Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!
Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.
There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
Contents: tangshenoside I [117278-74-7] |Tannic acid [1401-55-4] |tannins |tapetum |taproot |Tartaric acid:[526-83-0] |Taurine:[107-35-7] |taxis |taxon |tectum |teeth |tegillum |tegmen |tendril |tension wood |tenuinucellate |tepal |terete |terminal |terminal |ternate |terpenes, terpenoids |Terpinene-4-ol:[562-74-3] |Terpineol [8006-39-1] |Terpinene:[8013-00-1] |terrestrial |testa |Testosterone:[58-22-0] |tetra- (prefix) |tetracytic |tetrad |tetradynamous |tetramer:(tetramers) |tetramer |tetramerous |thalamus |thallus |Theaflavin[4670-05-7] |Theaflavine gallate[31629-79-5] |Thearubigin[12698-96-3] |theca |theobromine |theoid |therophyte |Thiamine:[59-43-8] |thigmo- (prefix) |thigmotropism |thorn |Threonine [72-19-5] |three-ranked |throat |thrum |Thujone[546-80-5] |Thujopsene[470-40-6] |Thymine [65-71-4] |Thymol methyl ether:[1076-56-8] |Thyroid |thyrse |tiglic acid |tile cells |tiller |tilosomes |Tin [7440-31-5] |Tocopherol:[1406-66-2] |tomentum |toothed |torus |torus |tortuous |trabecula |trace |tracheary tissue |Transcription |Transcription factor |transfer cells |transfusion tissue |Translation |translator |transseptal bundles |transverse(ly) |tree |tri- (prefix) |Triacontanol [593-50-0] |triacontanol |triangular |Tribuloside:[22153-44-2] |trichome |trichosclereid |trichotomosulcate |trichotomous |Tricin:[520-32-1] |tricolpate |tricolporate |Tridecane [629-50-5] |trifid |trifoliolate |Trigonelline:[535-83-1] |trigonous |Triglycerides |trilacunar |trilete |Trimethylamine [75-50-3] |Trimethylglycine |trimer:(trimers) |trimerous |trinucleate |tripinnate |triquetrous |tristichous |tristylous |triterpenoids |tropane |tropism |tropophyll |true pollen |trullate |trulliform |truncate |tryphine |L-tryptophane:[73-22-3] |T-shaped |tuber |tubercle |tubular |tumid |tunic |tunica |turbinate |turgid |turion |two-ranked |tylose, tylosis |L-tyrosine:[60-18-4] |Tyramine:[51-67-2] |
tangshenoside I [117278-74-7]:Synonyms:Chinese tannin; Gallotannic acid; Gallotannin; Galloylglucose; Glycerite; Penta NM digalloyl glucose; Quebracho; Tannic acid; Tannin; Tannins;Acacia mollissima tannin;Acid, tannic;Acide tannique [French];CCRIS 571;Castanea sativa Mill tannin;Caswell No. 819;EINECS 215-753-2;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 078502;FEMA No. 3042;Gallotannic acid;Gallotannin;Glycerite;HSDB 831;Liquidambar styraciflua;NSC 656273;Quebracho wood extract;Schinopsis lorentzii tannin;Tannic acid;Tannic acid (Quercus spp.);Tannin;Tannin from chestnut;Tannin from mimosa;Tannin from quebracho;Tannin from sweet gum;Tannins;d'Acide tannique [French]
Chemical Name:beta-D-Glucopyranoside, 4-(3-(4-carboxy-3-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)-1-propenyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenyl, (S-(E))- Formula: C29-H42-O18. CAS RN:117278-74-7
Tannic acid [1401-55-4]:Synonyms:Chinese tannin; Gallotannic acid; Gallotannin; Galloylglucose; Glycerite; Penta NM digalloyl glucose; Quebracho; Tannic acid; Tannin; Tannins;Acacia mollissima tannin;Acid, tannic;Acide tannique [French];CCRIS 571;Castanea sativa Mill tannin;Caswell No. 819;EINECS 215-753-2;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 078502;FEMA No. 3042;Gallotannic acid;Gallotannin;Glycerite;HSDB 831;Liquidambar styraciflua;NSC 656273;Quebracho wood extract;Schinopsis lorentzii tannin;Tannic acid;Tannic acid (Quercus spp.);Tannin;Tannin from chestnut;Tannin from mimosa;Tannin from quebracho;Tannin from sweet gum;Tannins;d'Acide tannique [French]
CAS Type 1 Name:Chestnut tannin;Mimosa tannin;Quebracho tannin;Sweet gum;Tannic acid;Tannin;Tannins Chemical Name:2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid
Formula: C76-H52-O46-S. CAS RN:1401-55-4 Other RN:61790-06-5 67167-65-1 73891-88-0 93615-37-3 Molecular Weight:1701.2 Melting Point:210 deg C
Note:TSCA Definition 2005: Gallic acid derivatives found in nutgalls, bark and other plant parts, especially oak bark.
tannins:any of a large group of plant-derived compounds. Tannins tend to be bitter tasting and may function in pigment formation and plant protection......complex, aromatic compounds (phenolics) that precipitate proteins occurring especially in the bark of many shrubs and trees, varying considerably in chemical composition and with different biosynthetic pathways and so a term of little use, see rather proanthocyanidins, hydrolyzable tannins; tanniniferous, producing tannins.
tannin, tannic acid, or gallotannic acid, astringent vegetable product found in a wide variety of plants. Sources include the bark of oak, hemlock, chestnut, and mangrove; the leaves of certain sumacs; and plant galls. Tannin is also present in tea, coffee, and walnuts. A solution of tannic acid is obtained from one of these natural sources by extraction with hot water; in particular, gallotannic acid is obtained from plant gall. Tannin varies somewhat in composition, having the approximate empirical formula C76H52O46. Tannic acid is a colorless to pale yellow solid; it is believed to be a glucoside in which each of the five hydroxyl groups of the glucose molecule is esterified with a molecule of digallic acid. Tannin is used in tanning animal skins to make leather; it transforms certain proteins of animal tissue into compounds that resist decomposition. It is also used in manufacturing inks, as a mordant in dyeing, and in medicine as an astringent and for treatment of burns.
Tea: The tea plant (Camellia sinensis) is an example of a plant with a naturally high tannin content. Green tea leaves are unquestionably a major plant source of tannins, as they not only contain the tannic and gallic acid groups, but also a proanthocyanidin (a type of flavanol) named prodelphinidin. When any type of tea leaf is steeped in hot water for an excessively long time period it brews a "tart" (astringent) flavor that is characteristic of tannins (and other components). New varieties of Camellia sinensis have been specifically bred for a lower tannin content. If ingested in excessive quantities, tannins inhibit the absorption of minerals such as iron into the body. This is because tannins are metal ion chelators, and tannin-chelated metal ions are not bioavailable.
Wine: Tannins (mainly condensed tannins) are also found in wine, particularly red wine. Tannins in wine can come from many sources and the tactile properties differ depending on the source. Tannins in grape skins and seeds (the latter being especially harsh) tend to be more noticeable in red wines, which are fermented while in contact with the skins and seeds.
Modern winemakers take great care to minimize undesirable tannins from seeds by crushing grapes gently to extract their juice. Pressing the grapes results in press wine which is more tannic and might be kept separately. Wines can also take on tannins if matured in oak or wood casks with a high tannin content. Tannins play an important role in preventing oxidation in aging wine and appear to polymerize and make up a major portion of the sediment in wine.
Pomegranates: Pomegranates contain a diverse array of tannins, particularly hydrolysable tannins. The most abundant of pomegranate tannins are called punicalagins. Punicalagins have a molecular weight of 1038 and are the largest molecule found intact in rat plasma after oral ingestion (Biomed. Pharmacother. 2002, 56, 276-82) and were found to show no toxic effects in rats who were given a 6% diet of punicalagins for 37 days. (J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 3493-3501). Punicalagins are also found to be the major component responsible for pomegranate juice's antioxidant and health benefits (J Agric Food Chem 2000 48 (10) 4581-89).
Several dietary supplements and nutritional ingredients are available that contain extracts of whole pomegranate and/or are standardized to punicalagins, the marker compound of pomegranate. Extracts of pomegranate are also 'Generally Recognized As Safe' (GRAS) by the United States. It has been recommended to look for pomegranate ingredients that mimic the polyphenol ratio of the fruit, as potent synergistic effects have been observed in 'natural spectrum' extracts, especially pomegranate concentrate normalized to punicalagins (J Nutr Biochemistry 2005 (16) 360-367).
Leather: Tannins are an important ingredient in the process of tanning leather. Oak bark has traditionally been the primary source of tannery tannin, though synthetic tanning agents are also in use today.
tapetum:innermost part of the anther wall, involved in the nutrition of the pollen, see amoeboid, glandular, cf. endothecium, exothecium, placentoid; note that integmentary tapetum = endothelium.
taproot:the main, descending root of a plant that has a single, dominant root axis derived from the radicle of the seedling, cf. fibrous root.
Tartaric acid:[526-83-0]:Synonyms:(+)-(2R,3R)-Tartaric acid, (+)-(R,R)-Tartaric acid, (+)-L-Tartaric acid, (+)-Tartaric acid, (+)-tartrate; (+-)-Tartaric acid;(-) D-Tartaric acid;(-)-(S,S)-Tartaric acid;(-)-D-Tartaric acid; (-)-Tartaric acid; (.+-.)-Tartaric acid, (.+/-.)-Tartaric acid;(2R,3R)-(+)-Tartaric acid;(2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxybernsteinsaeure;(2R,3R)-Tartaric acid;(2RS,3RS)-Tartaric acid; (2S,3S)-(-)-Tartaric acid;(R,R)-(+)-Tartaric acid; (R,R)-Tartaric acid;(R,R)-tartrate;(S,S)-(-)-Tartaric acid;(S,S)-Tartaric acid;1,2-Dihydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid;133-37-9;1336-18-1;138508-61-9;147-71-7;147-73-9;2, 3-Dihydrosuccinic acid;2,3-Dihydrobutanedioic acid;2,3-Dihydrosuccinic acid;2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acid;2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acid;31586-77-3;526-83-0;8014-54-8;8059-77-6;815-82-7;815-84-9;868-14-4;868-19-9;87-69-4;Acid potassium tartrate; Acidum tartaricum;AI3-06298;AIDS-017708;AIDS017708;antimony sodium tartrate;Baros;Bismuth sodium tartrate;Butanedioic acid, 2, 3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-(.+-.)-, Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- (2R,3R)-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- (R-(R*,R*))-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R- (R*,R*)]-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R- (R*,R*)]-, bismuth sodium salt;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R- (R*,R*)]-, copper(2+) salt (1:1);Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R- (R*,R*)]-, lead(2+) salt (1:1);Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R- (R*,R*)]-, monopotassium salt;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R- (R*,R*)]-, strontium salt (1:1), Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy- [R-(R*,R*)]-, Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-(R*,R*)-(.+/-.)-, Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (2R,3R)-rel-, Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (2S,3S)-, Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-, Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-(+-)-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (R*,R*)-(+/-)-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (S-(R*,R*))-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (S-(theta,theta))-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, (theta,theta)-(+-)-;Butanedioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-, [S-(R*,R*)]-;C00552;C00898;CCRIS 8978;CHEMBANK2996;component of Col-Evac;Copper, (L-ascorbic acid)oxodithioxodi-, mixt. with [R-(R*,R*)]-2, 3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid monopotassium salt;Cream of tartar;Cremor tartari;Cupric tartrate;D-(-)-Tartaric acid;d-.alpha., .beta.-Dihydroxysuccinic acid;d-alpha,beta-Dihydroxysuccinic acid;D-Tartaric acid;Dextrotartaric acid;Dihydroxysuccinic acid;dl-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid;dl-Tartaric acid;dl-Tartaric acid anhydrous;DL-Tartrate;EINECS 201-766-0;EINECS 205-105-7;EINECS 205-695-6;Faccla;Faccula;Faecla;Faecula;FEMA No. 3044;Gallium tartrate, Ga2(C4H6O6)3;Kyselina 2,3-dihydroxybutandiova;Kyselina 2,3-dihydroxybutandiova [Czech];Kyselina vinna;Kyselina vinna [Czech];L(+)-Tartaric acid;L-(+)-Tartaric acid;L-1,2-Dihydroxyethan-1,2-dicarbonsaeure;L-tartaric acid;L-tartrate;Lead (II) tartrate (1:1);Lead tartrate;Lead tartrate (PbC4H4O6);Malic acid, 3-hydroxy-;meso-tartaric acid;MESO-TARTRATE;mesotartaric acid;Monopotassium tartrate;Natrol;Natural tartaric acid;NISTC133379;NISTC147717;NISTC87694;NSC 148314;NSC 62778;NSC112251;NSC112252;NSC133735;NSC148314;NSC155080;NSC1914;NSC302012;NSC50972;NSC608773; NSC62778;NSC82093;Paratartaric acid;Paratartaric aicd;Potassium acid tartrate;Potassium bitartrate;Potassium hydrogen tartrate;Potassium tartrate (KHC4H4O6);Racemic acid;Racemic tartaric acid;Resolvable tartaric acid;Sal tartar;Sodium bismuth tartrate;Sodium bismuthyl tartrate;Strontium tartate Sr (O6C4H4);Strontium tartrate;Succinic acid, 2, 3-dihydroxy;Succinic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy;Succinic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-;Tartar;Tartar cream;tartaric acid;Tartaric acid (JP14);Tartaric Acid (JP14/USP);Tartaric acid (VAN);Tartaric acid bismuth complex sodium salt;Tartaric acid D,L;Tartaric acid [USAN:JAN];Tartaric acid, (.+-.)-;Tartaric acid, (.+/-.)-; Tartaric acid, (l); Tartaric acid, bismuth sodium salt;Tartaric acid, copper (2+) salt (1:1);(+)-, Tartaric acid, D(-)-;Tartaric acid, L-;Tartaric acid, L- (+)-;Tartaric acid, L-(+)-;Tartaric acid, lead (2+) salt (1:1);Tartaric acid, monopotassium salt;Tartaric acid, strontium salt (1:1);TARTRATE;Tartrol;Threaric acid;Traubensaure;Uvic acid;Weinsaeure;Weinsteinsaeure;(R*,R*)-(+-)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid, monoammonium monosodium salt;aluminum tartrate;ammonium tartrate;calcium tartrate;Mn(III) tartrate;potassium tartrate;sodium ammonium tartrate;sodium tartrate;stannous tartrate;tartaric acid, ((R*,R*)-(+-))-isomer;tartaric acid, (R*,S*)-isomer;tartaric acid, (R-(R*,R*))-isomer;tartaric acid, (S-(R*,R*))-isomer;tartaric acid, ammonium sodium salt, (1:1:1) salt, (R*,R*)-(+-)-isomer;tartaric acid, calcium salt, (R-R*,R*)-isomer;tartaric acid, monoammonium salt, (R-(R*,R*))-isomer;tartrate
Formula: C4-H6-O6-S. CAS RN:526-83-0 Other RN:87-69-4 Molecular Weight:150.0878 Melting Point:170 deg C Flashing Point:210 deg C
Taurine:[107-35-7]:Synonyms:2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid;2-Aminoethylsulfonic acid;2-Sulfoethylamine;AI3-18307; Aminoethanesulfonic acid;CCRIS 4721;EINECS 203-483-8;FEMA No. 3813;NCI-C60606;NSC 32428;O-Due;Tauphon;Taurina [Spanish];Taurine;Taurinum [Latin];beta-Aminoethylsulfonic acid
CAS Type 1 Name:Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-amino- Chemical Name:2-Aminoethylsulfonic Acid
Formula: C2-H7-N-O3-S. CAS RN:107-35-7 Other RN:91105-79-2 Molecular Weight:125.15 Melting Point:328 deg C
log P (octanol-water):-3.360 Water Solubility:8.07E+04 mg/L at 25 deg C Vapor Pressure:1.72E-04 mm Hg at 25 deg C Henry's Law Constant:1.72E-12 atm-m3/mole at 25 deg C Atmospheric OH Rate Constant:3.30E-11 cm3/molecule-sec at 25 deg C
Note:2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid. A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
taxis:a non-directional response of a plant to a stimulus, e.g. the response of leaves/leaflets of Mimosa pudica to touch, cf. tropism.
taxon:a group at any hierarchical level in a classificatory system, pl. taxa.
tectum:the layer of sexine which forms a roof over the columellae, granules or other infratectal elements, cf. baculum, pilum; in tectate pollen the roof is more or less complete, cf. atectate, semitectate, cf. also foot layer and supractectal structures.
tegillum:(Erdtman term) = tectum.
tegmen:that part of the seed coat that develops from the inner integument, see multiplicative, cf. testa.
tendril:a slender climbing organ formed by modification of a stem, a leaf or leaflet.
tension wood:a kind of reaction wood containing gelatinous fibres with little or no lignification that are produced on the adaxial side of the branch-stem junction, cf. compression wood.
tenuinucellate:an ovule in which no cell layers separate the megasporocyte(s)/embryo sac from the epidermis, cf. crassinucellate, incompletely tenuinucellate, nucellar cap, nucellar endothelium, nucellar pad, weakly crassinucellate (different degrees of development of the nucellus or the epidermis covering it).
tepal:a perianth segment in a flower in which there are two whorls of such segments, but all are similar in appearance, a member of the perigon(e), cf. petal, sepal.
terete:cylindrical or nearly so, circular in cross-section.
terminal:of a flower or bud at the apex of the stem and not immediately subtended by a leaf, also commonly used to describe general inflorescence position, cf. axillary, cauliflorous, ramiflorous, supraaxillary.
terminal:of a style or stylulus that arises at the apex of the gynoecium, cf. gynobasic, lateral.
ternate:in groups of three; of leaves, arranged in whorls of three; of a compound leaf, having three leaflets.
terpenes, terpenoids:usually hydrophilic compounds originating from isopentenyl and dimethyallyl pyrophosphates, consist of one isoprenoid skeleton or of a polymer made up of several such units, substituent groups may have varying degrees of oxygenation, e.g. alcoholic, ketonic, etc., subdivided according to number of carbon atoms, see cardenolides, diterpenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, steroids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, an immensely diverse group.
Terpinene-4-ol:[562-74-3]:Synonyms: (+-)-p-Menth-1-en-4-ol;1-Menthene-4-ol;1-Methyl-4-isopropyl-1-cyclohexen-4-ol;1-Terpinen-4-ol;1-p-Menthen-4-ol;1-para-Menthen-4-ol;3-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-;4-06-00-00250 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4-Carvomenthenol;4-Carvomenthenol (natural);4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol;4-Methyl-1-isopropyl-3-cyclohexen-1-ol;4-Terpineol;BRN 1906603;CCRIS 9067;EINECS 209-235-5;EINECS 248-910-9;FEMA No. 2248;NSC 147749;Terpene-4-ol;Terpinene-4-ol;Terpinenol-4;Terpinenolu-4 [Czech]
Cas Type 1 Name:(1)-1-(Isopropyl)-4-methylcyclohex-3-en-1-ol;3-Cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-;p-Menth-1-en-4-ol;para-Menth-1-en-4-ol;4-Carvomenthenol
Formula: C10 H18O. Molecular Weight:154.2516 CAS RN:562-74-3 Boiling Point:88 - 90 at 8 mm Hg ACX Number:X1011783-2 Density0.933
Terpineol [8006-39-1]:Caswell No. 823;EINECS 232-268-1;EPA Pesticide Chemical Code 067005;Terpineol;Terpineols
CAS Type 1 Name:Terpineol Formula: C10 H18O. Molecular Weight:126.1146 CAS RN:8006-39-1 Other RN:8031-32-1 11103-96-1 37195-01-0
Cas Type 1 Name:Terpinene
Formula: C10 H16. Molecular Weight: 136.2364 CAS RN:8013-00-1 ;
terrestrial:of or on the ground; of the general habitat, a plant growing on land, cf. amphibious, aquatic, epilithic, epiphytic, lithophytic.
testa:that part of the seed coat that develops from the outer integument, or from the single integument when there is only one, commonly divided into the exotesta (outer epidermis), endotesta (inner epidermis), and mesotesta (the cells between), see multiplicative, cf. tegmen.
Testosterone:[58-22-0]:Synonyms:Sustanon,Testosterone; 17-Hydroxy-(17-beta)-androst-4-en-3-one;17-Hydroxy-(17beta)-androst-4-en-3-one;17-beta-Hydroxy-delta(sup 4)-androsten-3-one;17-beta-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one;17beta-Hydroxy-delta(sup4)-androsten-3-one;17beta-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one;17beta-Hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3-one;7-beta-Hydroxyandrost-4-en-3-one;Androderm;Androlin;Andronaq;Andropatch;Androst-4-en-17beta-ol-3-one;Androst-4-en-3-one, 17-beta-hydroxy-;Androst-4-en-3-one, 17-hydroxy-, (17-beta)-;Androst-4-en-3-one, 17beta-hydroxy-;Teslen,Testandrone,Testex,Testiculosterone,Testim,Testobase,Testoderm,Testogel,Testoject-50,Testopropon,Testosteroid,Testosteron,Testosterona;Testostosterone;Testoviron;Testoviron T;Testoviron schering;Testrone;Testryl;Virormone;Virosterone;delta(sup 4)-Androsten-17(beta)-ol-3-one;delta4-Androsten-17beta-ol-3-one;trans-Testosterone
CAS Type 1 Name:Androst-4-en-17beta-ol-3-one
Formula: C19 H28 O2. CAS RN:58-22-0 M.W.:288.429 Melting Point.:155
Description:Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. The principal progestational hormone of the body, secreted by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta. Its chief function is to prepare the uterus for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum. It acts as an antiovulatory agent when administered on days 5-25 of the menstrual cycle.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION, PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
tetra- (prefix):four of whatever is qualified by the prefix.
tetracytic:of stomata, surrounded by four subsidiary cells, two or which are parallel to and two (often smaller) at right angles to the long axis of the guard cells, cf. actinocytic, allelocytic, anisocytic, anomocytic, cyclocytic, diacytic, helicocytic, laterocytic, paracytic, parallelocytic, staurocytic.
tetrad:a group of four things, e.g. four pollen grains remaining joined together after meiosis at maturity, see simultaneous, successive (patterns of wall formation), cf. monad, massula, polyad, pollinia, see monolete, trilete (for pollen grains of ferns, etc., that lack true apertures), also Fisher's rule, Garside's rule.
tetradynamous:an androecium consisting of four stamens of one length and two of another length, cf. didynamous.
tetramer:(tetramers):A Polymer consisting of four identical monomers.
tetramerous:especially of a flower, having four segments or parts in each whorl, or at least the two outer whorls, cf. pentamerous and trimerous in particular.
thalamus:= receptacle (as in the old Thalamiflorae), but there are other meanings, too; the term should certainly be discarded (Rickett 1954b).
thallus:a more or less flattened vegetative body of a plant that is not differentiated into organs such as stems and leaves, e.g. the gametophytes of many hepatics and all hornworts (cf. protonema), the plant body of flowering plants such as podostems and Araceae-Lemnoideae.
CAS Type 1 Name:Theaflavin Theaflavine Chemical Name:3,4,6-Trihydroxy-1,8-bis[(2R,3R)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-2-yl]-5H-benzoannulen-5-one
Formula: C29 H24O12 CAS RN:4670-05-7 Molecular Weight:564.5
Theaflavine gallate[31629-79-5]:Synonyms:theaflavin gallate;Mono(2S-(2alpha(2S*,3S*),3alpha))-3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate;Theaflavin gallate;Theaflavin-3-gallate
CAS Type 1 Name:Theaflavine gallate Chemical Name:Benzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydroxy-, (2R,3R)-2-[8-[(2R,3R)-3,4-dihydro-3,5,7-trihydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-yl]-3,4,6-trihydroxy-5-oxo-5H-benzocyclohepten-1-yl]-3,4-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-3-yl ester
Formula: C36 H28O16 CAS RN:31629-79-5 Molecular Weight:716.6
Thearubigin[12698-96-3]:CAS Type 1 Name:Thearubigin;Thearubigins Chemical Name:Thearubigin CAS RN:12698-96-3
theca:a part of the anther, paired sporangia that dehisce via a common slit, see endothecium, exothecium, placentoid, tapetum (all tissues).
theoid:a leaf tooth in which the medial vein ends in an expanded and opaquely congested apex, no laterals are involved, cf. begonioid, chloranthoid, cucurbitoid, cunonioid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, urticoid, violoid.
therophyte:of life forms, plants that have no resting buds as such, but which persist as seeds, loosely synonymous with annual, cf. chamaephyte, cryptophyte (see geophyte, helophyte, hydrophyte), hemicryptophyte, phanerophyte, see also .
Thiamine:[59-43-8]:Synonyms:Aneurin;Vitamin B 1;Aneurine;Apatate drape;B-Amin;Beivon;Betabion;Bethiamin;CCRIS 5823;EINECS 200-425-3;HSDB 220;Oryzanin;Oryzanine;Thiamin;Thiamine;Thiamine monochloride;Thiamine, chloride;3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2-hydrox yethyl)-4-methylthiazolium chloride
CAS Type 1 Name:Thiazolium, 3-((4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl- chloride
Formula: C12-H17-N4-O-S.Cl. CAS RN:59-43-8 M.W.:300.8055
thigmotropism:the directional growth response (tropism) of a plant or part of a plant to touch, cf. geotropism, phototropism.
thorn:a modified stem usually soon becoming dead that is stiffened and terminates in a sharp point, cf. prickle, spine.
Threonine [72-19-5]:Synonyms:2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid; (2S,3R)-threonine; (2S,3R)-(-)-Threonine; L-2-Amino-3-hydroxybutyric acid; L-(-)-threonine; L-Threonine; T; Thr; Threonine;
Formula: C4 H9NO3. Molecular Weight:119.12 CAS RN:72-19-5 ACX Number:X1007063-6. Melting Point:270
three-ranked:organs borne singly but in three distinct ranks up the stem (orthostichies), also as tristichous, cf. one-ranked, spiromonistichous, two-ranked (distichous), also bijugate, decussate, opposite,pseudoverticillate, spiral, whorled.
throat:towards the top of a corolla tube, generally where it broadens and joins the lobes.
thrum:one morph of a heterostylous flower in which there is a short style and long stamens, so the anthers occupying the mouth of the flower, as in many species of Primula, cf. homostyle, pin.
Thujone[546-80-5]:Synonyms:(+)-beta-Thujone;(+)-Isothujone;(+)-Thujone;(-)-3-Isothujone;(-)-Thujone;1-Isopropyl-4-methylbicyclo(3.1.0)hexan-3-one;1-Isopropyl-4-methylbicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one;1125-12-8;3-Thujanone;3-Thujanone (8CI);3-Thujanone, (-)-;3-Thujanone, (1S,4R,5R)-(-)-;3-Thujanone;(1S,4S,5R)-(+)-;33766-30-2;4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one;471-15-8;546-80-5;6-Ketosabinane;alpha-Thujone;beta-Thujone;beta-Thujone, (-)-;Bicyclo(3.1.0)hexan-3-one, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-;Bicyclo(3.1.0)hexan-3-one, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-, (1S,4R,5R)-;Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, 4-methyl-1- (1-methylethyl)-, Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-;Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1alpha,4alpha,5alpha)]-;Bicyclo[3.1.0]hexan-3-one, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-, [1S-(1alpha,4beta,5alpha)]-;BRN 4660369;Chrysanthone;cis-Thujone;D-beta-Thujone;D-isothujone;EINECS 208-912-2;EINECS 214-405-7;Isothujone;Isothujone, (-)-;l-Thujone;NIST471-15-8;NISTC1125128;NISTC546805;NSC 407281;NSC 93742;NSC407281;Tanacetone;THUJAN-3-ONE;Thujon;Thujone;Thujone, (+)-;3-isothujone;3-thujanone;beta-thujone, (1alpha,4alpha,5alpha)-isomer;beta-thujone, (1S-(1alpha,4alpha,5alpha))-isomer;beta-thujone, 1S-(1alpha,4beta,5alpha)-isomer;thujone
Cas Type 1 Name:1-Isopropyl-4-methylbicyclo(3.1.0)hexan-3-one Substance Name:Thujone
Formula: C10H16O CAS RN:546-80-5 Other RN:33766-30-2 Molecular Weight:152.233 g/mol
Thujopsene[470-40-6]:Synonyms:Thujopsene;EINECS 207-426-8;NSC 44707;Sesquichamene;Thujopsene, (-)-; WIDDRENE
Chemical Name:(1AS-(1aalpha,4abeta,8aR*))-1,1a,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,4a,8,8-tetramethylcyclopropa(d)naphthalene;Cyclopropa(d)naphthalene, 1,1a,4,4a,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,4a,8,8-tetramethyl-, (1aS,4aS,8aS)-
CAS RN:470-40-6 Formula:C15H24
Thymine [65-71-4]:2,4(1H,3H)-Pyrimidinedione, 5-methyl-; 2,4-Dihydroxy-5-methylpyrimidine; 2,4-dioxy-5-methyl pyrimidine; 5-Methyluracil; T; Thy; Thymine;2,4-Dihydroxy-5-methylpyrimidine;5-Methyluracil; AI3-25479;CCRIS 5584;EINECS 200-616-1;NSC 14705;Thymin;Thymin (purine base);Thymine;Thymine anhydrate
CAS Type 1 Name:2,4(1H,3H)-Pyrimidinedione, 5-methyl-;5-Methyluracil ; Thymine;Thymine (VAN) (8CI)
Formula: C5 H6 N2 O2. Molecular Weight:126.1146 CAS RN:65-71-4 Other RN:3059-73-2 Melting Point:316 - 317.
Thymol methyl ether:[1076-56-8]:Synonyms:1-Isopropyl-2-methoxy-4-methylbenzene;1-Methyl-3-methoxy-4-isopropylbenzene;2-Methoxy-4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)benzene;3-Methoxy-p-cymene;4-06-00-03335 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4-Isopropyl-3-methoxytoluene;AI3-03431;Anisole, 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-;BRN 2042889;Benzene, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-;EINECS 214-063-9;FEMA No. 3436;Methyl thymol ether;Methyl thymyl ether;Methylthymol, o-;NSC 404221;O-Methylthymol;Thymol methyl ether;Thymyl methyl ether
Cas Type 1 Name:2-Isopropyl-5-methylanisole;Anisole, 2-isopropyl-5-methyl-;Benzene, 2-methoxy-4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-
Formula: C11 H16O. Molecular Weight: 136.2364 CAS RN:1076-56-8 ;
Thyroid:a butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that secretes thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormones regulate a number of physiologic processes, including growth, development, metabolism, and reproductive function.
thyrse:of an inflorescence, branched, the main axis indeterminate and the lateral branches determinate, i.e. with a terminal flower or as a cyme, cf. panicle in particular, cf. also corymb, fascicle, raceme, spadix, spike, umbel.
tiglic acid:a hemiterpenoid (C5 H8), trans-2-methyl-2-butenoic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid with an isoprene skeleton, posssibly not biogenetically related to the terpenoids, more probably derived from leucine.
Tiglic acid, C5 H8 O2.
tile cells:radial files of dead, empty, erect cells in vascular rays, much narrower radially than the procumbent cells of the ray and interspersed among them, see Durio and Pterospermum types.
tiller:in grasses, sedges, rushes, etc., a local term for a shoot produced at the base of the stem, cf. culm.
tilosomes:masses of cellulosic and/or ligneous material in cells of the velamen next to the passage cells.
Tin [7440-31-5]:Synonyms:12068-93-8,12209-87-9,165390-89-6,25583-20-4,EINECS 247-117-5,NISTC25583204,TiN,Titanium mononitride,Titanium nitride,Titanium nitride (TiN)
Cas Type 1 Name:Tin Cas Type 1 Name:Stannum
Formula:Sn. Molecular Weight:118.69 CAS RN:7440-31-5 25583-20-4 Melting Point.:231.9 Boiling Point.:2270
Note:A trace element that is required in bone formation. It has the atomic symbol Sn, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 118.71.
CAS Type 1 Name:E-MIX 80
Description:A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
tomentum:of indumentum, a covering of dense, matted, woolly hairs, adj. tomentose; tomentellous, minutely tomentose, cf. arbuscular, hirsute, hispid, lepidote, puberulous, pubescent, sericeous, stellate, villous, see also glabrescent and glabrate, which refer to stages in the loss of these hairs.
toothed:of leaf margins, a general term in the characterisations including projections described as biserrate, dentate, repand, serrate, and undulate, and also situations where the leaf blade seems to lack obvious projections of teeth, but there are small blackish points along the margin, for details of tooth morphology, see begonioid, chloranthoid, cucurbitoid, cunonioid, dillenioid, malvoid, monimioid, platanoid, rosoid, salicoid, spinose, theoid, urticoid, violoid.
torus:the central thickened and water-impermeable part of the membrane in a bordered pit in gymnosperms, cf. bars of Sanio, margo.
torus:(when used of a flower) = receptacle.
tortuous:irregularly and more or less spirally twisted.
trace:see leaf trace.
tracheary tissue:general term for any water-conducting tissue such as the xylem, made up of tracheary elements, and water-conducting cells such as tracheids and vessel members.
Transcription:(DNA transcription); the process by which one strand of DNA is copied into a complementary sequence of RNA.
Transcription factor:a protein that functions to initiate, enhance or inhibit the transcription of a gene. Transcription factors can regulate the formation of a specific protein encoded by a gene.
transfer cells:metabolically active cells with labyrinthine inpushings of the walls, often found in association with vascular tissue or in seeds, apparently involved in the short-distance transfer of solutes, see also the filiform apparatus of synergids.
transfusion tissue:tissue made up of tracheids and parenchyma cells associated with a vascular bundle and involved in the transfer of solutes.
Translation:(RNA translation); the process by which the sequence of nucleotides in a messenger RNA molecule directs the incorporation of amino acids into a protein.
translator:a narrowed often thread-like part of a pollinarium that connects the corpusculum with the pollinia, as in Orchidaceae and Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae, cf. also viscidium.
transseptal bundles:vascular bundles to the ovules in a fully syncarppous gynoeciumn that do not run up in the axial tissue but in the carpel wall, curving over at the apex and finally supplying the ovules.
transverse(ly):a qualifier of terms used for outlines and plane shapes when the length:breadth ratio is 4:5 - 1:2, cf. broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, the terms qualified being elliptic, obovate, oblong, ovate, rhombic, triangular, trullate.
tree:of habit, a woody plant at least 5 metres high, with a main axis the lower part of which is usually unbranched, cf. acaulescent, arborescent, dendroid, frutescent, fruticose, herb, liane, rheophyte, schopfbaum, shrub, subshrub, suffrutescent, vine, see leptocaul, pachycaul, see also life forms.
tri- (prefix):three of whatever is qualified by the prefix.
Triacontanol [593-50-0]:Synonyms:1-Triacontanol; Melissyl alcohol; Miraculan; Myricyl alcohol; Triacon-10; triacontanol; Well-Bloom;28351-05-5;Triacontanol;1-triacontanol, aluminum salt;triacontanol
Formula: C30 H62O. CAS RN:593-50-0 Molecular Weight:438.8192 g/mol
triangular:a term used for outlines and plane shapes, with length:breadth ratio 2:1 - 3:2, the base more or less straight, the sides converging to the apex, see broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, cf. elliptic, obovate, ovate, rhombic, trullate.
Formula: C30 H26O13 CAS RN:22153-44-2 M.W.:594.52
trichome:an epidermal outgrowth, e.g. a hair (branched or unbranched), a papilla, see colleter, malpighiaceous, scale, t-shaped, cf. enation.
trichosclereid:a long slender sclereid cell usually with branches, cf astrosclereid, brachysclereid, macrosclereid.
trichotomosulcate:of pollen grains with simple apertures that are triradiate with longish arms, usually centred on the distal end of the grain and often occuring in monocots with simultaneous cell divisions during sporogenesis, cf. colpate, forate, porate, polycolpate, rugate, sulcate, and ulcerate apertures.
trichotomous:branching almost equally into three parts, cf. dichotomous.
CAS Type 1 Name:5,7-Dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one ;
Chemical Name: Tricin
Formula: C17 H14 O7. CAS RN:520-32-1 MW::330.29
tricolpate:of pollen grains, a common form having three vertically elongated apertures (colpi) borne around the equator of the grain, cf. anasulcate, tricolporate.
tricolporate:of pollen grains, a common form having three vertically elongated apertures (colpi, each with a circular pore at the equator, cf. anasulcate, tricolporate.
Tridecane [629-50-5]:Synonyms:n-Tridecane; tridecane;
Formula: C13 H286. Molecular Weight:184.3642 CAS RN:629-50-5 ACX Number:X1007211-2. Melting Point:-5.5. Boiling Point:235.4. Density 0.756 Refractive Index: 1.4256 Flashing Point:79.
trifid:deeply divided into three parts.
trifoliolate:having three leaflets.
Trigonelline:[535-83-1]:Synonyms:1-Methyl-3-pyridiniumcarboxylate,1-Methylpyridinio-3-carboxylate,3-Carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide inner salt,3-Carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide,inner salt,5-22-02-00143 (Beilstein Handbook Reference),535-83-1,60388-20-7,6138-40-5,6138-41-6,714350,AIDS-002687,AIDS002687,Betain nicotinate,Betaine nicotinate,BRN 3905114,Caffearine,CCRIS 1332,CHEMBANK4895,Coffearin,Coffearine,EINECS 208-620-5,Gynesine,N'-Methylnicotinic acid,N-Methylnicotinate,N-Methylnicotinic acid,Nicotinic acid N-methylbetaine,NISTC535831,Piperidine alkaloid,Pyridinium,3-carboxy-1-methyl-,hydroxide,inner salt,Pyridinium,3-carboxy-1-methyl-,hydroxide,inner salt (8CI),Pyridinium,3-carboxy-1-methyl-,inner salt,Trigenolline,Trigonellin,Trigonelline,ZINC00001082;3-Carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide inner salt;5-22-02-00143 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);BRN 3905114;Betain nicotinate;Betaine nicotinate;CCRIS 1332;Caffearine;Coffearin;Coffearine;EINECS 208-620-5;Gynesine;N-Methylnicotinate;N-Methylnicotinic acid;Nicotinic acid N-methylbetaine;Trigenolline;Trigonellin;Trigonelline;trigonelline chloride;trigonelline iodide;trigonelline ion;trigonelline tosylate
CAS Type 1 Name:3-carboxy-1-methylpyridinium hydroxide, inner salt Chemical Name: Pyridinium, 3-carboxy-1-methyl-, inner salt
Formula: C7 H7NO2 CAS RN:535-83-1 Other RN:60388-20-7 (tosylate) 6138-41-6 (chloride) 6138-40-5 [HCL] 535-83-1 [INNER SALT] MW::137.14
trigonous:obtusely three-angled in cross section, cf. triquetrous.
Triglycerides:lipids consisting of three fatty acid molecules bound to a glycerol backbone. Triglycerides are the principal form of fat in the diet, although they are also synthesized endogenously. Triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue and represent the principal storage form of fat. Elevated serum triglycerides are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
trilacunar:of of nodal anatomy in angiosperms, where three leaf gaps are left in the central vascular cylinder when corresponding numbers of leaf traces depart, cf. multilacunar, split lateral, unilacunar, see also flank bridges.
trilete:the triradiate or Y-shaped scars on the proximal poles of pollen representing the points of junction of the pollen tetrads, they are weakened areas involved in germination, cf. monolete.
Trimethylamine [75-50-3]:Synonyms:N,N-dimethylmethamine; N,N-dimethylmethanamine; Trimethylamine; Trimethylamine, aqueous solution;HBr of trimethylamine;HCl of trimethylamine;HI of trimethylamine;(CH3)3N,(CH3)3NH,(CH3)3NH+,10016914,20230-89-1,2840-24-6,29385.12,4558-12-7,593-81-7,75-50-3,AI3-15639,C00565,C04629,CCRIS 6283,CH2N(CH3)2,Dimethylaminomethyl radical,Dimethylmethaneamine,EINECS 200-875-0,FEMA No. 3241,FEMA Number 3241,HSDB 808,methanamine, N,N-dimethyl,Methanamine,N,N-dimethyl-,Methanamine,N,N-dimethyl-, hydrochloride,Methylamine,N,N-dimethyl-,N,N-dimethylmethanamine,N-Trimethylamine,NISTC30208470,NISTC75503,NSC91484,TMA,TRIMETHYLAMINE,Trimethylamine hydrochloride,Trimethylamine monohydrochloride,Trimethylamine solution,Trimethylamine solution (30% or less),Trimethylamine(alkyl-substituted derivatives),Trimethylamine,anhydrous [UN1083] [Flammable gas],Trimethylamine,aqueous solutions not >50% trimethylamine,by mass [UN1297] [Flammable liquid],Trimethylamine,hydrochloride,Trimethylamine,in aqueous solution,Trimethylammonium chloride,UN 1083,UN 1297,UN1083,UN1297
CAS Type 1 Name:N,N-dimethylmethanamine Chemical Name: trimethylamine Melting Point:-117.08 Boiling Point:2.87 Flashing Point:-26
Formula: C3 H9N CAS RN:75-50-3 Other RN:4558-12-7 Related RN:20230-89-1 (hydriodide) 2840-24-6 (hydrobromide) 593-81-7 (hydrochloride) MW::59.1103 g/mol
Trimethylglycine:the same as Betaine,A Naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
trimer:(trimers):a polymer (or a molecule of a polymer) consisting of three identical monomers;polymer is - a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
trimerous:especially of a flower, having three parts in each whorl, cf. tetramerous and pentamerous in particular.
trinucleate:of pollen grains in which the male gametophyte has three nuclei when shed from the anther, cf. binucleate.
tripinnate:of leaves, thrice pinnately divided, cf. bipinnate, pinnate.
triquetrous:triangular in cross-section and acutely-angled; with three distinct longitudinal ridges, cf. trigonous.
tristichous:of leaves, arranged singly in three vertical rows along the stem (orthostichies), three-ranked, cf. two-ranked (distichous), one-ranked (monistichous), spiromonistichous, cf. also alternate, bijugate, decussate, opposite, pseudoverticillate, spiral, whorled.
tristylous:a variant of heterostyly in which there are flowers of three different kinds in the one species, in each plant all flowers have styles of only one of the three possible lengths (short, mid, long), the stamens being in two whorls of the two complimentary lengths, cf. distylous.
triterpenoids:largest single class of terpenoids, the basic structure made up of 30 carbon atoms from six isoprene units), found in resin, cutin, cork, and occurring as glycosides, see limonoids, cardenolides, quassinoids, cucurbitacins, saponins, sterols.
tropane:a bicyclic compound, the base of tropane alkaloids, synthesised via ornithine.
Tropane, C8 H15 N.
Hyoscyamine, C17 H23 N O3.
tropism:a directional response to a stimulus, see geotropism, phototropism, thigmotropism, cf. taxis.
tropophyll:a leaf that serves for assimilation, cf. sporophyll.
true pollen:a microspore having distal rather than proximal germination and no marks where the grains were attached to each other in the tetrad, cf. prepollen.
trullate:a term used for outlines and plane shapes, with length:breadth ratio 2:1 - 3:2, broadest below the middle, rhombic, with the two lower equal sides equal and shorter than the two equal upper sides, shaped like a bricklayer's trowel, see broadly, broad-transverse, narrowly, transverse, cf. elliptic, obovate, oblong, ovate, rhombic, triangular.
truncate:with an abruptly transverse end, as if cut off, cf. acute, attenuate, acuminate, apiculate, aristate, awned, cuneate, caudate, cuspidate, emarginate, mucronate, muticous, obtuse, retuse, rounded, cf. also cordate, hastate, oblique, runcinate, sagittate (esp. of anther or lamina base).
tryphine:material that is the result of the partial degeneration of the tapetum that may include apparently complete organelles that covers the pollen grains, cf. pollenkitt.
L-tryptophane:[73-22-3]:Synonyms:2-amino-3-indol-3-ylpropionic acid; 2-amino-3-indolylpropanoic acid; 2-Amino-3-(lH-indol-3-yl)-propanoic acid; 3-indol-3-ylalanine; alpha'-amino-3-indolepropionic acid; alpha-amino-beta-(3-indolyl)-propionic acid; indole-3-alanine; L-alpha-amino-3-indolepropionic acid; L-alpha-aminoindole-3-propionic acid; L-beta-3-indolylalanine; L-TRP; L-(-)-tryptophane; L-TRYPTOPHAN SIGMA GRADE; L-TTP; Pacitron; (S)-(-)-Tryptophan; Trp; Tryptophan; W;;(S)-Tryptophan;(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-indole-3-propanoic acid; (S)-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acid;1-beta-3-Indolylalanine;1H-Indole-3-alanine;1H-Indole-3-alanine (VAN);1H-Indole-3-alanine, (S)-;1H-Indole-3-propanoic acid, alpha-amino-, (S)-;1beta-3-Indolylalanine;2-Amino-3-indolylpropanoic acid;3-Indol-3-ylalanine;AI3-18478;Alanine, 3-indol-3-yl-; Ardeytropin;CCRIS 617;EH 121;EINECS 200-795-6;HSDB 4142;Indole-3-alanine; Indole-3-propionic acid, alpha-amino-;Kalma;L-Alanine, 3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-;L-Trp;L-Tryptofan;L-Tryptophan;L-Tryptophane;L-alpha-Aminoindole-3-propionic acid;L-beta-3-Indolylalanine;NCI-C01729;NSC 13119;Optimax;Pacitron;Propionic acid, 2-amino-3-indol-3-yl-;TRP;Triptofano [Spanish];Trofan;Tryptacin;Tryptophan;Tryptophan (VAN);Tryptophane;Tryptophane [French];Tryptophanum [Latin];alpha'-Amino-3-indolepropionic acid;alpha-Amino-3-indolepropionic acid, L-;l-Tryptophan;tryptophan (H-3)
CAS Type 1 Name:(L)-Tryptophan; Tryptophan Chemical Name: L-Tryptophan
Description: An Indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Formula: C11 H12N2O2. Molecular Weight:204.228 CAS RN:73-22-3 Other RN:6912-86-3 80206-30-0 Melting Point:280 - 285 . ACX Number:X1000378-4. Water Solubility:0.1-0.5 g/100 mL at 20 C ;1.34E+04 mg/L at 25 C
T-shaped:distinctive shape of some hairs when viewed from the side, can be unicellular (and then often called malpighiaceous) or multicellular, cf. colleter, dendritic, pearl gland, snail gland, stellate.
tuber:a storage organ formed by swelling of an underground stem, hence tuberous, swollen, a not necessarily applied specifically to stems (or roots), or more particularly of roots, see tuber-like, cf. bulb, bulbil, caudex, corm, lignotuber, pseudobulb, rhizome, runner, turion.
tubercle:a small wart-like outgrowth, hence tuberculate, covered with tubercles.
tubular:e.g. of a polysymmetric corolla, usually rather narrow and cylindrical, the sides parallel, cf. campanulate, rotate, infundibular, salverform, urceolate.
tumid:swollen or inflated.
tunic:especially of a corm or bulb, a thin membranous or fibrous outer covering, the remains of leaves, adj. tunicate.
tunica:the outer layer or layers of the shoot apical meristem of flowering plants and Gnetales in which cell divisions are almost entirely anticlinal, cf. corpus.
turbinate:= top-shaped, obconical.
turgid:swollen due to high water content, usu. firm to the touch, cf. flaccid.
turion:an over-wintering vegetative bud or specialised short shoot with modified leaves, arising from the stem, often near ground level, also in some water plants, etc., cf. bulb, bulbil, caudex, corm, lignotuber, pseudobulb, rhizome, runner, tuber.
two-ranked:organs borne singly but in two distinct ranks up the stem (orthostichies), often as distichous, cf. one-ranked, spiromonistichous, three-ranked (tristichous), cf. also bijugate, decussate, opposite, pseudoverticillate, spiral, whorled.
tylose, tylosis:outgrowth from adjacent parenchymatous cells through a pit cavity in a vessel wall, more or less blocking the lumen, pl. tyloses.
L-tyrosine:[60-18-4]:an amino acid. a non-protein amino acid, aromatic, polar, hydrophobic.
Synonyms:2-amino-3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid; 2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propanoic acid; 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)alanine; 3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine; p-tyrosine; L-(-)-tyrosine; L-Tyrosine; L-TYROSINE FREE BASE; (S)-(-)-Tyrosine; Tyr; Tyrosine; Y;;(-)-alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid;(S)-Tyrosine;(S)-alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid;2-Amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid, (S)-;4-Hydroxy-L-phenylalanine;AI3-09055;Benzenepropanoic acid, alpha-amino-4-hydroxy-, (S)-;EINECS 200-460-4;FEMA No. 3736;HSDB 2003;L-2-Amino-3-p-hydroxyphenylpropanoic acid;L-Phenylalanine, 4-hydroxy-;L-Tyrosine;L-p-Tyrosine;NSC 82624;Propanoic acid, 2-amino-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-, (S)-;Tirosina [Spanish];Tyrosine;Tyrosine (VAN);Tyrosinum [Latin];alpha-Amino-4-hydroxybenzenepropanoic acid, (S)-;alpha-Amino-beta-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid;alpha-Amino-p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid, (-)-;beta-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)alanine;p-Tyrosine
Chemical Name:L-Tyrosine; Tyrosine
Formula:C9H11NO3. CAS RN:60-18-4 Other RN:140-43-2 1991-85-1 M.W.181.1908 Melting Point:287 dec deg C Water Solubility:4.56E+04 mg/L at 25 deg C
Tyramine:[51-67-2]:Synonyms:2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine;2-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine;4-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol;4-13-00-01788 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4-Hydroxyphenethylamine;4-Hydroxyphenylethylamine;BRN 1099914;Benzeneethanamine, 4-hydroxy-;EINECS 200-115-8;HSDB 2132;NSC 249188;Phenethylamine, p-hydroxy-;Systogene;Tenosin-wirkstoff;Tocosine; Tyramin;Tyramine;Tyrosamine;Uteramine;alpha-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-beta-aminoethane;beta-Hydroxyphenylethylamine;p-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol;p-Hydroxyphenethylamine;p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine;p-Tyramine;p-beta-Aminoethylphenol;2-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)ethylamine; 4-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol; 4-Hydroxyphenylethylamine; L-Tyramine; Tyramine; tyrosamine;
CAS Type 1 Name:Phenol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)- CAS RN:51-67-2
Chemical Name: 4-(2-Aminoethyl)phenol;Phenol, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-;Phenol, p-(2-aminoethyl)-
Description: An Indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
Formula: C8 H11NO. Molecular Weight:137.181 CAS RN:51-67-2 Melting Point:161 - 163. ACX Number:X1007750-4. Boiling Point:175 - 181 at 8 mm Hg
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