Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Abhrak bhasma | Abelmoschus moschatus | Abutilon indicum | Acacia catechu | Acacia nilotica | Acacia sinuata | Achillea millefolium | Achyranthes aspera | Aconitum bisma | Acorus calamus | Acorn | Adhatoda zeylanica | Adzuki bean | Aegle marmelos | Akik pishti | Aleppo peppers | Alfalfa | Allium sativum | Aloe barbadensis/Aloe vera | Alpinia galanga | Almond | Alternanthera sessilis | American ginseng | Amomum subulatum | Anacyclus pyrethrum | Anaheim chilli | Andrographis paniculata | Anethum sowa | Angelica(Angelica archangelica) | Angelica sinensis(Dong Quai) | Anise Seed | Anjou pear | Annona Squamosa | Apium graveolens | Apple | Apricot | Apricot Kernels | Aprium | Arborio rice | Areca catechu | Argyreia nervosa | Artocarpus Heterophyllus | Arrowroot | Artichoke | Arundo donax | Ashwagandha | Asian pear | Asparagus | Asparagus adscendens | Asparagus racemosus | Astragalus | Atractylodes Rhizome | Aubergine | Avocado | Azadirachta indica |
Abhrak bhasm:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Abhrak bhasma
English Names:Powdered Talc,Biotite Calx.
It is prepared by treating biotite (mica) with the juices of a number of reconstituent plants that make it a powerful cellular regenerator. It is a nervine tonic and is also widely used in respiratory tract infections, and anemia. It contains iron, magnesium, potassium,calcium and aluminum in traces.
Abelmoschus moschatus:Latin Names:Abelmoschus moschatus / Hibiscus abelmoschus
English Name:Musk Mallow,AMBRETTE SEEDS, HIBISCUS ABELMOSCHUS, MUSK MALLOW, MUSK OKRA, ORNAMENTAL OKRA, ANNUAL HIBISCUS, YORKA OKRA, GALU GASTURI, BAMIA MOSCHATA.
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Latakasthuri
It is an erect, annual or biennial, hirsute herb. The fatty oil of the seeds contain phospholipids-a-cephalin,and phosphatidylserine.The seeds are antiseptic, stomachic, tonic, carminative, antihyteric and aphrodisiac.It is used in the treatment of male sexual disorders and venereal diseases.
Uses:Ambrette seeds come from a tropical hibiscus. The seeds contain an oil with a fatty-musky, slightly ambery odour. It's most important odoriferous components are the macrocyclic musks 5(Z)-tetradecen-14-olide and 7(Z)-hexadecen-16-olide, also called ambrettolide. The oil was formerly highly appreciated in perfumery, but has now been largely replaced by synthetic musks.The seeds have a strong aroma of musk, and have been known as grani moschi. Relaxing and stimulating powers are attributed to them; and some cases, apparently authentic, have been recorded, in which they seemed to have a decided influence in casting out the poison of snakes. Possibly a further and more careful investigation of their properties, would show them to be an agreeable and useful article in cases where mild nervous prostration required a diffusible stimulant and relaxant. At present, they seem to be used for nothing beyond giving flavor to the coffee of the Arabs.
Abutilon indicum:Latin Names:Abutilon indicum
English Name:Country Mallow
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Atibala
A softly tomentose herb or shrub, with yellow or orange-yellow flowers.The plant is reported to contain fructose, galactose, glucose,glutamic acid, aspartic acid and galacturonic acid. The drug is used as a febrifuge, has anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory properties,and is useful in urinary and uterine discharges, piles and lumbago.
Acacia catechu:Latin Names:Acacia catechu
English Name:Cutch Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Khadira
A moderate sized tree with feathery crown, pinnate leaves and a pair of recurved prickles at the base of the rachis. Catechin and catechutannic acid are the major active constituents in the wood extract. Taxifolin,another constituent has antibacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of cough and sore throat.
Acacia nilotica:Latin Names:Acacia nilotica / A.arabica
English Name:Indian Gum-Arabic Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Babbula, Babool
A moderate-sized, almost evergreen tree with a short trunk, a spreading crown and feathery foliage.
The bark from the branches yield 7-12 per cent tannin and is used for asthma, bronchitis, diabetes, dysentery, diarrhea and skin diseases.The stem is used as a toothbrush and the gum for burns. The leaves are useful for eye complaints, headache, throat infection, urinary problems and gonorrhea.
Acacia sinuata:Latin Names:Acacia sinuata / A.concinna
English Name:Soap Nut
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Saptala
A common, prickly, scandent shrub. The pods yield saponins (20.8%) which have been reported to contain acacinin-C, -D and -E and a homologous series of oligosaccharides. An ointment prepared from the ground pods is good for skin diseases. A decoction of the pods relieves biliousness and acts as a purgative. It is used to remove dandruff and has a detangling effect on the hair, which helps in increasing the hair volume.
Achillea millefolium:Latin Names:Achillea millefolium
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Biranjasipha
Achillea millefolium is a perennial herb that contains the alkaloid achilline,and also yields an essential oil, Espirt d' Iva. The herb possesses diaphoretic, vulnerary, styphic, astringent, emmenogogue, stimulant,tonic and anti-hemorrhoidal properties.
It is useful in influenza and heavy chest colds and also as a blood-purifier. It has carminative, digestive, astringent and anti-spasmodic properties.It is used in the treatment of flatulence, colic and heartburn.A decoction of the herb is said to give significant relief in chronic colic. It is also used in various hepatic disorders.
Achyranthes aspera:Latin Names:Achyranthes aspera
English Name:Prickly-Chaff Flower
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Apamarga
An erect or procumbent, annual or perennial herb, often with a woody base.The whole plant contains the alkaloids achyranthine and betaine.The plant is much valued in indigenous medicine. It is reported to be pungent, astringent, pectoral and diuretic. It is used as an emmenagogue, and in piles and skin eruptions.
Aconitum bisma:Latin Names:Aconitum bisma / A.palmatum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Prativisha
A biennial herb, with a tuberous and paired root.The roots contain five diterpene alkaloids, viz. palmatisine, vakognavine, vakatisine, vakatisinine and vakati. The root is intensely bitter and is used in combination with long pepper for pain in bowels,diarrhea, and vomiting.
Acorus calamus:Latin Names:Acorus calamus
English Name:Sweet Flag
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Vacha
Acorus calamus is a semi-aquatic herb with creeping rhizomes.The dried rhizomes constitute the drug Calamus of commerce. The rhizomes, roots and leaves yield a light brownish yellow volatile oil called calamus oil. The important constituents of Indian calamus oil are asarone and its b-isomer.
The rhizomes are considered to possess sedative and analgesic properties.They are used for the treatment of epilepsy, chronic diarrhea and dysentery, bronchial catarrh, fever, glandular and abdominal tumors,kidney and liver complaints, rheumatism and eczema.
It has been used in indigenous systems of medicine (eg.ayurveda) to improve memory retention and recall. A combination of B. monnieri and A. calamus significantly increases memory and controls hyperactivity in children.
Acorn:A winter squash common in the USA which varies in color from pale green to deep orange. It is round with a tough green skin.
Adhatoda zeylanica:Latin Names:Adhatoda zeylanica / A.vasica
English Name:Malabar Nut, Vasaka
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shwetavasa, Vasa, Vasaka
Adhatoda zeylanica is an evergreen, gregarious, stiff perennial shrub.
Its principal constituents are the several alkaloids which are present in the drug and its chief principal is a quinazoline alkaloid,vasicine. The leaves are rich in Vitamin C and carotene and yield an essential oil. The shrub is the source of the drug, vasaka, well known in indigenous systems of medicine for its beneficial effects, particularly in bronchitis. The leaves, flowers, fruits and roots are extensively used for treating cold, cough, whooping-cough, chronic bronchitis and asthma. It acts as a sedative-expectorant, antispasmodic and anthelmintic. The leaf-juice is stated to cure diarrhea, dysentery and glandular tumor, and, is given as an emmenagogue. The powder is reported to be used as a poultice on rheumatic joints, as a counter-irritant on inflammatory swellings, on fresh wounds, urticaria and in neuralgia.
It has strong coagulant action which is very useful to minimize blood loss and also possesses uterine stimulant activity and acts as uterotonic. It also useful for the control of postpartum hemorrhage.
Adzuki bean:A type of small flattened oval-shaped reddish brown bean with a white hilum "Phaseolus angularis", from China, used as a pulse or ground into flour. They contain more sugar than most beans and are sometimes used as confectionery.
Aegle marmelos:Latin Names:Aegle marmelos
English Name:Bael Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Bilva
Aegle marmelos is a moderate-sized, slender, aromatic tree, with straight,sharp spines in the branches.
It is a fruit used in diarrhea, dysentery and cholera due to its digestive and carminative properties. Both ripe and unripe fruit are regarded as an astringent. It helps in the healing of ulcerated intestinal surfaces. It possesses antiviral, anthelmintic, and anti-inflammatory properties and has appreciable activity against Vibrio cholera and Salmonella.
Akik pishti:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Akik pishti
English Name:Processed Agate
A cardiac tonic; it allays palpitation of the heart.
Aleppo peppers:Sweet and sharp chili from the Aleppo region of Syria, with moderate heat that doesn't overpower its fruity flavor. Can be substituted by using four parts sweet paprika plus one part cayenne pepper.
Alfalfa:A variety of lucerne "Medicago sativa", a leguminous plant nornally used as cattle fodder. The seeds are sprouted to give a crisp plant stem about 4 cm long used in salads or for stir frying as a vegetable.
Medicago sativa is a cultigen species derived mainly from M. coerulea which is indigenous to southwestern Iran, the Caucasus and eastern Anatolia. Domestication appears to have started in the Bronze Age probably somewhere between 1000 and 2000 BC in the Near East. The initial cultivation of Lucerne is thought to have been stimulated by the need to feed horses. Horses started being domesticated in Central Asia at about 2500 BC and were brought into the Near East by invaders from Central Asia. By 400 BC, Lucern was being grown in Europe.
Allium sativum:Latin Names:Allium sativum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Lasuna
The volatile oil contains allicin (diallyl thiosulphinate), an active odorous principle in Garlic.The extracts of Allium sativum bulb and compound preparation possess pharmacodynamic properties. The extract of garlic was found to have a significant protective action against a fat induced increase in serum cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen and in fibrinolytic activity.
Aloe vera:Latin Names:Aloe barbadensis / Aloe vera
English Name:Indian Aloe, Barbados Aloe,Curacao Aloe,Indian Aloe,Ghi Kunvar.
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ghrita-kumari, Kanya, Kumari.
Aloe barbadensis is a coarse-looking perennial plant with a short stem, erect, with crowded leaves that has spiny teeth on the margins.
It contains enzymes, polysaccharides and nutrients which exhibit antibacterial and antifungal action. It also has a natural sunscreen effect that moisturizes the skin. Its principal constituents are the leaves that contain barbaloin, chrysophanol glycoside and the aglycone, aloe-emodin. The leaf juice forms the main source of the drug. Aloes have long been in use for a host of diseases, particularly those connected with the digestive system; they have also been used for wounds, burns, dermatitis, cutaneous leishmaniasis and other skin troubles. It is used in eye troubles, spleen and liver ailments.
Kumari is also known to relieve dysmenorrhoea in young women by expelling uterine debris.
Uses : It is useful for X ray burns, Dermatitis, Cutaneous and disorders of skin. Drug from juice is tonic and is used in jaundice, ameneorrhoea, atonic and piles. Aloe Vera Gel has the remarkable ability to heal wounds, ulcer and burns.
Alpinia galanga:Latin Names:Alpinia galanga
English Name:Greater Galangal
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Rasna, Mahabharivacha
Alpinia galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and is useful in rheumatism and rheumatoid arthritis.It contains enzymes, polysaccharides and nutrients, which exhibit antibacterial effect and acts against streptococci, staphylococci and coliform bacteria.
Almond:The kernel (nut) of the fruit of the almond tree. The sweet variety "Prunus dulcis" var. "dulcis" is used whole, split, flaked, chopped or ground in cookery. The bitter variety "Prunus dulcis" var. "amara" is used for the production of almond essence and almond oil and very occasionally in cooking.
Alternanthera sessilis:Latin Names:Alternanthera sessilis / A.triandra / A.denticulata / A.nodiflora / A.repens
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Matsyakshi
It is an annual or perennial prostrate herb, found throughout hotter parts of India. It is rich in b-Carotene. It shows antibacterial and anti-fungal activities.
American Ginseng:Scientific Name:Panax quinquefolius L.
English Name:American Ginseng, Five fingers, Tartar Root, five leafed ginseng, redberry, garantoquen,sang,Ginseng-American
American ginseng, Panax quinquefolius L. Araliacae, is rare, medicinal plant actively harvested from the wild across its range in North America. It typically grows beneath mixed-hardwoods in moist, well-drained slopes and in particularly lush sites. American ginseng grows to about 20 inches in height at maturity and has 1 to 5 palmately compound leaves emanating from a sympodium or stalk. Its glossy-green leaves and sympodium arise from an underground root in late spring; wild ginseng collectors seek this thickened, multi-branching root, the harvest of which kills the entire plant. About mid-June, most plants over three years produce a cluster of tiny white flowers in the center of the whorl of leaves. The flowers produce a hard-seeded fruit, which turns a distinctive red in the fall.
Amomum subulatum:Latin Names:Amomum subulatum
English Name:Larger or Greater Cardamom,Nepal Cardamom
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Aindri, Sthula ela, Brihatupakunchika
A tall, perennial herb, with leafy stems.The seeds contain the glycosides, petunidin 3,5-diglucoside and leucocyanidin-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, and a new aurone glycoside,subulin. The seeds on steam distillation yield a dark brown, mobile essential oil (2.5%) having the characteristic odor of cineol.
Medicinally, the seeds are credited with stimulant,stomachic,alexipharmic and astringent properties, and are prescribed for the treatment of indigestion, vomiting, biliousness, abdominal pains and rectal diseases. The oil from the seeds is aromatic, stimulant,anti-inflammatory and it is highly active against growth of keratinophilic fungi.
Anacyclus pyrethrum:Latin Names:Anacyclus pyrethrum
English Name:Spanish Pellitory
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Akarakarabha
A perennial, procumbent herb, the roots of which are used in medicine.They contain anacyclin, pellitorine, enetriyne alcohol, hydrocarolin,inulin, traces of volatile oil and (+)-sesamin. The roots possess stimulant and rubifacient properties.
Anaheim chilli:A fairly hot, long, green to yellow chilli pepper which is never dried.
Anacyclus pyrethrum:Latin Names:Andrographis paniculata
English Name:The Creat
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Bhunimba, Yavatikta, Kalamegha
It is an erect herb with quadrangular (young) stem, opposite, decussate leaves and white flowers in axillary or terminal panicles or racemes.
Andrographolide is one of the active constituents isolated from the plant. It is a bitter tonic and febrifuge. A decoction of the plant is a blood-purifier. It is used as a cure for torpid liver,and jaundice. It also has hepatoprotective activity.
Anethum sowa:Latin Names:Anethum sowa / A.graveolens
English Name:Indian Dill
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Satahva, Madhura
An annual, glabrous, aromatic herb.The dried ripe fruits yield, on distillation, an essential oil.The major constituent of the oil is carvone. It also contains apiol and dill apioll. They are used in medicine mainly as an aromatic carminative, antipyretic and anthelmintic. The oil from the seeds is a well-known remedy for flatulence in children and enters into the preparation of gripe water. The seeds are used as stomachic and the aqueous extract of the seeds showed abortifacient activity in rats.
Angelica(Angelica archangelica):A tall parsley-like plant "Angelica archangelica", "A. officinalis". The blanched, peeled and boiled stalks and leaf ribs are candied for use as a decoration.
As an ancient and highly aromatic plant, angelica is praised in the folklore of northern Europe countries as a panacea for all ills. The name probably comes from the Greek angelos, meaning "messenger." There is a legend that an angel revealed to a monk in a dream that the herb was a cure for the plague, and traditionally angelica was considered the most effective safeguard against evil, witchcraft in particular.There are between fifty and sixty varieties that grow worldwide; and each has special healing properties, although all are used for more or less the same purpose.
Angelica sinensis:Botanical Names:Angelica sinensis syn. A. polymorpha
English Name:Chinese Angelica,Dong Quai,Dang Gui,Tang Kuei,Angelica Sinensis.
Part Used:Rhizome, root, leaves, stalks, seeds.
Uses:There are medicinal application of the custard apple tree. The bark and leaves contain annonaine, an alkaloid. A bark decoction is used to stop diarrhea, while the root is used in the treatment of dysentery. A decoction of the leaves is used as a cold remedy and to clarify urine. Annona squamosa Linn., family Annonaceae, is said to show varied medicinal effects, including insecticide, antiovulatory and abortifacient.The fruits of Annona are Haematinic, cooling, sedative, stimulant, expectorant, maturant, tonic. They are useful in anaemia, burning sensation. The seeds are abortifacient and insecticidal and are usefull in destroying lice in the hair.
Habitat and Cultivation:Chinese angelica is native to China, where it is now cultivated. The best rhizomes are in Gansu province in China. Seed is sown in spring, and the rhizomes are lifted in autumn.
Key components:beta-sitosterol,coumarins,vitamin B12,volatile oil [butylidine phthalide, ligustilide, sesquiterpenes, carvacrol]).
Phytochemicals:Chinese angelica contains volatile oil, bitter iridoids, resin, coumarins, valerianic acid, tannins, bergapten; vitamins A and B also reported in Chinese species.
Anise Seed:Botanical Names:Pimpinella anisum
English Name:Anise Seed,Star Anise,anise star,star anise seed,anise seed star,star anise,star aniseed,Anise Stars,Badain,Badiana,Chinese Anise,Also known as Chinese anise and badian anise,Sweet Cumin
Part Used:Rhizome, root, leaves, stalks, seeds.
Mythological of Star Anise:Anise mixed with bay leaves provides an excellent bath additive prior to ritual. Using anise in potpourri around the house wards off evil, and anise in your sleeping pillow at night will chase away the nightmares. The essential oil is used in ritual baths prior to any divination attempts. It is believed that hanging an anise seed head on your bedpost will restore lost youth.
In Biblical times, aniseed was used as a tithe and was cultivated by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. It is a popular flavouring agent for alcoholic drinks such as Pernod, anisette, ouzo and arak. The seed is often used in confectionery. Star anise (Illicium verum) comes from a tree indigenous to south-east Asia and has similar properties to Pimpinella.
Annona Squamosa:Botanical Names:Annona Squamosa
English Name:CUSTARD APPLE, SUGAR APPLE, SWEETSOP, KANER'APRA, POMME CANELLE, TAPOTAPO, FUN LI CHI, ANON, ANONA BLANCA, ATI, ATES
Part Used : Annona seeds, Annona leaves, Annona bark
Uses :There are medicinal application of the custard apple tree. The bark and leaves contain annonaine, an alkaloid. A bark decoction is used to stop diarrhea, while the root is used in the treatment of dysentery. A decoction of the leaves is used as a cold remedy and to clarify urine. Annona squamosa Linn., family Annonaceae, is said to show varied medicinal effects, including insecticide, antiovulatory and abortifacient.The fruits of Annona are Haematinic, cooling, sedative, stimulant, expectorant, maturant, tonic. They are useful in anaemia, burning sensation. The seeds are abortifacient and insecticidal and are usefull in destroying lice in the hair.
Apium graveolens:Latin Names:Apium graveolens
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ajamoda
It is an annual or biennial herb, native of Europe, now naturalized in northern parts of India and largely cultivated in Punjab.It has antispasmodic, digestive and carminative properties. It is useful in indigestion, abdominal discomfort, colic and hepatobiliary disorders.
Apple:The fruit of the apple tree Malus sylvestris var. domestica which requires cool winters to fruit. There are thousands of varieties but only about fifty are commercially available. Dessert varieties are sweetish, sometimes combined with acid, used for eating raw, and, since they keep their shape on cooking, are used for tarts and in other cases where the shape of the cut fruit is important. Cooking varieties are generally acid and become soft and mushy when boiled, stewed or baked.
Cooking Tip:Bake in the oven with ginger or fennel seeds and grated orange or lemon peel. Use apples in a fruit salad with finely chopped rosemary, poppy seeds or cress grinded. If the apples begin to darken and there is no lemon then dip them peeled in salted water.
Apricot:A round, orange coloured fruit from a tree Prumus armeniaca of the plum family, with a rich aromatic flavour. Suitable for stewing, for sorbets and for jam making, often preserved by drying.
Apricot Kernels:Latin Names:Apricot Kernels
English Name:Sweet Almond,Prunus dulcis.
ALMOND: (Prunus dulcis) The Sweet Almond tree has dark-colored bark, rose to white flowers in early spring, and dry-fleshed fruit with a pitted stone containing the nut. Almonds flavor many dishes. Almond oil is a fixed oil pressed from the Sweet Almond seeds and is used in cosmetics, massage oils, and medicines.
Almonds must be chewed well and slowly. The whole raw almond had been described as a cancer preventative. Arabs crossing vast deserts live on only almonds, dates and water. One ounce of almonds can be soaked overnight in four ounces of water and blended in the morning to make a milk substitute. Peeled almonds can relieve heartburn. Ground almonds make a wonderful facial scrub. The oil relieves coughs and hoarseness. Almonds have very little starch, and the butter and flour of the nuts is recommended for diabetics.
Aprium:This is an apricot/plum cross, with apricot dominating.
Arborio rice:A medium grain, superfino, pearly rice grown in northern Italy, used in Italian cooking and for making risotto. Cooks in 20 minutes and absorbs five times its weight of liquid. Starch is released during cooking and makes the grains creamy.
Cooking Tips:To reheat rice, place it in a strainer and then on top of a pot with boiling water.
Apium graveolens:Latin Names:Areca catechu
English Name:Arecanut Palm
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Puga
A tree with annulate stem surmounted by a crown of pinnate leaves.
Arecanut contains several alkaloids belonging to the pyridine group.The most important of them physiologically is arecoline The polyphenols of ripe arecanut contain predominantly polymerized leucocyanidins besides as well as small amounts of (+)-cetechin, leucopelargonidin and leucocyanidin. The polyphenolic substances of arecanuts, generally termed tannins, are responsible for the physiological action. The non-alkaloid fractions of arecanuts are reported to possess anti-microbial properties. The powdered nuts are prescribed in diarrhea and urinary disorders.
In Sri Lanka, the unripe nuts are credited with laxative properties,but they are said to affect the eyesight. Arecanuts are considered useful as an external application on ulcers, and in skin disorders.They are anthelmintic, and are used in Veterinary medicine as a vermifuge. A paste of the dry arecanut powder is used as a dentifrice.The dried nuts are said to sweeten the breath, strengthen the gums,and produce a stimulant and exhilarant effect on the system. Arecanut chewed is reportedly a good source of fluoride.
Argyreia nervosa:Latin Names:Argyreia nervosa / A.speciosa
English Name:Elephant Creeper,HAWAIIAN BABY WOODROSE SEEDS, ELEPHANT CREEPER SEEDS. ORIGINAL ARGYREIA SEEDS
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Vriddadaru
A woody climber with a stout stem and rose purple flowers.The root is bitter, aphrodisiac, diuretic, and is used in gonorrhea,rheumatism and diseases of the nervous system. It is also used as a tonic. The plant is used along with other ingredients to cure sexual disorders in males.
Uses:The roots are acrid, bitter, astringent, sweet, emolliet. It is used in vitiated conditions kapha and vita, emaciation, wounds, ulcers, anorexia, dyspepsia, latulence,. It is widely used for Psychotropic and ornamental purposes.
The seeds of Argyreia nervosa contain about 0.3% ergot alkaloids, including chanoclavine, lysergol, ergotmetrine and ergine. These are all derivatives of Lysergic acid and most are collectively named lysergic acid amides (LSA). LSD (Lysergic Acid Diiethylamide) is also a lysergic acid amide and although resembling the natural lysergic acid amides both in structure and and pharmacological activity, it has not been found in nature. Many of the ergot alkaloids can cause constriction of bloodvessels, which may result in necrosis of the tissue and gangrene in humans and animals
Artocarpus Heterophyllus:Botanical name :Artocarpus Heterophyllus
English Name:JACK FRUIT, JAKFRUIT
Part Used : Seeds, jack fruit, leaves
Uses :The leaves are useful in fever, boils, wounds , skin diseases. The young fruits are acrid, astringent, carminative and tonic. The ripe fruits are sweet, coolong, laxative, aphrodiasiae and tonic. The seeds are sweet, diuretic, aphrodisiac and constipating. The wood is nervine, sedative and is usefull on vonvulsions. The latex is usefull in dysopia, opthalmities and pharyngitis.The Chinese consider jackfruit pulp and seeds tonic, cooling and nutritious, and to be "useful in overcoming the influence of alcohol on the system." The seed starch is given to relieve biliousness and the roasted seeds are regarded as aphrodisiac. The ash of jackfruit leaves, burned with corn and coconut shells, is used alone or mixed with coconut oil to heal ulcers. The dried latex yields artostenone, convertible to artosterone, a compound with marked androgenic action. Mixed with vinegar, the latex promotes healing of abscesses, snakebite and glandular swellings. The root is a remedy for skin diseases and asthma. An extract of the root is taken in cases of fever and diarrhea. The bark is made into poultices. Heated leaves are placed on wounds. The wood has a sedative property; its pith is said to produce abortion.
Arrowroot:Also called "araruta". A starch powder obtained from the root of a West Indian plant "Maranta arundinacea", used for thickening where a clear, glossy glaze is required. Loses its thickening power if overcooked.
Artichoke:Also known as the globe artichoke. A plant of the thistle family Cynara scolymus, whose unopened flower buds are used, particularly the base of the bracts and the base of the immature flower. The artichoke consisting of the immature petals and stamens, etc. is removed (also called globe artichoke, French artichoke).
Arundo donax:Latin Names:Arundo donax
English Name:Giant Reed / Wild Cane
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Nala
Nala, is a tall perennial grass that can grow upto 20 feet high.The root is diaphoretic, diuretic, and galactagogue.
Ashwagandha:Botanical Name : WITHANIA SOMNIFERA
English Name:WITHANIA, WINTER CHERRY, INDIAN WINTER CHERRY, INDIAN GINSENG, ASHWAGANDHA
Part Used : Root, Leaves
Uses : It is Tonic, Abortifacient, Astringent, Deobstruent, Nervine, Aphrodisiac and Sedative. It is official Indian Pharmacoepeia. It is popularly known as Indian Ginseng. It gives vitality and vigour and helps in building greater endurance.It has been used in diseases such as rheumatism, leprosy and arthritis.
Asian pear:The crisp, white, pear-flavored fruit of a tree, Pyrus pyrofolia, now also cultivated in New Zealand. The shape varies from apple to pear. The semi-sweet flesh has a fragrant flavor and is enclosed in a golden skin rather like a russet apple. It is eaten raw or as a garnish e.g with game. (also called snow pear, pear apple, nashi)
Asparagus:A perennial plant of the lily family Asparagus officinalis. The young shoots are removed in spring. White asparagus is cut below ground when the tips protrude about 5 cm above ground. Green asparagus is cut at ground level when the shoots are about 15cm long. Asparagus should be used as fresh as possible, scraped, carefully washed and cooked in plenty of boiling salted water.
Cooking Tips:Keep the tips when cleaning and add them in broths. Prepare them in steam and they go best with a vinegar sauce with mustard and mustard seeds or sauteed sesame.
Asparagus adscendens:Latin Names:Asparagus adscendens
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shreta musli, Sufed musli
A sub-erect, prickly shrub with white tuberous roots.The roots are prescribed for diarrhea and dysentery. The saponin mixture from the dried roots yield glycosides, O-[ß-D-2-tetracosylxylophyranosyl]-stigmasterol,and 3-ß-O-[ß-D-Glycopyranosyl (12)-a-L-arabinopyranosyl] stigmasterol.
Asparagus racemosus:Latin Names:Asparagus racemosus
English Name:Asparagus,WILD ASPARAGUS, ASPARAGUS ROOT, SATAVARI
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shatavari
A much-branched, spinous under-shrub, with tuberous, short rootstock bearing numerous fusiform, succulent, tuberous roots. The plant contains triterpene saponins - Shatavarin I - IV, which are phytoestrogen compounds.
Part Used:Tuberous Roots
Uses:The roots are bitter, sweet, emollient, cooling, nervine, tonic, constipating, opthalimic, anobyne, aphrodisiac, . They are useful in nervous disorders, dyspepsia, tumours, scalding of urine, throat infections, tuberclosis, cough bronchitis and general debility.
The plant is used as a demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and galactagogue.The root extracts exhibit antiallergic activity. Along with the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, they are given to diabetic patients.
Astragalus:Scientific/Medical Name(s): Astragalus membranaceus
English Name:Astragalus,Huang-qi, Milk-Vetch Root,Huang Ch'i,Tragacanth, Gum Dragon, Milk Vetch, Canada Milk Vetch, Membranous Milk Vetch, Slender Milk Vetch, Standing Milk Vetch, Astragali, Huang Qi (Chinese), Beg Kei, Bei Qi, Hwanggi.
Botanical Full Name for Exracts Origin:Astragalus membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao (A. mongholicus Bge.)
Astragulus is one of the best root medicine in Oriental tradition and a member of the pea family. It first mentioned in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing. Chinese name, huang-qi, means "yellow leader" for it is a superior tonic to invigorate vital energy (qi).
Uses:Most of the scientific data on astragalus comes from Chinese clinical evidence, where astragalus appears to stimulate the immune system in patients with infections. At least one clinical trial in the U.S. has shown astragalus to boost T-cell levels close to normal in some cancer patients, suggesting the possibility of a synergistic effect of astragalus with chemotherapy.
Atractylodes Rhizome:Scientific Name(s):Atractylodes Rhizome(Rhizoma Atractylodis)
English Name:Swordlike Atractylodes Rhizome, Rhizoma Atractylodis
Botanical Full Name for Exracts Origin:Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. or Atractylodes chinensis (DC.) Koidz.
This herb is the rhizome of Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC., or Atractylodes(DC.) koidz (family Compositae), produced mainly in Jiangsu and Hubei provinces and Inner Mongolia of China. It is dug in spring or autumn and dried. The herb is sliced after being soaked with water. The herb slices are stir-baked to yellowish color, together with water in which rice has been washed.
Aubergine:The purple fruit of an East Indian annual plant Solanum melongena of the same family as the tomato and deadly nightshade, now also called aubergine in English. Generally violet to deep purple in Europe and North America and up to 30 cm long, but can be white or deep yellow streaked with purple and the size of a hen's egg. The bitter taste of some varieties is removed by sprinkling with salt and allowing to drain (also called eggplant, garden egg, Guinea squash).
Avocado:The pear shaped fruit of a species of sub-tropical laurel Persea Americana with a rough, thick, green to dark brown skin, a creamy yellow flesh and a large single stone, usually eaten as a starter or salad. Used as an ingredient of guacamole. The flesh mixed with grated nutmeg is said to be a male aphrodisiac (also called avocado pear, alligator pear).
Cooking Tips:To let it ripen wrap in a dark colored paper bag and store in room temperature. If we cut it and it is still unripe then cover the surface with butter or margarine and rewrap.
Azadirachta indica:Latin Names:Azadirachta indica / Melia azadirachta
English Name:Neem,LILAC, MARGOSA TREE,NEEM CHAL
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Nimba
Azadirachta indica is a large, evergreen tree. Its principal constituents are nimbin, nimbinin and nimbidin. All parts of the plant yield b-sitosterol.
Neem extracts possess anti-diabetic, antibacterial and anti-viral properties. The tree stem, root and bark possess astringent, tonic and anti-periodic properties. The bark is beneficial in malarial fever and useful in cutaneous diseases.
Uses : Vermifuge, Insecticide, Astringent, Tonic and Antispetic.It is used for external applications in skin diseases. It possesses antidandruff, antibacterial, anti viral and fungicidal properties; It posseses anti diabitic, anti bacterial and anti viral properties and used sucessfully in cases of stomach, worms and ulcers. Root bark posseses anstringent, tonic and antiperiodic properties. It is also useful in Malarial fever. The oil is used in making Neem based soaps, shampoos and toothpaste.
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