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Glossary Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Phytochemicals are dedicated to Phytochemicals and phyto derived chemical components.Phytochemicals have been used as drugs for millennia. Hippocrates may have prescribed willow tree leaves to abate fever. Salicin, having anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving properties, was originally extracted from the white willow tree and later synthetically produced become the staple over-the-counter drug called Aspirin!

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 Phytochemicals are chemical compounds such as beta-carotene that occur naturally in plants. The term is generally used to refer to those chemicals that may affect health, but are not yet established as essential nutrients.While there is abundant scientific and government support for recommending diets rich in fruits and vegetables, there is only limited evidence that health benefits are due to specific phytochemicals.

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 There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

 Contents: Water:[7732-18-5] |waxes |weakly crassinucellate |whorl |widebandtracheid |wighteone |wing |withanolides |wood |Wuweizi alcohol A |Wuweizichun A |Wuweizi alcohol B |Wuweizichun B |Wuweizisu B |Wuweizisu C |xanthones |Xanthophyll |xanthophylls |Xanthotoxin[298-81-7] |Xanthotoxol [2009-24-7] |xenogamy |xerochastic |xeromorphic |xerophyte |xylans |xylem |xylem parenchyma |xyloglucans |xylopodium |Xylose:[25990-60-7] |Zeaxanthin[144-68-3] |zeaxanthin |zigzag |Zinc [7440-66-6] |Zingerone [122-48-5] |Zingiberene [495-60-3] |zoochory |zooidogamy |zono- |zo?philous |zygomorphic |zygote |

 Water:[7732-18-5]:Synonyms: CCRIS 6115;DHMO;Dihydrogen Monoxide;Dihydrogen oxide;Distilled water;EINECS 231-791-2;Ice;NSC 147337;Water;Water vapor;Water, deionized;Water, distilled;Water, mineral; Water, purified;Aqua; Dihydrogen oxide; Deionized Ultra-filtered Water; Water; Hydrogen oxide; Ice; Snow; Steam;
CAS Type 1 Name:Water  Formula:H2O.  CAS RN:7732-18-5 Other RN:558440-22-5 M.W.:441.4024  Melting Point:0.0 deg C  Boiling Point:100 deg C  Water Solubility:1.00E+06 mg/L at 25 Water  Water  
Description:Water. A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
 waxes:made up of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons, also some substitution by oxygen, i.e. fatty acids esterified with long-chain alcohols, see epicuticular wax, cf. gums, mucilages, latex, oils, resins.
 weakly crassinucellate:an ovule in which only one layer of cells (not epidermally derived) separates the megasporocyte(s)/embryo sac from the epidermis (Endress 2003c), cf. crassinucellate, incompletely tenuinucellate, nucellar cap, nucellar endothelium, nucellar pad, tenuinucellate (different degrees of development of the nucellus or of the epidermis covering it).
 whorl:of leaves or floral organs, a ring of parts borne at the same node along an axis, as distinct from pseudoverticillate, cf. alternate, bijugate, decussate, distichous, opposite, pseudoverticillate,spiral, spiromonistichous, tristichous.
 widebandtracheid:a kind of tracheid in which the wall thickenings are tall, partly occluding the lumen.
 wighteone:an isoflavone.
 wing:a flattened expansion of a fruit, seed or pollen grain; a thin flange of tissue extended beyond the normal outline of a stem or petiole; relatively large lateral spreading structures, whether petals or sepals, in a papilionoid flower, cf. keel, standard.
 withanolides:steroidal lactones characterised by ergostane type steroids with a C28 basic skeleton having a side chain of C9 units of which a six-membered lactone ring is a characteristic feature.
Withanolide, C28 H46 O2. withanolide
 wood:loosely used to refer to the xylem in stems or roots with secondary thickening, see nonporous and porous, see also early wood and late wood.
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 Wuweizi alcohol A:See Schizandrin
 Wuweizichun A:See Schizandrin
 Wuweizi alcohol B:See Gomisin A
 Wuweizichun B:See Gomisin A
 Wuweizisu B:See Schizandrin B
 Wuweizisu C:See Schizandrin C
 xanthones:compounds derived from polyketides or shikimic acid pathways and combined with acetate-malonate units; flavanone derivatives.
Xanthenone, C13 H8 O2.
Mangiferin, C19 H18 O11.
 Xanthophyll:the same substance as lutein,A carotenoid alcohol widespread in nature. It is present in egg yolk, algae, and petals of yellow flowers, among other sources.
 xanthophylls:carotenoids that are oxygenated derives of simple unsaturated hydrocarbons.
 Xanthotoxin[298-81-7]:Synonyms:8-MOP,6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-5-benzofuranacrylic acid delta-lactone; 7-furocoumarin; 8-Methoxy; 8-methoxy-2',3',6,7-furocoumarin; 8-Methoxy-4',5':6,7-furocoumarin; 8-Methoxyfuranocoumarin; 8-Methoxypsoralen; 8-MOP; 8-MP; 9-methoxy-7H-furo(3,2-g)benzopyran-7-one; 9-methoxyfuro[3,2-g]chromen-7-one; 9-Methoxypsoralen; Ammoidin; meladinin; Meloxine; Methoxa-Dome; methoxalen; Methoxsalen; Oxsoralen; Oxsoralen Lotion; Oxsoralen Ultra; oxypsoralen; proralone-mop; psoralen-mop; Psoralon-MOP; Uvadex; Xanthotoxin; xanthoxin; zanthotoxin;
Formula: C12 H8 O4.  Molecular Weight:216.1928   CAS RN:298-81-7   Melting Point:143.
ACX Number:X1004438-1.  Water Solubility <0.1 g/100 mL at 15 C    Xanthotoxin
 Xanthotoxol [2009-24-7]:Synonyms:Xanthotoxol;
Formula: C11 H6 O4.  Molecular Weight:202.166   CAS RN:2009-24-7  ACX Number:X1036296-0.   Xanthotoxol
 xenogamy:= cross pollination.
 xerochastic:of harmomegathic changes to capsules that open only when they dry out, closing again when they are wet, cf. hygrochastic.
 xeromorphic:referring to the structural features usually associated with plants of arid habitats (such as hard or succulent leaves), although the plant is not necessarily drought-tolerant, see ericoid leaf, sclerophyll, cf. scleromorphic.
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 xerophyte:a drought-tolerant plant, cf. xeromorph.
 xylans:a polysaccharide component of hemicellulose and containing only xylose molecules, cf. galactomannans, glucurono-arabinoxylans, xyloglucans.
 xylem:the vascular tissue that conducts water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves, see protoxylem, metaxylem, made up of xylem parenchyma, rays, cf. fibers, and tracheary cells (tracheids.
 xylem parenchyma:parenchyma in the wood, see axial parenchyma (aliform, apotracheal, banded and paratracheal), and ray parenchyma.
 xyloglucans:a cell wall storage polysaccharide containing both xylose and glucose molecules, forming a matrix that lacks cellulose and pectins in the same proportions as in the primary cell, cf. galactans and mannans.
 xylopodium:as found in fire-resistant plants in particular, a more or less massive underground storage structure formed from stems and/or roots allowing resprouting after fire, cf. root stock.
 Xylose:[25990-60-7]:a five carbon (pentose) sugar, CH2OH (CHOH)3 CH=O.
Synonyms:alpha-D-Xylopyranose; alpha-D-Xylose; Xylose;
Formula: C5 H10O5.  CAS RN:25990-60-7 Other RN:31178-70-8  Molecular Weight:150.131  
Xylose Xylose
Note:Xylose is an essential sugar saccharide of the pentose class and vital to cellular communication,Dietary Sources:Guava, Pears, Blackberries, Loganberries, Raspberries, Aloe Vera gel, Kelp, Echinacea, Boswellia, Psyllium, Broccoli, Spinach, Eggplant, Peas, Green Beans, Okra, Cabbage, Corn.
Absorption:Xylose is absorbed from the jejunum area of the small intestine by a mechanism that is different than the transporter for glucose. Although absorption appears to be slower in children when given orally, it does not appear to be age-dependent in adults since other factors are more likely to be involved in absorption rates. Once Xylose enters the bloodstream, it is quickly distributed to the liver where it is metabolized. Xylose also travels to other tissues where it is required, including the kidneys, fat, and muscles.
 Zeaxanthin[144-68-3]:Synonyms:EINECS 205-636-4;Zeaxanthin;beta-carotene-3,3'-diol;meso-zeaxanthin
Chemical Name:(3R,3'R)-beta,beta-Carotene-3,3'-diol
CAS Type 1 Name:(3R,3'R)-beta,beta- carotene-3,3'-diol
Formula: C40 H56O2  CAS RN:144-68-3  Zeaxanthin Zeaxanthin
 zigzag:where the micropyle is formed from both integuments, but takes a decidedly zig-zag course, cf. amphistomal, bistomal, endostomal, exostomal, naked.
 Zinc [7440-66-6]:Synonyms:Blue powder; Zinc; Zinc? ZINC POWDER OR DUST;
Formula:Zn.  Molecular Weight:65.39   CAS RN:7440-66-6   ACX Number:X1002588-8.  Melting Point:419.5   Density7.14   Boiling Point:908
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 Zingerone [122-48-5]:Synonyms:0 paradol;4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butan-2-one;vanillyl acetone;vanillylacetone;(0)-Paradol;(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methyl ketone;122-48-5;2-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethyl methyl ketone;2-Butanone, 4- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-;2-butanone, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl);2-Butanone, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-;2471;3-Methoxy-4-hydroxy-benzylacetone;3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylacetone;4(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone;4-(3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone;4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-butan-2-one;4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone;4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butan-2-one;4-08-00-01866 (Beilstein Handbook Reference);4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylacetone;AI3-31837;BRN 2051099;CCRIS 2036;EINECS 204-548-3;FEMA No. 3124;Gingerone;HSDB 1064;NISTC122485;NSC 15335;NSC15335;Vanillyl acetone;Vanillylacetone;ZINC00526834;Zingerone;Zingherone;Zingiberone;[0]-Paradol
Chemical Name:2-Butanone, 4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-;4-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)butan-2-one;  Systematic Name:Zingerone  CAS Type 1 Name:4-(4- hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone
Formula: C11 H14O3.  CAS RN:122-48-5 Molecular Weight:194.227 g/mol  Melting Point:40.5 deg C
 Zingerone Zingerone
 Zingiberene [495-60-3]:Synonyms:(S-(R*,S*))-5-(1,5-Dimethylhexen-4-yl)-2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexa-1,3-diene, 1,3-Cyclohexadiene, 5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-2-methyl-, (S-(R*,S*))-, 495-60-3, C09750, EINECS 207-804-2, Zingiberene
Chemical Name:1,3-Cyclohexadiene, 5-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-2-methyl-, (S-(R*,S*))-  Systematic Name:(S-(R*,S*))-5-(1,5-Dimethylhexen-4-yl)-2-methyl-1,3-cyclohexa-1,3-diene   
Formula: C15 H24.  CAS RN:495-60-3 Molecular Weight:204.351 g/mol  
 Zingiberene Zingiberene
 zoochory:dispersal of diaspores by animals, cf. anemochory, autochory, hydrochory.
 zooidogamy:the process of fertilisation in which a pollen tube germinates from a distal pollen aperture and the flagellated male gametes are released proximally and swim to the egg apparatus, cf. siphonogamy.
 zono-:(prefix, of pollen apertures) that are centred on the equator, cf. ana-, cata-, rugate.
 zo?philous:of flowers pollinated by animals, see cantharophilous, mellitophilous, sphingophilous, sapromyophilous (all entomophilous), chiropterophilous, ornithophilous, cf. anemophilous, hydrophilous.
 zygomorphic:= monosymmetric.
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 zygote:a diploid cell formed from the fusion of a male and female gamete during fertilisation, the first division producing the apical and basal cells, cf. embryo, proembryo.

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