbons; Nesol; Terpodiene;
Chemical Name:1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)cyclohexene;Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-;Dipentene;Limonene
CAS Type 1 Name:(1)-1-Methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene;Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-;Dipentene, crude;d(R)-4-Isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene;p-Mentha-1,8-diene
Formula: C10 H16 CAS RN:138-86-3 Other RN:555-08-8 7705-14-8 8022-90-0 8050-32-6 Molecular Weight:136.2364
ACX Number:X1000382-8. Density0.84 Flashing Point:46
limonoids:type of triterpenoid (tetranortripterpenes), bitter compounds, pentacyclic, with a furan ring attached as a side chain.
Dysoxylin, C28 H32 O9.
Limonin, C26 H30 O8.
Linalool[78-70-6]:Synonyms:(+/-)-Linalool; 2,6-Dimethylocta-2,7-dien-6-ol; 3,7-Dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol; 3,7-Dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol; Linalol; linalool; Linalool ex bois de rose oil; Linalool ex ho oil; Linalool ex orange oil; linalool, (+-)-isomer;linalool, (R)-isomer;linalool, (S)-isomer;linalool, titanium (4+) salt;(+-)-Linalool ;0-01-00-00462 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);1,6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl- ;2,6-Dimethyl-2,7-octadiene-6-ol;2,6-Dimethylocta-2,7-dien-6-ol;3,7-Dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol;AI3-00942;BRN 1721488;CCRIS 3726;CCRIS 6557;Caswell No. 526A;EINECS 201-134-4;EINECS 245-083-6;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 128838;FEMA No. 2635;FEMA Number 2635;HSDB 645;Linalool;Linalool (natural);Linalyl alcohol;NSC 3789;allo-Ocimenol;beta-Linalool;p-Linalool
Chemical Name: 1,6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-;2,6-Dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol;2,7-Octadien-6-ol, 2,6-dimethyl-;3,7-Dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol;Linalool;Linalyl alcohol
CAS Type 1 Name:3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol
Formula: C10 H18O CAS RN:78-70-6 Other RN:11024-20-7 22564-99-4 Molecular Weight:154.2516
ACX Number:X1002091-0. Density0.868 Flashing Point:75 Boling Point:199
Linalool oxide[1365-19-1]:Synonyms:EINECS 215-723-9;FEMA No. 3746;Linalool oxide;Linalool, epoxydihydro-;Linalool, oxide
Chemical Name: 1,6-Octadien-3-ol, 3,7-dimethyl-;2,6-Dimethyl-2,7-octadien-6-ol;2,7-Octadien-6-ol, 2,6-dimethyl-;3,7-Dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol;Linalool;Linalyl alcohol
CAS Type 1 Name:Linalool oxide
Formula: C10 H18O2 CAS RN:1365-19-1 Other RN:11063-76-6 Molecular Weight:170.251
linea fissura:an inconspicuous line on the surface of the seed coat that delimits a more or less circular area, an areole, as in Fabaceae - Mimosoideae, cf. cf. funicle, micropyle; the linea lucida is an unrelated structure.
lineage:strictly speaking, an ancestral-descendent series of individuals, but often used interchangeably with clade, in which case the latter is preferable.
linea lucida:of the testa or tegmen, a bright line running periclinally through heavily thickened palisade cells (see the Malpighian layer), often separating more or less thickened parts of the cells, the linea fissura is an unrelated structure.
linear:very narrow in relation to the length, and with the sides parallel.
Linoleic acid [60-33-3]:Synonyms:9,12-linoleic acid; 9,12-Octadecadieneoic acid, (Z,Z)-; 9,12-octadecadienoic acid; 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-; 9-cis,12-cis-Octadecadienoate; cis-9,cis-12-octadecadienoic acid; cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid; cis,cis-Delta-9,12-octadecadienoate; emersol 310; emersol 315; Linolic acid; Linoleic acid; linoleoate; polyin no.515; telfairic acid; (Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid;
Formula: C18 H32O2. Molecular Weight:280.4496 CAS RN:60-33-3 ACX Number:X1009881-2. Melting Point:-5. Density:0.902. Boiling Point:229 - 230 at 16 mm Hg. Water Solubility:Insoluble RTECS:RF9990000.
Linolenic acid [463-40-1]:Synonyms:9,12,15-all-cis-octadecatrienoic acid; (9Z,12Z,15Z)-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid; alpha-linolenic acid; all-cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid; all cis-Delta-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate; cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid; cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid; cis-delta-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid; Linolenic acid; (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid;
Formula: C18 H30O2. Molecular Weight:278.4338 CAS RN:463-40-1 ACX Number:X1013260-2. Melting Point:-11.3. Density:0.914. Boiling Point:230 - 232 at 1 mm Hg. Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 22 C
Lipid Peroxides:Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
liquiritigenin:[578-86-9]:Synonyms:7,4'-dihydroxyflavanone; (2S)-7-Hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydro-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one ; 4',7-Dihydroxyflavanone
CAS Type 1 Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, (S)-
Chemical Name: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, (2S)-
Formula: C15 H12 O4. CAS RN:578-86-9 Other RN:16006-91-0 17002-53-8 2885-30-5 MW::256.26
Liriodendrin [96038-87-8]:Synonyms:liriodendrin, (1alpha,3aalpha,4alpha,6aalpha)-isomer;liriodendrin, 1R-(1alpha,3aalpha,4alpha,6aalpha)-isomer;liriodendrin, 1R-(1alpha,3abeta,4beta,6aalpha)-isomer;liriodendrin, 1S-(1alpha,3aalpha,4alpha,6abeta)-isomer;liriodendrin,1S-(1alpha,3aalpha,4alpha,6aalpha)-isomer
Chemical Name:beta-D-Glucopyranoside, (tetrahydro-1H,3H-furo(3,4-c)furan-1,4-diyl)bis(2,6-dimethoxy-4,1-phenylene)bis-
Formula: C34 H46O18. CAS RN:96038-87-8 Molecular Weight:742.718 g/mol
lithocyst:enlarged epidermal cell, usually of a leaf, containing a cystolith.
lithophyte:a plant that grows on the surface of unweathered rock, cf. amphibious, aquatic, epilithic, epiphyte, terrestrial.
lobed:of the apex of any laminar structure, e.g., petal, leaf blade, divided more than 25% the length of the structure, cf. emarginate, retuse.
locule, loculus:an enclosed compartment within an organ, e.g. an ovary, an anther, pl. loculi, dim. locellus.
loculicidal:of the dehiscence of capsules, along lines down the centres of the outer walls of the loculi or between the placentae when the placentation is parietal, cf. circumscissile, poricidal, septicidal, septifragal.
lodicule:in a grass floret, one of a pair (or three?) of tiny scales or flaps of tissue between the lemma and palea and the stamens, possibly representing reduced perianth segments, see also glume (of a spikelet).
loganin:a routeI iridoid.
lomentum:a schizocarp-type fruit formed from one or more carpels and having distinct transverse constrictions or lines where splitting occurs, breaking transversely into one-seeded segments when mature.
long-day:of a photoperiodic response, where long periods of light alternating with short periods of dark are neeeded for flowering to occur (more accurately, no long uninterrupted period of dark), cf. short-day.
long shoot:a shoot in which all or most of the internodes elongate, cf. short shoot; the comparison is often made between axillary shoots.
lophate:pollen in which the surface is honeycomb-like because of thickenings of the exine, cf. baculate, echinate, fossulate, gemmate, foveolate, pilate (gemmate and retipilate are variants), psilate, reticulate, retipilate, rugulate, scabrate, striate, and verrucose.
lower:of parts of a flower in particular, generally can be replaced by abaxial, cf. upper.
Lumbar spine:the portion of the spine between the chest (thorax) and the pelvis. It is commonly referred to as the small of the back.
lumen:the channel within a tube such as a blood vessel or the intestine.(pl. lumina), an element of pollen surface ornamentation, a space enclosed the muri.
Lupeol[ 545-47-1]:Synonyms:Fagarsterol;Lupenol;Monogynol B;Lupeol;Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, (3.beta.)-;(3beta,5xi,9xi,13xi,17xi,18xi,19xi)-lup-20(29)-en-3-ol;10026488;lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, (3beta,5xi,9xi,13xi,17xi,18xi,19xi);Lupeol;(3-beta)-Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol;Clerodol;EINECS 208-889-9;Fagarasterol;Fagarsterol;Lupenol;Lupeol;Monogynol B (6CI);NSC 90487;Triterpene lupeol;beta-Viscol;lup-20(29)-en-3-ol;lup-20(29)-en-3beta-ol;lup-20(29)-ene-3alpha-ol;lupeol, (3alpha)-isomer;lupeol, (3beta,18beta,19beta)-isomer
System Name:Lup-20(29)-en-3-beta-ol (8CI);Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, (3-beta)-;Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, (3beta)-;Lup-20(29)-en-3beta-ol (8CI)
Formula: C30 H50O CAS RN: 545-47-1 M.W.:426.7244
lupinine:a quinolizidine alkaloid.
Lutein[127-40-2]:Synonyms:Bo-Xan;EINECS 204-840-0;Lutein;Lutein ester;Lutein, all-trans-;Luteine;NSC 59193;Vegetable lutein;Vegetable luteol; Xanthophyll;Xanthophyll, all-trans-(+)-;all-trans-(+)-Xanthophyll;all-trans-Lutein
Chemical Name:beta,epsilon-Carotene-3,3'-diol;beta,epsilon-Carotene-3,3'-diol, (3R,3'R,6'R)-;Xanthophyll
CAS Type 1 Name:beta,epsilon-Carotene-3,3'-diol, (3R,3'R,6'R)-
Formula: C40 H56O2 CAS RN:127-40-2
Note:beta,Epsilon-Carotene-3,3'-diol. A carotenoid alcohol widespread in nature. It is present in egg yolk, algae, and petals of yellow flowers, among other sources.
luteolin:hydroxylated flavone derivative, common in leaves and flowers.
Luteolin[491-70-3]:Synonyms:3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone; 5,7,3',4'-Tetrahydroxyflavone; Luteolin;3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone; 5-18-05-00296 (Beilstein Handbook Reference); BRN 0292084; C.I. 75590; C.I. Natural Yellow 2;CCRIS 3790;Cyanidenon 1470; Digitoflavone;EINECS 207-741-0; Flacitran; Luteolin;Luteoline; Luteolol; Weld Lake
Chemical Name:4H-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-; 3',4',5,7-Tetrahydroxyflavone
CAS Type 1 Name:2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-4-benzopyrone ; 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy- (9CI) ; Flavone, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy- ; Luteolin
Formula: C15 H10O6 CAS RN:491-70-3 Molecular Weight:286.2404
luteolin-7-glucoside[5373-11-5]:Synonyms:cynaroside;luteolin-7-beta-D-glucoside;luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside;luteolin-7-O-monoglucoside;2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one;26811-41-6;4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-, mono-beta-D-glucopyranoside;4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-;5373-11-5;7-Glucoluteolin;7-Glucosylluteolin;7-O-beta-D-Glucosyl-5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone;AIDS-070478;AIDS070478;C03951;Cinaroside;Cynaroside;EINECS 226-365-8;Flavon, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-, glucoside;Flavone, 3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxy-, mono-beta-D-glucopyranoside;Glucoluteolin;Luteolin 7-glucoside;Luteolin 7-monoglucoside;Luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside;Luteolin 7-O-glucopyranoside;Luteolin 7-O-glucoside;Luteolin monoglucoside;Luteolin;glucoside;Luteolin-7-glucoside;Luteolin-7-O-glucoside,Luteoloside
Cas Type 1 Name:2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-7-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-5-hydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one Substance Name:Luteolin-7-glucoside
Formula: C21H20O11 CAS RN:5373-11-5 Molecular Weight:448.377 g/mol Note:Anti-inflammatory agents, non-steroidal
Lycopene [502-65-8]:Synonyms:LYC-O-MATO;lycopene, (13-cis)-isomer;lycopene, (7-cis,7'-cis,9-cis,9'-cis)-isomer;lycopene, (cis)-isomer;prolycopene;C.I. 75125;CCRIS 7925;EINECS 207-949-1;Lycopene (VAN);Lycopene 7;NSC 407322;all-trans-Lycopene;trans-Lycopene
CAS Type 1 Name:psi,psi-carotene;
Formula:C40 H56. CAS RN:502-65-8
lycopene beta cyclase:Comments:Biosynthesis of steroids
Definition:delta-Carotene <=> alpha-Carotene
Lymphocytes:Leukocytes (white blood cells) that play important roles in the immune system. T lymphocytes (T cells) differentiate into cells that can kill infected cells or activate other cells in the immune system. B lymphocytes (B cells) differentiate into cells that produce antibodies.
lyoniside:[5779-62-4]:Synonyms:beta-sitosterol glucoside;beta-sitosterol glucutonide;beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glycoside;beta-sitosteryl-beta-D-glucopyranoside;daucosterol;eleutheroside A;sitosterol beta-D-glucoside;sitosterol glucuronide;(3-beta)-Stigmast-5-en-3-yl-beta-D-glucopyranoside; 3-beta-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)stigmast-5-ene; 3beta-(beta-D-Glucopyranosyloxy)stigmast-5-ene; AW 10; Alexandrin; BRN 4359450; BSSG; Coriandrinol; Daucosterin, Daucosterol, Doursterol, EU 4906; Eleutheroside A; NSC 165962; Sitogluside; Sitoglusido [INN-Spanish]; Sitoglusidum [INN-Latin]; Sitosterol D-glucoside; Sitosteryl glycoside; Sterolin; WA 184; beta-Sitosterol glucoside ;beta-Sitosterol monoglucoside; beta-Sitosteryl glucoside
CAS Type 1 Name:Stigmast-5-ene, 3-beta-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)- ; beta-D-Glucopyranoside, (3beta)-stigmast-5-en-3-yl
Formula: C35 H60 O6. CAS RN:5779-62-4
lysigenous:of cavities in plants, formed by the dissolution of cells, cf. expansigenous, rhexigenous, schizogenous.
Lysine [56-87-1]:Synonyms:2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid; K; L-lysine; Lys; Lysine; Lysine acid; (S)-(+)-Lysine;(S)-Lysine;(S)-alpha,epsilon-Diaminocaproic acid;2,6-Diaminohexanoic acid, (S)-;4-04-00-02717 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-26523;Aminutrin;BRN 1722531;EINECS 200-294-2;HSDB 2108;Hexanoic acid, 2,6-diamino-, (S)-;L-Lysine;L-Norleucine, 6-amino-;LYS (IUPAC abbreviation);Lisina [Spanish];Lysine acid;Lysinum [Latin];alpha-Lysine;h-Lys-oh
CAS Type 1 Name:L-Lysine;Lysine Chemical Name:L-Lysine
Formula: C6 H14N2O2. Molecular Weight:146.1888 CAS RN:56-87-1 Other RN:280114-50-3 48050-57-3 6899-06-5 Related RN:57282-49-2 (acetate) 657-27-2 (hydrochloride) ACX Number:X1000371-5. Melting Point:224.5 dec deg C Water Solubility:1.00E+06 mg/L at 20 deg C
Note:An essential amino acid. It is used for food enrichment and results in improved growth and tissue synthesis.
Lysosome:a cellular organelle containing hydrolytic enzymes specialized for breaking down cellular debris. Lysosomal enzymes are separated from the rest of the cell by a lysosomal membrane and function optimally at an acid pH.
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