Backward Glossary Phytochemicals O!

Glossary Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!

 Glossary Phytochemicals Icon01
 Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.

 Glossary Phytochemicals Icon02
 There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

 
 Contents: ob- (prefix) |obdiplostemonous |obhaplostemonous |oblate |obligate |oblique |oblique |oblong |obovate |obsolescent |obsolete |obturator |obtuse |obvolute |ochrea |Octanol-3 [589-98-0] |Octyl gallate[1034-01-1] |odd-pinnate |Oenothera |O-glycosyl |oils |Oleanolic acid[508-02-1] |Oleic acid [112-80-1] |oleicacid |oleoside |oligo- (prefix) |Oligomers |oligomerous |One-carbon unit |one-ranked |ontogeny |oogamy |open |open meristem |open |open |operculum |operculum |opposite |opposite |opposite |ora |orbicular |orbicules |order |Organic |Orientin[28608-75-5] |ornithophilous |orobanchoside (orobanchin) |Orotic Acid [65-86-1] |orthostichy |orthotropous (of an ovule) |orthotropic |os |Osthenol[484-14-0] |Osthole [484-12-8] |ostiole |outer bark |outgroup |ovary |ovate |ovulate |ovule |ovuliferous |ovum |Oxalates |Oxalic acid:[144-62-7] |Oxidant |Oxidation |Oxymatrine:[16837-52-8] |


 ob- (prefix):the opposite to the condition described in the rest of the word, e.g., obovate, of a leaf, etc., with the widest point above the middle, rather than below, the latter being ovate.
 obdiplostemonous:androecium with twice as many stamens as petals and borne in two whorls, the outer whorl opposite the petals or inner whorl of tepals, cf. diplostemonous, haplostemonous, obhaplostemonous.
 obhaplostemonous:androecium with as many stamens as petals, the former borne in a single whorl opposite the petals or inner whorl of tepals, cf. diplostemonous, haplostemonous, obhaplostemonous.
 oblate:a general pollen shape descriptor, a radially symmetrical grain in which the polar axis is shorter than the equatorial diameter, i.e. it is shorter than wide, cf. boat-shaped, globose, prolate, spherical.
 obligate:of parasites, unable to survive without the host, cf. facultative.
 oblique:of general floral symmetry, although the flower may be monosymmetric, the major plane of symmetry of that flower is obligue to the axis that bears it, cf. asymmetric, bisymmetric, enantiomorphic, enantiostylous, polysymmetric.
 oblique:of the basal part of the lamina of a leaf or leaflet, larger on one side of the midrib than on the other, i.e. asymmetrical, cf. acute, attenuate, acumen, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also hastate, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
 oblong:a term used for outlines and plane shapes, with length:breadth ratio 2:1 - 3:2, the sides almost parallel, see broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, cf. elliptic, obovate, ovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate.
 obovate:a term used for outlines and plane shapes, with length:breadth ratio 2.5:1 - 3:2, the broadest part is above the middle,see broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, cf. elliptic, obovate, ovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate.
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 obsolescent:non-functional but not reduced to a rudiment, cf. obsolete, rudimentary, vestigial.
 obsolete:reduced to a rudiment, or completely lacking, cf. obsolescent, rudimentary, vestigial.
 obturator:an outgrowth of the funicle (commonest), placenta, or integument, etc., that forms a bridge between the micropyle and other tissues and is believed to faciltate fertilisation. When the term "obturator" is used, its origin should be made clear.
 obtuse:bluntly pointed at the apex, the converging edges separated by an angle greater than 90o, cf. acute, attenuate, acumen, apiculum, arista, awn, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, retuse, rounded, truncate, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of lamina base).
 obvolute:of leaf vernation in the strict sense, a leaf as if folded in half along the midline so that the adaxial surface disappears from view, and one side inside and one side outside a similarly folded leaf on the opposite side of the stem, which in turn similarly encloses the next leaf, and so on, cf. equitant.
 ochrea:a stipular sheath encircling the node in some Polygonaceae, whether scarious or not, either apply the term to any stipular stucture like this, or (better) = sheathing stipule.
 Octanol-3 [589-98-0]:Synonyms:1-Ethylhexanol;3-Octanol (natural);AI3-37213;Amyl ethyl carbinol;Amylethylcarbinol;D-n-Octanol;EINECS 209-667-4;EINECS 243-713-4;Ethyl amyl carbinol;Ethyl-n-amylcarbinol;Ethylamylcarbinol;FEMA No. 3581;Octanol-3
Chemical Name:(1)-Octan-3-ol;3-Octanol
CAS Type 1 Name:Ethyl n-amyl carbinol; Amyl ethyl carbinol;
Formula: C8 H18O  CAS RN:589-98-0 Other RN:20296-29-1   Molecular Weight:130.2296   Melting Point:-45
ACX Number:X1031698-4.  Density0.819   Flashing Point:67 Boling Point: 174 - 176 Octanol-3
 Octyl gallate[1034-01-1]:Synonyms:4-10-00-02005 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 2132305;Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, octyl ester;EINECS 213-853-0;GA 8 (VAN);Gallic acid, octyl ester;NSC 97419;Octyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Octyl gallate;Oktylester kyseliny gallove [Czech];Progallin O;Stabilizer GA 8;n-Octyl ester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid;n-Octyl gallate;3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid octyl ester;octyl gallate dihydrate
CAS Type 1 Name:3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid octyl ester  Chemical Name:Octyl gallate
Formula: C15 H22O5  CAS RN:1034-01-1  Molecular Weight:282.3358
Octylgallate Octylgallate
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 odd-pinnate:e.g. of a pinnately compound leaf, with the leaflets more or less in pairs and the rachis terminated by a leaflet, hence an odd number of leaflets, cf. even-pinnate.
 Oenothera:an embryo sac type, the types based on variation in megasporogensis and megagametogenesis, unisporic (micropylar), 4-celled (no antipodals, only one polar cell), cf. Adoxa, Allium, Drusa, Endymion, Fritillaria, Penaea, Peperomia, Plumbagella, Plumbago, Polygonum.
 O-glycosyl:when the sugar is attached to the aglycone by a -O- bond (see the bottom part of the structure below), easy to hydrolyse, cf. C-glycosyl.
Quercetin 3-glucoside, C21 H20 O12. quercetin 3-glucoside
 oils:fatty acid and glycerol, cf. gums, mucilages, latex, resins, waxes.
 Oleanolic acid[508-02-1]:Synonyms:(3-beta)-3-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid;3-beta-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid;Astrantiagenin C;CCRIS 6493;Caryophyllin;EINECS 208-081-6;Giganteumgenin C;NSC 114945;Oleanic acid;Oleanolic acid;Virgaureagenin B
Chemical Name:3beta-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid;Olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3-beta-hydroxy- (8CI);Olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3-hydroxy-, (3-beta)-;Olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3-hydroxy-, (3beta)-;Olean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3beta-hydroxy- (8CI);Oleanolic acid
Formula: C30 H48O3  CAS RN:508-02-1 
Oleanolicacid Oleanolicacid
Classification Note:3beta-Hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid. Occurs in leaves of Olea europaea, Viscum album L., and other higher plants. It is also the aglycone component of many saponins.
 Oleic acid [112-80-1]:Synonyms:Metaupon; 9-octadecenoic acid; Octadecenoic acid; Oleic acid; oleoate; red oil; tego-oleic 130; vopcolene 27; wecoline oo; (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid; 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-; century cd fatty acid; cis-9-Octadecenoic acid; cis-Delta-9-octadecanoate; cis-delta(sup 9)-octadecanoic acid; cis-octadec-9-enoic acid; emersol 210; emersol 213; emersol 233ll; emersol 6321; glycon ro; glycon wo; groco 2; groco 4; groco 5l; groco 6; hy-phi 1055; hy-phi 1088; hy-phi 2066; hy-phi 2088; hy-phi 2102; K 52; neo-fat 90-04; neo-fat 92-04;
Formula: C18 H34O2.  Molecular Weight:282.4654   CAS RN:112-80-1   ACX Number:X1000990-0.  Melting Point:13.4.  Density:0.891.  Boiling Point:286.  Flashing Point:189.  Water Solubility:Insoluble  RTECS:RG2275000.   Phenol
 oleoside:type of secoiridoid monoterpene.
Oleoside, C16 H22 O11. oleoside
 oligo- (prefix):few..
 Oligomers:A polymer that consists of two, three, or four monomers.A polymer consisting of only a few monomer units such as a dimer, trimer, tetramer, etc., or their mixtures. The upper limit of repeating units in an oligomer is about ten. The term telomer is sometimes used synonymously with oligomer.A low-molecular-weight polymer typically with two to five monomer units.A moderately long chain of (about 50) monomers. Compare to polymer.
 oligomerous:of parts of a flower, fewer than expected/"typical", cf. polymerous.
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 One-carbon unit:a biochemical term for functional groups containing only one carbon in addition to other atoms. One-carbon units transferred by folate coenzymes include methyl (-CH3), methylene (-CH2-), fomyl (-CH=O), formimino (-CH=NH), and methenyl (-CH=). Many biosynthetic reactions involve the addition of a one-carbon unit to a precursor molecule.
 one-ranked:leaves borne singly and in a single orthostichy up the stem, cf. spiromonistichous, two-ranked (distichous), three-ranked (tristichous), also bijugate, decussate, opposite,pseudoverticillate, spiral, whorled.
 ontogeny:the development of a single organism, i.e. the sequence of morphologies through which it passes during its lifetime, cf. phylogeny.
 oogamy:sexual reproduction in which the egg is relatively large, immobile and lacks flagellae and is fertilised by a smaller and motile male gamete that usually has flagellae.
 open:of aestivation, the edges of the floral parts concerned not overlapping in bud, i.e. not imbricate, cf. crumpled, decussate, induplicate, reduplicate, valvate.
 open meristem:of a root apical meristem in which all the tissue regions of the root can be traced to a single group of initials/cells, cf. closed meristem, intermediate meristem.
 open:of a leaf sheath that forms a cylinder around the stem but is slit down the side opposite the attachment of the blade, cf. closed.
 open:of a vascular bundle in which not all the cells differentiate, some remaining undifferentiated and meristematic and ultimately producing the vascular cambium, cf. closed.
 operculum:a cap formed by fusion or cohesion of perianth parts and covering the stamens and carpels in the bud, becoming detached at maturity; a more or less hardened, lid-like portion of the seed or fruit, esp. the endocarp of the latter, that becomes detached during germination or at maturity; or a part of a pollen pore in particular that is distinctively thickened and detaches as a unit.
 operculum:a distincly delimited and thickened ectexinous or sexinous structure that covers part of an ectoaperture of a pollen grain, cf. pontoperculum.
 opposite:of leaves or other lateral organs, borne at the same level but on opposite sides of the stem, the pairs decussate, often includes bijugate, and in the characterisations here also whorled, cf. also alternate, distichous,spiral, pseudoverticillate, spiromonistichous, tristichous.
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 opposite:of floral parts, on the same radius, e.g. used when describing the position of stamens with respect to petals (oppositipetalous), sepals (oppositisepalous), etc., cf. alternate.
 opposite:of pits, arranged in horizontal (and/or vertical?) pairs or rows and, when crowded, having a more or less square outline in surface view, cf. alternate.
 ora:pl. of os.
 orbicular:circular or nearly so.
 orbicules:minute granules of sporopollenin secreted by the tapetum, sometimes found on pollen grains.
 order:in the taxonomic hierarchy, a monophyletic grouping of families, or sometimes a single family with no apparent close relatives, the name with a termination -ales, the major taxonomic rank between family and class, cf. also genus, species.
 Organic:refers to carbon-containing compounds, generally synthesized by living organisms.
 Orientin[28608-75-5]:Synonyms:2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-8-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 28608-75-5, 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-, 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-, AIDS-026706, AIDS026706, C10114, Luteolin 8-C-glucoside, Luteolin 8-glucoside, Lutexin, Orientin, Orientin (Flavone)
Chemical Name:4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-8-.beta.-D-glucopyranosyl-5,7-dihydroxy-
Formula:C21 H20O11  CAS RN:28608-75-5  B>Molecular Weight:448.38 g/mol  
Orientin Orientin
 ornithophilous:of zo?philous flowers, with distinctive morphology for pollination by birds (red color, long tube, no scent, etc.), cf. cantharophilous, chiropterophilous, entomophilous, mellitophilous, ornithophilous, sapromyophilous, sphigophilous.
 orobanchoside (orobanchin):a phenylpropanoid, an ester of caffeic acid, two molecules and two sugar molecules also being involved.
Orobanchoside, C29 H34 O15.orobanchoside
 Orotic Acid [65-86-1]:Synonyms:1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-4-Pyrimidinecarboxylic acid; 2,4-dioxy-6-carboxy pyrimidine; 2,6-dihydroxy-4-pyrimidinecarboxylic acid; 6-carboxyuracil; 6-uracilcarboxylic acid; animal galactose factor; orodin; oropur; Orotic Acid; orotonin; oroturic; uracil-6-carboxylic acid; Vitamin B13; whey factor;
CAS Type 1 Name:4-Pyrimidinecarboxylic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-2,6-dioxo-;Orotic acid
Formula:C5H4N2O4.  CAS RN:65-86-1 Other RN:6784-70-9  M.W.:156.0976   Melting Point:345 - 346   Water Solubility:<0.1 g/100 mL at 20 C
Oroticacid  Oroticacid  
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 orthostichy:of the arrangement of parts along an axis, a vertical line joining an organ to the next organ immediately above it on the stem, cf. parastichy.
 orthotropous (of an ovule):= atropous.
 orthotropic:of growth, negatively geotropic, i.e. the stem growing more or less erect, cf. plagiotropic.
 os:the inner aperture of a compound aperture of a pollen grain, pl. orae, see colpate, colporate, porate, pororate, sulcate, ulcerate for different kinds of apertures, operculum, pontoperculum for the covering of apertures, stephano- for the distribution of apertures, and annulus for an element of a pore.
 Osthenol[484-14-0]:Synonyms:7-hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one;2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-;484-14-0;7-Hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one;NSC625328;Osthenol
Chemical Name:2H-1-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-hydroxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-  CAS RN:484-14-0  Formula: C14H14O3  Molecular Weight:230.259 g/mol  
osthenol osthenol
Comment:Cyclooxygenase inhibitors
 Osthole [484-12-8]:Synonyms:Osthol,C15H16O3,Osthola,osthol,Osthol,Ost,Cnidiadin,7-methoxy-8-isopentenoxycoumarin
Formula: C15 H16 O3.  CAS RN:484-12-8   Melting Point:83 - 84 Osthole
 ostiole:an opening or pore, e.g. of a microsporangium or anther as it dehisces (little used in flowering plants), or at the apex of a fig.
 outer bark:a non-technical term for the outer part of the bark, technically the periderm, cf. inner bark.
 outgroup:any group that is outside of the clade of immediate interest, more specifically, a taxon or tax that have been included in a study to root the tree or to polarise the characters of the ingroup, cf. in group, sister group.
 ovary:the basal portion of a carpel or group of fused carpels, that encloses the ovule(s), cf. stigma, style.
 ovate:a term used for outlines and plane shapes, with length:breadth ratio is 2.5:1 - 3:2, broadest below the middle, see broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, cf. elliptic, oblong, ovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate; ovoid, egg-shaped, is ovate in three dimensions and with a rounded apex and base, cf. pyriform.
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 ovulate:(of a flower that does not produce fertile pollen) = carpellate.
 ovule:a eusporangium in a seed plant enveloped by one or two integuments, a megasporangium within which one (rarely more) megaspores are formed and later the female gametophyte or embryo sac develops, and which finally develops into a seed after fertilisation, or "an indehiscent, integumented megasporangium containing a single functional megaspore" (Sporne 1974, p. 18), see antiraphe, chalaza, epistase, funicle, hypostase,integument (see also endothelium), lagenostome, megaspore, micropyle, nucellus, pollen chamber, obturator, raphe (parts), see also amphitropous, anatropous, atropous, campylotropous, circinotropous, hemitropous ("types"), and apotropous/epitropous/pleurotropous or antitropous/syntropous, curvature of the ovule with respect to the axis or carpel margin respectively.
 ovuliferous:bearing ovules, e.g. applied to scales in a megasporangiate cone in gymnosperms, cf. bract scale.
 ovum:= egg.
 Oxalates:Salts and esters of Oxalic Acid.
 Oxalic acid:[144-62-7]:COOH - COOH, a common organic acid in plants, oaxalte itself is usually found in plants as calcium oxalate.
Synonyms:Ethane-1,2-dioic acid; ethanedioic acid; ethanedionic acid; Oxalic acid; OXALIC ACID SOLUTION, 10% W/V;Oxalic acid;NSC115893 (DILITHIUM);4-02-00-01819 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);AI3-26463;Acide oxalique [French];Acido ossalico [Italian];Acidum oxalicum;Aktisal;Aquisal;BRN 0385686;CCRIS 1454;Caswell No. 625;EINECS 205-634-3;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 009601;Ethanedioic acid;HSDB 1100;Kyselina stavelova [Czech];NCI-C55209;NSC 62774;Oxaalzuur [Dutch];Oxalate;Oxalic acid;Oxalsaeure [German];Oxiric acid
CAS Type 1 Name:Ethanedioic acid  Chemical Name:Oxalic acid  Melting Point:189.5 dec deg C  Water Solubility:2.20E+05 mg/L 25
Formula:C2 H2O4  CAS RN:144-62-7  Other RN:216451-38-6 63504-28-9 97993-78-7  M.W.:90.03
Oxalicacid Oxalicacid
Note:A strong dicarboxylic acid occurring in many plants and vegetables. It is produced in the body by metabolism of glyoxylic acid or ascorbic acid. It is not metabolized but excreted in the urine. It is used as an analytical reagent and general reducing agent.
 Oxidant:reactive oxygen species.
 Oxidation:a chemical reaction that removes electrons from an atom or molecule.
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 Oxymatrine:[16837-52-8]:Synonyms:Matridin-15-one, 1-oxide, (1-beta)-;Matrine 1beta-oxide;Matrine N-oxide;Matrine oxide;Oxymatrine
CAS Type 1 Name:1H,5H,10H-Dipyrido(2,1-f:3',2',1'-ij)(1,6)naphthyridin-10-one, dodecahydro-, 4-oxide, (4R,7aS,13aR,13bR,13cS)-   Chemical Name:Matrine, 1-oxide
Formula: C15 H24N2O2  CAS RN:16837-52-8 
Oxymatrine Oxymatrine

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