Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Cabbage |Cabernet sauvignon grapes | Calimyrna fig | Canary melon | Cantaloupe | Cape gooseberry |Capellini | Caper | Carrot | Cassava | Cauliflower | Cayenne pepper | Cayenne peppers | Celeriac | Celery | Chamomile | Champagne grape | Chanterelle | Cherimoya | Cherry | Chervil |Chestnut | Chicken | Chicory | Chilli peppers | Chinese aubergine | Chinese bitter melon | Chinese ginger | Chive | Choko | Cilantro |Cinnamon | Citronella or lemon grass | Clam | Coconut | Cod |Coffee bean | Collard greens | Comber | Conger eel | Coppa |Corn | Corn on the cob | Courgette | Crab apple | Crookneck squash | Cucumber | Cumin | Curly endive | Cassia Nomame | Caesalpinia digyna | Calendula officinalis | Calotropis procera | Capparis spinosa | Capsicum annuum | Carica papaya |Carum carvi | Carum copticum | Casearia esculenta | Cassia fistula | Cassia occidentalis |Cateria lacca | Cedrus deodara | Celastrus paniculatus | Centella asiatica | Chyavanaprasha concentrate |Cicer arietinum | Cichorium intybus | Cinnamomum camphora | Cinnamomum cassia | Cinnamomum verum | Cissampelos pareira | Citrus limon | Citrus medica | Citrus reticulata | Cocos nucifera |Coleus vettiveroides | Commiphora wightii | Convolvulus microphyllus | Coriandrum sativum | Crataeva nurvala |Crocus sativus | Cucumis sativus | Cuminum cyminum | Curcuma longa | Curcuma zedoaria |Cynodon dactylon | Cyperus rotundus | Cyperus scariosus | Comfrey leaf | Cnidium Monnier | Chrysanthemum (Dendranthema) | Celery Seed | Cassia Twig | Chinese Gentian | Chinese Date |Common Selfheal Fruit-Spike | Common Goldenrod Herb | Chinese Pulsaiilla Root | Corn Silk | Carya alba |Chinese chestnut | Chinese FoxGlove Root | Chrysanthemum(Ju Hua) | Chaste Berry | Coleus Forskohlii | Capejasmine Fruit | Common Onion Extracts | Cucumber | Cicada Slough | Calamus | Cassia Angustifolia | Cassia Fistula | Cassia Tora | Cinchona Officinalis |
The most common member of the Brassica family Brassica oleracea Capitata Group which consists of green, white or reddish leaves springing from a central stalk either loosely as in spring cabbage or in a tight pointed or round mass of layered leaves with some open outer leaves. The white varieties are often eaten raw or fermented but all may be pickled, fermented, boiled, stewed, braised or fried. The coarser outer green leaves are a major source of folic acid essential to prevent some birth defects.
Cabernet sauvignon grapes:Botanical Name:Cabernet sauvignon grapes
Cabernet Sauvignon grapes make a hearty, complex red wine that's especially good with roasted meats and heavy stews. Domestic Cabernets are often excellent.
Calimyrna fig:Botanical Name:Calimyrna fig
A small sweet nutty-flavored fig with an amber skin. Used fresh, in fruit salads and chutney and in cooked meat dishes.
Canary melon:Botanical Name:
These tend to vary in quality, so unless you're good at selecting melons, stick with more idiot-proof varieties like the honeydew or cantaloupe. Canaries should, at a minimum, have bright yellow rinds. They're in season in the fall.
These are popular because they're easy to select and very sweet. Ripe cantaloupes have dull yellow backgrounds with raised netting. Avoid those with protruding stems, or tears in the rind at the stem end -it's a tell-tale sign that the melon was picked too soon. When ripe melons are picked, the stem falls off easily, leaving a small, clean depression. After checking the stem end, flip the melon over and check the blossom end. It should be fragrant and yield a bit when pressed. Cantaloupes are cheapest in the summer.
Cape gooseberry:Botanical Name:cape gooseberry
A cherry-sized, yellow-fleshed, slightly sour fruit of a plant Physalis peruviana originally from Peru but now grown in Egypt, Colombia and South Africa. It is loosely enclosed in a segmented, papery, fawn husk, which looks like a Chinese lantern. Used in fruit salads and for decoration (also called physalis, goldenberry).
A very thin spaghetti from Italy
A small spiny shrub flourishin around the Mediterranean, mainly in walls and rocks near coastlines and barren plots.
Common Names:Philtron,sisaron,staphylinos,elaph- obosum,(Greek).Bees nest,kexs,(Som).Cax,(Dor).Bird nest,(Sam, Wilts, War, Yks,Scot).Fiddle,(Lincs).Crow nest, (Beds), Eltrot, CHants). Curran-petris, (Scot). Keggas, pigs parsley, (Corn). Carote, (France) .Carcta, (Italy). Zanahoria,(Spain). Karotte, mohre, (German). Peen, wortel , (Dutch). Karot, gulerod, (Danish). Karoto, (Greek) Morkov, (Russia) .Korenje, (Yug).
An orange-colored, tubular root vegetable from a biennial plant, Daucus carota, common all over the world. One of the aromatic vegetables used for its flavour but also eaten raw when young or cooked as a vegetable.
Cooking Tips:If they are old and soft, place them in some water with some lemon juice and vinegar and leave in the fridge overnight. When boiling them add a pinch of salt and a pinch of sugar for each cup of water.
A tropical, virtually pure starch tuber up to 30cm long of a plant "Manihot utilissima", which is grown in hot countries. The roots of some varieties have to be grated and boiled in several changes of water or partially fermented to remove toxic cyanide compounds which are in the plant cells and are broken down by enzymes in the sap. The leaves are also edible and do not contain toxic compounds and are cooked as a vegetable or used as a food wrapping. Many people are permanently crippled by the poison esp. in Africa (also called manioc, tapioca, yuca, yucca)
A vegetable Brassica olereacea Botrytis Group consisting of a short thick central stalk topped with a white hemispherical head of closely packed immature flowers, 10-15 cm in diameter surrounded with long green leaves. Usually eaten raw, steamed, boiled or pickled.
Cooking Tips:If it turns yellow because it is old, then boil it with lemon juice, sugar and salt. If it is too salty, dip it in boiling water for 3 minutes. To avoid a smelly house, throw out the first hand of water after its been boiling for 5 minutes or dip a towel in water and vinegar (3:1) and cover the pot with it.
Cayenne pepper:Botanical Name:cayenne pepper
The dried and finely ground spice made from a variety of cayenne peppers used sparingly as a seasoning in Europe and the USA.
Cayenne peppers:Botanical Name:cayenne peppers
The very pungent fruit of a branching perennial bush Capsicum frutescens which may be yellow, orange or red and are similar in shape to chilli peppers. May be used spairingly as a flavoring and in sauces (also called hot peppers)
The thickened globular upper root of a plant Apium graveolens var. rapaceum with a pronounced celery flavour much used as a winter root vegetable in central Europe (also called knob celery).
One of the aromatic vegetables Apium graveolens var. dulce used for flavouring and also eaten braised or raw. It grows as a cluster of green, ridged crisp stalks about 30 cm long, closely packed and white in the center with feathery leaves. The whole may be grown in a paper collar to whiten all the stalks. The leaves are used in a BG. There are other strong-flavoured varieties grown for their seeds or for drying and grinding; see also wild celery.
Cooking Tips:Preserve it wrapped in aluminum foil for a long time in the fridge.
This is a little flower with white petals and scores of medicinal uses. You should always have a supply of chamomile sealed in airtight jars at home.
Champagne grape:Botanical Name:champagne grape
These clusters of tiny grapes are often used as a garnish (also called zante grapes).
An edible mushroom "Cantharellus cibarius", deep yellow and smelling of apricots, shaped like the upturned horn of a trumpet with wavy edges on a short stalk. Much prized in French cuisine (also called girolle).
One of the most common custard apples Anona cherimolia with a pineapple type flavor, from Peru, now grown in Spain and Israel. See custard apple (also called cherimoyer).
The fruits of various members of Prunus spp.,1-2,5 cm in dia., generally spherical with a slight depression where they are attached to the stalk, with a central stone (to 5 mm dia.) surrounded by a plum-like flesh and a smooth shiny outer skin. The colors range from white to deep purple/black and the flavors from sweet to acid. Used in sweet and savory dishes and the kernels are used to flavor some liqueurs. Classified as sweet cherries and acid or sour cherries.
Storing Tips: Remove the stones and store in plastic bags in the freezer for a year for pies and sweets.
(French = cerfeui) It looks like parsley, but has a fine aroma like aniseed. In France it is considered as a luxury flavoring. In Greece it is indigenous and it is used combined with other herbs in pies and fricassee.
The edible fruit of the sweet chestnut tree "Castanea sativa", a native of southern Europe. They have a hard woody skin and a cream colored interior containing more starch and less protein and fat than most nuts.
The common domestic fowl "Gallus gallus", bread for its meat and eggs. Generally known as poultry.
Cooking Tips: If the meat is too dry or we intend to eat it the next day, then we prepare a sauce with butter and chicken broth. (Place the meat in this sauce for many hours).
A group of plants "Cichorium intybus" grown for their leaves which all have a distinctive slightly bitter flavor.
Chilli peppers:Botanical Name:chilli peppers
The fruit of the annual bush "Capsicum annuum" Longum Group, related to the sweet pepper but thinner and up to 9cm long. They mature from green to red becoming hotter as they mature. Much used in Indian, Mexican and other highly spiced cuisines.
Chinese aubergine:Botanical Name:chinese aubergine
Compared to the familiar American eggplant, Chinese eggplants have thinner skins, a more delicate flavor, and not as many of the seeds that tend to make eggplants bitter.
Chinese bitter melon:Botanical Name:chinese bitter melon
This bitter vegetable is believed to have medicinal properties and is widely used throughout Asia.
Chinese ginger:Botanical Name:chinese ginger
"Kaempferia galanga". This ginger relative is popular in Thailand. It resembles long fingers jutting from a hand.
A small invasive perennial plant of the onion family with thin tubular leaves and purple flowers. The chopped leaves have a mild onion flavor and are used as a garnish or for flavoring but not with prolonged cooking. It is used for its fine aroma in sauces and omelets. The flowers are used for decorating dishes.
A green pear-shaped squash similar in size to the avocado which grows on a rampant vine "Sechium edule". Originally from South America, it is now grown in Australia, the Caribbean and the USA. The flesh is fairly tastless and must be cooked before eating. The central seed may be eaten when very young and the young leaves and shoots and fleshy roots are also edible (also called brionne, christophine, xoxo, chow-chow, pepinello, mango squash).
Corriander leaves or a herb, Geringium foetidum, from Costa Rica, Dominica and Mexico with a similar flavour to coriander.
A very popular spice made from the dried bark of a tree of the laurel family, Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
Citronella or lemon grass:Botanical Name:citronella or lemon grass
(French = citronelle de Ceylan), various plants in the family of the agrostidon (canes) they have a strong lemon aroma and are used for cooking, in sauces, in ice-creams and for beverages. Its aroma is related to the Greek Louiza. It is commonly used in Ceylon and Thailand.
A bivalve shellfish found worldwide with lean flesh which can be eaten raw, poached, steamed, baked or fried. All must be live when purchased and consumed as soon as possible after being allowed to clean themselves in water with a little oatmeal for 24 hours and subsequently well scrubed.
Cooking Tips: Dip them in warm water for 15 seconds, so they could loosen and open easier.
1 the oval fruit (to 20 cm long) of a tropical palm Cocus nucifera with an outer fibrous covering, an inner hard shell lined with a white crisp flesh about 6mm thick and containing a white, sweet, translucent liquid 2 the inner lining of the coconut often shredded, grated and/or dried; see also desiccated coconut, makapuno.
A round, non-oily sea water fish "Gadus morrhua" from the Northern oceans up to 40 kg in weight with a white flaky flesh and a grey green skin. Used to be cheap and common in the Northern hemisphere. Dried and salted it is a major item in international trade as a protein source.
Coffee bean:Botanical Name:coffee bean
The fruit of an evergreen bush "Coffea arabica" and "C. canephora" native to Ethiopia but now widely grown in high altitude tropical regions. The two main varieties are robusta and aragica but they are often identified by their places of origin.
Collard greens:Botanical Name:collard greens
The edible green leaves from non-hearting brassicas including root vegetables.
A small rockfish, yellowish in color with brown bands. The comber is almost as tasty as the perch and makes excellent fish soup. Fishermen char-grill comber without scaling or removing the intestines.
Conger eel:Botanical Name:conger eel
A fish with a snake-like body, either ash-black or light chestnut in color with a white belly. Its tender, white flesh makes excellent fish soup. Conger eels weigh up to 19 kilos, at times even more.
A salted pork slicing sausage, dried and smoked with herbs; from Corsica
A general term once used of all grains such as wheat, oats, barley, rye, maize, etc. but now used only of wheat in Europe and of maize in the USA.
Corn on the cob:Botanical Name:corn on the cob
A complete cob of sweet corn, (a variety of maize), boiled, leaves removed and kernels eaten with salt and butter (also called sweet corn).
Cooking Tips: When cooking corn on the cob, put a little sugar for a better flavor.
The small juvenile version of the vegetable marrow (summer squash) up to 15 cm in length, usually green but yellow cultivars exist. (Also called zucchini)
Crab apple:Botanical Name:crab apple
The wild version of the apple Malus pumila with generally small (to 3cm dia.) tart and crisp fruits. Used for making jams and preserves.
Crookneck squash:Botanical Name:crookneck squash
A yellow or orange summer squash with a neck bent into a hook, common in the USA. One of the first plants to be genetically engineered to be resistant to mosaic viruses.
A fruit of a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, Cucumis sativus, introduced to the UK from India in 1573 and harvested in the unripe green stage between 5 and 35 cm in length and 1.5 to 5 cm in diameter. The smaller ones are usually pickled in flavored brine or vinegar, the larger are generally eaten raw as a salad vegetable or deseeded, salted, drained, and diced combined with herbs and yoghurt or used as a bulking agent in various mixtures; see also dill pickles, gherkins,Chinese cucumber, yellow cucumber, ridge cucumber, long cucumber.
Cooking Tips:If they begin to wilt, dip them in cold water or in plain water and preserve in the fridge until consumed.
The seeds of an annual plant "Cuminum cyminum" grown around the Mediterranean and through to the Far East. It has a strong pungent flavor and is much used in Arab, Indian and Spanish cooking.
Curly endive:Botanical Name:curly endive
You can use this crisp, bitter green in salads or cook it as a side dish. The outer leaves are green and somewhat bitter; the pale inner leaves are more tender and mild. Don't confuse this with Belgian endive, which the British call chicory and the French call endive.
Cassia Nomame:Botanical Name:Cassia nomame (sieb.) kifagawa; or Cassia mimosoides var. nomame Makino
Latin Name:Cassia nomame. L.;
Synoms and common Names:Cassia nomame (sibe.)Kita; nomame herba; Mimosoides tea.
This plant extract is a lipase inhibitor. A lipase inhibitor impairs the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of fat, thereby blocking its function. Subsequently, fat molecules remain undigested and unabsorbed as they move through the gastrointestinal tract. This means their caloric content is not released into the bloodstream. Because Cassia inhibits fat from being absorbed into the bloodstream, there is less opportunity for fat to be stored. Unlike pharmaceutical lipase inhibitors, Cassia nomame does little to interfere with the absorption of fat soluble vitamins.
Caesalpinia digyna:Botanical Latin Name:Caesalpinia digyna, Caesalpinia bonducella
English Name:Teri Pods
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Udakiryaka, Putikaranja
A large, scandent, prickly shrub or climber.The plant is used for curing senile pruritis with excellent result. The drug is also reported to exhibit anti-fatigue effect in rats. The roots have marked astringent and antipyretic properties.
Calendula officinalis:Botanical Name:Calendula officinalis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Zergul
An aromatic, erect, annual herb, cultivated in India.The ligulate florets constitute the drug which is reported to possess stimulant, bitter, tonic, sudorific, febrifuge, carminative, anti-emetic and anthelmintic properties. The flowers contain calenduline, and oleanolic acid glycoside and sterol glycosides. They also contain a- and ß-amyrin, taraxasterol, y - taraxasterol, lupeol, brein, faradiol, arnidiol, erythrodiol, calenduladiol, coflodiol (ursadiol) and manilladiol.
Calotropis procera:Botanical Name:Calotropis procera
English Name:Dead Sea Apple, Milkweed, Sodom Apple, Swallow-Wort
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Alarka
A small, erect and compact shrub, covered with cottony tomentum.The rootbark contains a- and ß-amyrin, ß-amyrin, taraxasterol and its y-isomer, taraxasteryl isovalerate, taraxasteryl acetate,gigantin, giganteol, isogiganteol, ß-sitosterol and a wax.
In small doses, the rootbark is diaphoretic and expectorant. It acts as a mild stimulant.
Capparis spinosa:Botanical Name:Capparis spinosa
English Name:The Caper Bush
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Himsra
A prostrate shrub or climber armed with divaricate, light yellow thorns.The root bark contains stachydrine, rutic acid and a volatile substance. It is bitter, aperient, diuretic and expectorant. It is given in splenic, renal and hepatic complaints.
Capsicum annuum:Botanical Name:Capsicum annuum
English Name:Chilli, Red Pepper
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Katuvira
A suffrutescent or herbaceous, short-lived perennial.
The active principle in chili is a mixture of allied components,capsaicin being the most important, major component (46-77% of the total capsainoids). Chili is a powerful irritant and rubefacient; when applied to the skin, it produces warmth, redness, and burning without blistering.
In the form of ointment of plasters, it is used externally for the treatment of rheumatism, lumbago and neuralgia. Capsicum wool, prepared by dissolving the oleoresin in ether and pouring it on absorbent cotton-wool, is useful in rheumatoid affections. Chili, in small doses, is a powerful stimulant and carminative. It stimulates the secretion of saliva and gastric juice, and increases peristaltic movements and motility of the stomach. It is an excellent remedy in atonic and flatulent dyspepsia and dipsomania.
Carica papaya:Botanical Name:Carica papaya
English Name:Papaya,PAPAYA, PAW PAW, KATES, PAPAW
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chirbhita, Erandachirbhita
Carica papaya (Papaya) is a small tree with straight and soft stem with leaf scars on it. The fruits are a good source of pection. It removes freckles and smoothes the skin.
Uses :Carica papaya contains an enzyme known as papain, present in the fruit, stem and leaves.The milky juice is extracted, dried and used as chewing gum, medicine (digestion problems), toothpaste and meat tenderizers. (Meat can be tenderized by wrapping it in a bruised papaya leaf before it is cooked).Carica papaya contains many biologically active compounds. Two important compounds are chymopapain and papain, which are supposed to aid in digestion. Papain also is used to treat arthritis. The level of the compounds vary in the fruit, latex, leaves, and roots. Papaya has been used for digestive problems and intestinal worms.The softening and disintegrating qualities of papain (generally in alkaline combination, as with borax or potassium carbonate), have been taken advantage of in the treatment of warts, corns, sinuses, and chronic forms of scaly eczema, cutaneous tubercles, and other hardness of the skin, produced by irritation, etc., and injected into indolent glandular tumors to promote their absorption.
Carum carvi:Botanical Name:Carum carvi
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Karavi,Krishna jeeraka,Krishnajiraka
An annual or biennial glabrous herb.
Carvone and limonene are the chief constituents of the oil and its odor and flavor are mainly attributed to them. Other constituents present in the oil are: a- and ß-pinenes and p-cymene.
In medicine, they are used as a carminative, mild stomachic, aromatic and diuretic. Both the seeds and the essential oil (caraway oil) are classed as carminative in the I.P. and prescribed in flatulent colic and stomach derangement.
In patients suffering from lumbago and rheumatism, exposing the affected parts to the vapors from the seeds gives relief from the disease. The alcoholic extract of the fruits shows dose-dependent antispasmodic effect. Caraway water finds use as a vehicle for pediatric medicines.
Carum copticum:Botanical Name:Carum copticum, Trachyspermum ammi
English Name:Bishop's Weed, Lovage
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Yavani, Yawani
An erect, glabrous or minutely pubescent branched annual, with aromatic fruits.
The characteristic odor and taste of the fruit is due to the presence of an essential oil. The fruits are much valued for its antispasmodic, stimulant, tonic and carminative properties. It is administered in flatulence, atonic dyspepsia and diarrhea, and often recommended for cholera. The oil from the fruits is reported to possess hypotensive and cardiac depressive activity. The drug also shows some anti-diuretic effect.
Casearia esculenta:Botanical Name:Casearia esculenta
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Saptarangi
A shrub or a tree with a pale yellow bark.
The root and the root bark are extensively used in the indigenous system of medicine as an anti diabetic due to their hypoglycemic activity. The roots are especially efficacious in milder chronic diabetic cases. The root contains leucopelargonidin, arabinose, dulcitol. ß-sitosterol and another sterol, and two resinous substances having hypoglycemic activity have also been reported.
Cassia fistula:Botanical Name:Cassia fistula
English Name:Indian Laburnum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Aragvadha
Cassia fistula is a deciduous tree with exfoliating bark.
The pulp contains sennosides A and B, Rhein and its glucoside,barbaloin, aloin, formic acid, butyric acid, their ethyl esters and oxalic acid. It is a safe purgative given even to pregnant women.The pulp is also given for biliousness and in disorders of the liver.It is applied in gout and rheumatism. It is utilized in blood-poisoning, anthrax and dysentery, also given in leprosy and diabetes and for the removal of abdominal obstructions.
It is used in the treatment of varicose veins. It helps in shrinking engorged veins and has a powerful anti-inflammatory effect.
Cassia occidentalis:Botanical Name:Cassia occidentalis
English Name:Negro Coffee
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kasamarda
Cassia occidentalis is a diffuse undershrub.
The plant contains emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, sitosterol and a xanthone-cassiolin. The seeds and leaves are used externally in skin diseases. The roots are reported to be diuretic, the seeds, roots and leaves are antibacterial. It is used in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion and other digestive disturbances in children.
Cateria lacca:Botanical Name:Cateria lacca, Laccifer lacca
English Name:Lac insect
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Laksha
The most common and widely occurring species of lac insect in India is Laccifer lacca (Kerr) which produces the bulk of commercial lac.
Lac is the resinous protective secretion of the tiny lac insect.
The major constituent of sticklac is the resin (70-80%); other constituents present are: sugar, proteins, and soluble salts, coloring matter, wax, sand, woody matter, insect bodies and other extraneous matter; a volatile oil is present in traces. Lac resin is composed of mainly hydroxy fatty acids of C14- C18 carbon chains, such as aleuritic, butolic, C14- C16 mono- and di-hydroxy acids along with hydroxy terpenic acids having the rare cedrene skeleton as jalaric, laccijalaric, shellolic, and laksholic acids.
Cedrus deodara:Botanical Name:Cedrus deodara
English Name:Himalayan Cedar
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Devadaru
It is a large evergreen tree. The bark is thick, furrowed vertically and cracked transversely.
It has anti-inflammatory activity and is used for its activity against human pathogenic Epidermophyton, Trichophyton, Absidia ramosa and Microsporon gypsum. It has proven effective in a number of dermal diseases.
Celastrus paniculatus:Botanical Name:Celastrus paniculatus
English Name:Climbing Staff Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Jyotishmati, Kanguni
A large, woody, climbing shrub with a yellow, corky bark.
The seeds possess emetic, diaphoretic, febrifuge and nervine properties and are used for sharpening the memory and also used to cure sores,ulcers, rheumatism and gout. The drug is used in the traditional system of medicine as a sedative. The reported constituents are Mal III A, Mal III B, triterpenoids zeylasterone, and seylasteral.Its therapeutic uses include treating anxiety and beriberi. Alcoholic extract has anti-inflammatory and sedative properties. An herbal extract of the crude drug was tested for its adaptogenic properties,on mice. It showed significant CNS depressant effect and a clear synergism with pentobarbital.
Centella asiatica:Botanical Name:Centella asiatica
English Name:Indian Pennywort, Gotu Kola,PENNYWORT, INDIAN PENNYWORT, ARTAYNIYA-E HINDI, JAL BRAHMI
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mandukaparni
Centella asiatica is a prostrate, stoloniferous, perennial weed found in crop fields.
It includes the glycosides indocentelloside, brahmoside, brahminoside,asiaticoside, thankuniside and isothankuniside. In ayurveda, the plant is used for the treatment of leprosy and skin diseases and also to improve memory, as an antidote to cholera, and in bronchitis,asthma, gastric trouble, catarrh, leucorrhea, kidney troubles, urethritis and dropsy. The plant also has tranquilizing, anabolic, antiprotozoal and spasmolytic properties.
Uses : It is Tonic, Diuretic and Alterative. It is used in treatment of leporasy and known to ameliorate the symptoms of the disease and improves general health of the patient. It is a brain tonic and stimulates hair growth. It helps to improve memory, increases concentration and intellectual ability in children.
Chyavanaprasha concentrate:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chyavanaprasha concentrate
It consists of the following ingredients:
Aegle marmelos, Clerodendrum phlomidis, Oroxylum indicum,Gmelina arborea, Stereospermum chelonoides, Sida cordifolia,Desmodium gangeticum, Uraria picta, Phaseolus trilobus, Teramnus labialis, Piper longum, Tribulus terrestris, Solanum indicum,Solanum xanthocarpum, Pistacia integerrima, Phyllanthus amarus, Vitis vinifera, Leptadenia reticulata, Inula racemosa, Aquilaria malaccensis, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, Dioscorea bulbifera, Microstylis muscifera, Microstylis wallichi, Hedychium spicatum, Cyperus rotundus, Boerhaavia diffusa, Polygonatum cirrihfolium, Elettaria cardamomum, Santalum album, Nymphaea stellata, Pueraria tuberosa, Adhatoda vasica, Lilium polyphyllum, Pentatropsis capensis, Emblica officinalis.
It is a rejuvenative, geriatric and cardiac tonic,which is useful in the treatment of cough, asthma and debility.
Cicer arietinum:Botanical Name:Cicer arietinum
English Name:Bengal Gram, Chickpea
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chanaka
An erect or spreading much-branched annual herb, covered all over with glandular hair, extensively cultivated.
Whole gram contains saccharose, glucose, fructose, polysaccharides including starch, g-galactan, levulose and p -galactoaraban, betaine, choline, adenine, inositol, phytin, saponin and citric and oxalic acids. The fresh whole germ of sprouting gram contains biochanin A, biochanin B and biochanin C. The isoflavones, biochanin A and formononetin are reported to be estrogenic and also show hypolipidemic activity.
Gram is a potent hypocholesterolemic agent. The anti-stress, anti-hyperlipidemic and stamina building activity of gram may be due to the presence of pangamic acid and a free nucleotide. It is a stimulant, tonic, aphrodisiac, anthelmintic, and useful in bronchitis and biliousness. It is also useful in leprosy and other skin diseases. The powdered seed is used for dandruff and also used as a face pack.
Cichorium intybus:Botanical Name:Cichorium intybus
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kasani
Cichorium intybus is an erect perennial herb.
The root contains tannin phlobaphenes and reducing sugars. The seeds have carminative and cordial properties and are useful as a brain tonic and for headache, asthma and bilious vomiting.
It is an acclaimed hepatoprotective, and, is used in hepatic enlargement, fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. It has cholagogue and anti-inflammatory properties.
Cinnamomum camphora:Botanical Name:Cinnamomum camphora
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Karpoora
A large, handsome, evergreen cultivated in India as an ornamental and as a source of camphor.
Camphor is obtained as colorless or white crystals, granules or crystalline masses, or colorless to white translucent, tough masses. Camphor acts as a carminative, reflex expectorant and reflex stimulant of the heart, circulation and respiration. Camphor has also been used as a nervine depressant in hysteria, epilepsy, chorea and convulsions and as an aphrodisiac. The oil extract has a peculiar fragrance and acts as an skin stimulant and counter irritant when applied externally.
Cinnamomum cassia:Botanical Name:Cinnamomum cassia
English Name:Cassia, Chinese Cinnamon
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Sthula tvak
An evergreen aromatic tree with a grey, smooth, thick bark which yields an oil containing cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol.
Chinese Cassia has been used as a diaphoretic, antipyretic and analgesic. It is used as a carminative, purgative and astringent. It is also useful as a cardiac stimulant, refrigerant, and diuretic,for stimulation of liver functions, in neuralgia, uterine pains,ascites and edema.
Cinnamomum verum:Botanical Name:Cinnamomum verum, C. zeylanicum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Thwak
A moderate sized tree, native to Sri Lanka and cultivated in South India for its aromatic bark.
The bark contains a significant amount of a mucilaginous substance,which consists mainly of a water extractable L-arabino-D-xylan and an alkali-extractable D-glucan. The bark also contains the diterpenes, cinnzeylanin and cinnzeylanol besides tannin.
The bark is used to a limited extent in medicine. It is aromatic,astringent, stimulant, expectorant and carminative. It possesses the property of checking nausea and vomiting. As a stimulant it is beneficial in cramps of the stomach, gastric irritation, and paralysis of the tongue. Ground cinnamon shows lipolytic activity. It is useful in diarrhea and dysentery. Externally, the bark is used in neuralgia, rheumatism and toothache. A decoction of the bark is reported to be used for cancer of the stomach, rectum and uterus.
It is a good anti-infective agent and is useful in relieving cough due to its soothing action.
Citrus grandis:Botanical Name:Citrus grandis
English Name:Forbidden Fruit, Pummelo, Shaddock
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mahanimbu
A spreading, round-topped almost thornless tree.
The rootbark contains ß-sitosterol and the following acridone alkaloids: citpressine-I and II, citracridone- I and II, glycocitrine-I,grandisine-I and II, grandisinine, 5-hydroxynoracronycine, honyumine and natsucitrine-II.
The fruit is considered to be nutritive and refrigerant. It is a rich source of vitamins, particularly vitamin C, which have an effective antioxidant action. The seeds have similar properties and are sometimes given for lumbago.
Cissampelos pareira:Botanical Name:Cissampelos pareira
English Name:Abuta / Velvet Leaf
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Patha
Cissampelos pareira is commonly known as the midwives herb due to its long history of use in South America for women's ailments. Found widely in India, Ceylon, and other countries, it contains berberine, and isoquinone alkaloids.
Citrus limon:Botanical Name:Citrus limon
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Nimbaka
A spinescent tree up to 6 m in height.
The juice is a rich source of vitamin C. It protects the skin from oxidative damage and helps in preventing pruritus. Lemon peel is stomachic and carminative. Oil of lemon is stimulant and rubefacient when applied externally.
Lemon juice is one of the best remedies for scurvy and serves as a refrigerant in febrile and inflammatory affections, acute rheumatism,dysentery and diarrhea. The juice diluted with water is used as a collyrium. The juice also possesses bactericidal and astringent properties. Lemon peel is used in cosmetics, as a hair-rinse and mouth-freshener. It possesses insect repellant property.
Citrus medica:Botanical Name:Citrus medica
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Bara nimbu, Bijapura, Turanj
It is a small shrub or tree with thorny branches and lemon yellow colored oblong fruits. The fruit juice is refrigerant and astringent. The fruits have potent anti-scorbutic activity.
Citrus reticulata:Botanical Name:Citrus reticulata
English Name:Loose skinned or Loose Jacket Orange, Mandarin Orange
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Narangi
It is a small spiny tree with slender branches widely grown in India. The fruit rind and segments are easily separable. The fruit oil is reported to have limonene. It is used traditionally as a sun cream.
Cocos nucifera:Botanical Name:Cocos nucifera
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Narikela
A tall and stately palm, bearing a crown of large, pinnate leaves.
The oil extract is a good emollient, can be used externally for softening the lips and in various cosmetics. It is used in uterine diseases and a polysaccharide factor in the plant is immunomodulator.
Coleus vettiveroides:Botanical Name:Coleus vettiveroides
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Hrivera
It is a small and succulent herb, with pubescent leaves and fibrous roots, which are strongly aromatic. It has anti-bacterial, deodrant and cooling properties.
Commiphora wightii:Botanical Name:Commiphora wightii, Balsamodendron mukul
English Name:Indian Bedellium
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Guggulu
It is a small tree or shrub with spinescent branches.
Its gum resin has astringent, antiseptic and antisuppurative properties and is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. It is excreted by the mucous membranes of the body, in the course of which it stimulates and disinfects their secretions. It also contains guggulsterones Z and E, guggulsterols I - V, two diterperoids-a terpene hydrocarbon named cembrane A.
It is used against obesity. Guggulipid is hypocholesteremic and assists in burning excess body fat.
Convolvulus microphyllus:Botanical Name:Convolvulus microphyllus
English Name:Convolvulus microphyllus,C.pluricaulis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shankhapushpi
An herb found in the plains of north India.
The plant contains the alkaloids convolvine, convolamine, phyllabine, convolidine, confoline, convoline, subhirsine, convosine, and convolvidine along with scopoline and ß-sitosterol. Besides, high-density lipoprotein was significantly raised in the animals.
The plant is reported to be a memory-improving drug. It is used as a psycho-stimulant and tranquilizer.
Coriandrum sativum:Botanical Name:Coriandrum sativum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Dhanyaka, Kustumburi
An annual herb, with small, white or pinkish purple flowers borne on compound terminal umbels.
The aromatic odor and taste of coriander fruits is due to an essential oil. The chief constituent of the oil is coriandrol. The fruits are considered anti-microbial, astringent, carminative, diuretic, tonic, stomachic, antibilious, refrigerant and aphrodisiac.
An infusion of the seeds is useful in flatulence, indigestion,vomiting and other intestinal disorders; it is also used in bleeding piles, rheumatism, neuralgia, caphalagia, and locally, in eye-infection. The dried seeds are reported to possess diuretic and aphrodisiac properties.
Crataeva nurvala:Botanical Name:Crataeva nurvala
English Name:Three Leaved Caper
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Varuna
It is a medium sized deciduous tree found throughout India, especially along the river banks.
It has anti-inflammatory, diuretic, lithontriptic, demulcent and tonic properties. Bark yields ceryl alcohol, friedelin, lupeol, betulinic acid and diosgenin.
It is useful in disorders of urinary organs, urinary tract infections, pain and burning micturition, renal and vesical calculi.
Crocus sativus:Botanical Name:Crocus sativus
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kumkuma
Crocus sativus is a small bulbous perennial herb. It is valued for its famed condiment, saffron, constituted by the stigma and style of the flower.
It contains the glycosides crocin and picocrocin together with lycopene, b-carotene, g-carotene and zeaxanthin. It is rich in riboflavine and also contains thiamine. Saffron is used as a nervine sedative and emmenogogue and in fevers, melancholia and enlargement of the liver. It also has stimulant and stomachic properties.
It has an essential oil, the active ingredient of which is aphrodisiac in nature. The mechanism of its sex-stimulating activity is effected by a slight stimulation of the central nervous system.
Cucumis sativus:Botanical Name:Cucumis sativus
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Trapusha, Sukasa
A trailing or climbing annual, bearing elongated, thick, cylindrical fruits of varying sizes and forms.
The aerial parts of the plant contain a 14a-methyl D-phytosterol. Shikimate dehydrogenase is extracted from cucumber pulp. It helps to keep the facial skin soft, has healing and soothing effect on the damaged skin and exerts a natural sunscreen. It acts as a toner and lightens the facial skin. The seeds are reported to be cooling,tonic and diuretic. The seed kernel (forming 75% of the seeds) is edible and used in confectionery.
Cuminum cyminum:Botanical Name:Cuminum cyminum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Jeeraka, Svetajiraka
A small, slender annual herb, with a much-branched angular or striated stem, bearing 2 or 3 partite linear leaves, bluish green in color and having sheathing bases.
The chief constituent of the volatile oil is cumaldehyde. In indigenous medicine, cumin seeds have long been considered stimulant and carminative. They are stomachic, astringent and useful in diarrhea and dyspepsia; improves appetite and taste. They are now chiefly used in Veterinary medicine. The seeds showed antifertility and abortifacient activity in female rats. They have been credited with aphrodisiac properties.
Curcuma longa:Botanical Name:Curcuma longa
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Haridra, Nisha, Rajani
Other Names:Curcuma, Curcuma species, Indian Saffron;Curcuma domestica Valenton., C. rotunda L., C. xanthorrhiza Naves, Amomoum curcuma Jacq
Selected vernacular names:Acafrao, arqussofar, asabi-e-safr, avea, cago rerega, chiang-huang, common tumeric, curcum, curcuma, dilau, dilaw, Gelbwurzel, gezo, goeratji, haladi, haldi, haldu, haku halu, hardi, haridra, huang chiang, hsanwen, hurid, Indian saffron, jianghuang, kaha, kakoenji, kalo haledo, khamin chan, khaminchan, kilunga kuku, kitambwe, kiko eea, koening, koenit, koenjet, kondin, kooneit, kunyit, kurcum, kurkum, Kurkumawurzelstock, luyang dilaw, mandano, manjano, manjal, nghe, nisha, oendre, pasupu, rajani, rame, renga, rhizome de curcuma, saffran vert, safran, safran des indes, skyer-rtsa, tumeric, tumeric root, tumeric rhizome, turmeric, ukon, ul gum, wong keong, wong keung, yellow root, yii-chin, zardchob.
Curcuma longa is a perennial herb, with tufted leaves and a short and thick rhizome that constitutes the turmeric of commerce.
It's principal constituent is Curcumin, which is a diferuloyl methane. In Indian systems of medicine, turmeric is used to some extent as a stomachic, tonic and blood purifier. It is also prescribed as an antiperiodic alterative. Externally, it is applied to indolent ulcers. A decoction of the rhizome is said to relieve the pain of purulent ophthalmia.
Oil of turmeric, distilled from the dried rhizomes, has feeble antiseptic properties. It is an antacid, and, in small doses, acts as a carminative, stomachic, appetizer and tonic. In large doses, however, it appears to act as an antispasmodic inhibiting excessive peristaltic movements of the intestines. Turmeric also possesses anti-inflammatory properties.
Curcuma zedoaria:Botanical Name:Curcuma zedoaria
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shati
It is a native of northeast India, found in deciduous forests and closely resembles Curcuma longa in appearance but has a large sized tuberous rootstock.
Its taste and odor resembles Zingiber officinale, but with a fainter aroma. Curzerenone and zederone are the main components of the essential oil. In indigenous medicine, it is prescribed as a stomachic. It has a local effect on the digestive organs and has been employed as a gastrointestinal stimulant in flatulent colic. It also prevents stress ulceration.
Cynodon dactylon:Botanical Name:Cynodon dactylon
English Name:Dhub Grass, Bermuda Grass,Bahama Grass
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Durva
A hardy perennial grass with creeping culms.
A decoction of the plant is diuretic, and considered useful in dropsy and anasarca. The expressed juice is astringent, and is applied to bleeding cuts and wounds. The rhizomes and roots are used as adulterants and substitutes for couch grass (Agropyron repens Beauv.) rhizomes that are used in genitourinary disorders (B.P.C., 77; U.S.D., 1242).
Cyperus rotundus:Botanical Name:Cyperus rotundus
English Name:Nut Grass
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Musta
A perennial weed with dark green glabrous culms, arising from a system of underground tubers.
The tubers contain an essential oil. The tubers are diaphoretic and astringent. They are also credited with antipyretic, analgesic, antiinflammatory, diuretic, anthelmintic, carminative, stomachic, emmenagogue and stimulant properties. Musta is rich source of minerals such as Cu, Mg, Mn and Ni.
Cyperus scariosus:Botanical Name:Cyperus scariosus
English Name:Umbrella's Edge
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Bhadramusta, Nagaramustaka
Cyperus scarious is a delicate, slender small herb with deep brown aromatic tubers.
The tubers are credited with astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, desiccant, cordial and stomachic properties. A decoction of the tuber is used for washing hair, treating gonorrhea and syphilis. It is also given in diarrhea and for general weakness.
Comfrey leaf:Botanical Name:Symphytum officinale (L);(Symphytum off.)
English Name:Comfrey leaf
Common Name:Symphyti radix/herba, Common comfrey, Knitbone, Boneset, consolida, consormol, consound, Blackwort, Bruisewort, gum plant, healing herb, knitback, salsify, slippery root, wallwort, Yalluc (Saxon), ass ear, nipbone
Symphytum is an erect perennial growing in most damp areas of the United Kingdom, Europe, western Asia and the U.S.A. It is a vigorous plant with broadly lanceolate leaves up to 30cm long, which taper into a point. The leaves arise as a rosette from the ground, have a rough texture, and are covered with short stiff hairs. The rosette supports a tall, erect flowering stem up to 1.5m tall, covered with sessile opposite leaves and bearing forked stalks which support one-sided racemes of pedicillate bell-shaped mauve or white flowers which curve downwards.
Cnidium Monnier:Botanical Name:Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cusson;Fructus Cnidii,Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss.
English Name:Cnidium Monnier,Common cnidium fruit,Fructus Cnidii
Common Name:She Chuang Zi
Osthole is a libido stimulator: researchers investigate the cavernosal relaxant effect of osthole, has been long used in China as a herbal medicine to improve male sexual dysfunction. The data suggested that osthole posseses a relaxant effect on rabbit corpus cavernosal tissues which is attributable to the release of NO from sinusoidal endothelium and to the potentiation of the cGMP and/or cAMP signal mediating relaxation of cavernosal smooth muscle by inhibiting phosphodiesterase". (Corpus cavernosum = one of the columns of erectile tissue forming the dorsum of the penis (one of the two columns of erectile tissue forming the clitoris)).
Cnidium Monnier-increases nitric oxide release and inhibits PDE-5, allowing erections to be sustained for longer periods of time.
Chrysanthemum(Dendranthema):Botanical Latin Name:Chryanthemum indicum L., C.boreale Mak., C Iavandulaefolium (Fisch.) Mak.
English Name:wild chrysanthemum flower,Indian Dendranthema Flower,Flos Chrysanthemi Indici,Garden Chrysanthemum,Indian Dendranthema Flower
Name from Greek chrysos meaning gold and anthos meaning flowers refering to original flower color; dates back to 550 B.C. in China,used extensively over centuries; first in Chrysanthemum genus, then split by botanists into Dendranthema, now back into former genus.
Celery Seed:Botanical Name:Apium graveolens (L)
Common Name:Apii fructus, celery fruit, celery seed, smallage,Garden Celery, Wild celery,Smallage,Marsh Water Parsley
Part Used : Celery Seed (Apium Graveolens),Seed and Root, dried ripe fruit, aerial parts
Celery Seed is the dried fruit of Apium graviolens, a biennial in the parsley family. This is the same genus and species used for growing table celery, although there are particular varieties that are used for the vegetable. The seeds are very small (about 1/16th of an inch), ovoid and light brown.
Constituents of Celery Seed (Apium Graveolens): 1.5-3% volatile oil (containing the terpenes limonene and b-selinene, and phthalides); coumarins (seselin, osthenol, apigravin, celerin, umbelliferone); furanocoumarins (including bergapten), flavonoids (apigenin, apiin), phenolic compounds, choline, ascorbate, fixed oil, fatty acids and unidentified alkaloids.
Cassia Twig:Botanical Name:Bark of Cinnamomum cassia Presl or Cassia (Cinnamomum cassia (L.) Presl)
English Name:Cassia Twig
Common Name:Cinnamon Cassia twig bark, Ramulus cinnamomi cassiae, Gui Zhi, Cinnamon Twig, Cinnamom Cassia Ramulus
The name cassia indirectly derives from Greek kasia, which is probably a loan from Semitic traders (cf. Old Hebrew qetsiiah ); its ultimate origin is not fully clear, but the name might well derive, as the spice itself, from China in a larger sense. It was suggested that cassia might be related to the name of the Khasi people, an Austroasiatic tribe in North-Eastern India (union state Meghalaya) and Bangladesh. Formerly, they inhabitated a larger area in Assam, extending to Burma, and they might have been involved in ancient cassia trade.
Chinese Gentian:Botanical Name:Gentian consists of the dried rhizomes and roots of following:Gentiana manshurica Kitag.; Gentiana scabra Bge.; Gentiana triflora Pall.; Gentiana rigescens Franch.
English Name:Gentian root,Radix Gentianae,Gentian,Gentiana Lutea,Chinese Gentian;
Common Name:Bitter root,bitterwort,pale gentian,yellow gentian,Bitterwort,Sampson's Snakeroot
Part Used :dried root and rhizome
Properties:Bitter.Digestive stimulant.Eases stomach pain. pronounced bitter gastric stimulant,sialagogue,cholagogue,tonic,antemetic,anti-inflammatory,febrifuge,refrigerant.Anorexia.Atonic dyspepsia.Gastro-intestinal atony.It is very useful in some malnourished individuals,especially the elderly.
Chinese Date:Botanical Name:Ziziphus jujuba Mill.var.inermis(Bge)Rend.
English Name:Jujube Fruit,Jujube,Chinese Date,Ber,Jujube Berries,Zizyphus sativa,Brustbeeren,Judendornbeeren,Rhamnus Zizyphus
Common Name:Jujube fruit, Azufaifa fruit, Chinese Date, Chinese Jujube, Chinese Red Date, Common Jujube, Cottony Jujube, Indian Jujube,Jujube,Tsao.
The jujube (pronounced juh-ju-bee or juh-juh-bee) is a member of the buckthorn family, or Rhamnaceae. Its botanical name is Ziziphus zizyphus (formerly Zizyphus jujuba ), and its common names are common jujube, Chinese date, and Chinese jujube. Though the plant's origin is probably Syria, it was distributed throughout much of the Mediterranean region at least 3,000 years ago and today is most widely grown in China.
Common Selfheal Fruit-Spike:Botanical Name:Prunella vulgaris L.
English Name:Common Selfheal Fruit-Spike
Common Name:Prunella spike, Selfheal spike,Bang Zhutou Cao(grass with a stick shape chapiter), Denglong Tou Cao(grass with a lantern shape chapiter,"Cao" means grass)
Part Used:dried fruit spikes with flower
Every spring time, when the grass and flowers spread and covered the land, pond water growing green, a very nice herb tipping light blue flower and dressing green clothes come into our eyesights, at grass land, brook side and road side,this is just Prunella vulgaris, the whole herb plant perished at end of Summer end, so named as Xia Ku Cao in chinese pinyin, means Grass perished at the end of Summer.
Prunella vulgaris widely used as herb medicine to treat and prevent many disease, also used widely recent years for it's good taste and rich nutrition,scientific data proved that the fresh leaves and stem of Prunella vulgaris rich in protein,plant fat, carbohydrate,Carotene,Vitamine B, and nicotinic acid (niacin,Vitamine B3)
Common Goldenrod Herb:Botanical Name:Solidago virgaurea, Solidago canadensis, Solidago decurrens Lour.[Fam. Asteraceae]
English Name:Common Goldenrod,Common goldenrod herb (Solidaginis herba),European goldenrod,Aaron's Rod,Goldrute,Verge d'Or,Woundwort,European goldenrod herb
Common Name:common goldenrod,nise-scented goldenrod,blue mountain tea,sweet goldenrod,Verge d'Or. Solidago. Goldruthe. Woundwort. Aaron's Rod.
Part Used:stems and Leaves,all Aerial parts.
The goldenrod seems to give expression to its medicinal powers not only in its beautiful name but also in its handsome form. The name Solidago (Latin solido = to make whole) indicates its use as a wound-healing herb. Virga aurea is the Latin for goldenrod, named for the stem with its golden-yellow flowers.
When the flowering is over, the calyx holds a crown of hairs (pappus), which later carry the small fruits on the wind. The flowering tips of the branches are used in teas and pharmaceutical preparations. The active principles - saponins, floral pigments, and tannins - are used in the treatment of kidney and intestinal inflammations.
Chinese Pulsaiilla Root:Botanical Name:Pulsatilla chinensis (Bhe.) Regel
English Name:Pulsatillae Chinensis Radix,Chinese Pulsaiilla Root,Radic Pulsatillae.
Common Name:Pulsatilla chinensis; Anemone; Bai Tou Weng;Anemone chinensis; Hiroha-Okina-Gusa; Pulsatilla root
The root is an effective cure for bacterial and amoebic dysentery. It is also used in the treatment of malaria, nose bleeds and haemorrhoids and is used externally to treat Trichomonas vaginitis. The root is harvested in the autumn or before the plant comes into flower in the spring, it can be dried for later use. The root contains the lactone protoanemonin which has an irritant and antibacterial action. Protoanemonin is destroyed when the root is dried.
Corn Silk:Botanical Name:Zea mays;Zea mays (L)
English Name:Corn Silk, corn, Indian corn, maize jagnog, Turkish corn, yu mi xu
Common Name:Stigmata maydis, Maidis stigmata, Indian corn, maize, Yumixu
Part Used : Stigmas from the female flowers of maize. Fine soft threads 4-8 inches long. (silk)
Corn Silk is helpful for any irritation of the urinary system. Corn Silk is used for renal problems in children, and also as a urinary demulcent combined with other herbs in the treatment of cystitis, urethritis, and prostatitis. Corn Silk was used traditionally as a mild diuretic. Chinese research indicates that Corn Silk reduces hypertension and reduces blood clotting time.
Carya alba:Botanical Name:Walnut (Walnut kernel),Juglans regia
English Name:mockernut hickory,Carya,Jupiter's Nuts,(Dutch) Walnoot. (Greek) Carya persica. Carya basilike. (Roman) Nux persica. Nux regia.
Common Name:Carya tomentosa,Semen Juglandis.
Walnuts are a natural source of manganese. The dried leaves are astringent and used in the form of an infusion as a skin application - i oz (28 g) of the leaves to 1 Pt (5 68 rni) of boiling water is allowed to stand for six hours and then strained. This is suitable for conditions such as eczema, herpes and ulcers. The powdered bark taken by infusion is laxative.
Walnuts are rich in protein, providing 7 grams for that same one-fourth cup, 2 grams of fiber, and only 7 grams of carbohydrates. Walnuts can be considered a super food because they contain a full complement of vitamins, including B1, B2, B3, B5, B6 and folic acid. They also contain a wealth of minerals, such as iron, magnesium, potassium, and zinc.Walnuts contain Vitamin E--alpha, beta, delta and gamma-tocopherol, making it exceptionally high in antioxidants.
:Botanical Name:Castanea mollissima Bl.
English Name:Castanea mollissima Blume
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Common Name:Chinese chestnut,Castanea hupehensis (Dode.), Castanea duclouxii (Dode.), Castanea bungeana (Blume.) ;Castanea bungeana Bl. ;Castanea bungeana;Castanea formosana
decidious tree growing to 25m. It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Insects. We rate it 3 out of 5 for usefulness.
Chinese FoxGlove Root:Botanical Name:Rehmannia glutinosa
English Name:Chinese FoxGlove Root
Synoms:Rehmannia chinensis,JiuHu Hua(flagon flower), ShanYanGen(Mountain Tabacco Root), ShanYan(Mountain Tabacco), ShanBaiCai(Mountain Cabbage)
Common Name:Chinese foxglove,Rehmannia [H ],Sheng Di [E ],Sheng Ti Huang [E ],Shu Ti Huang [E ],Ti Huang [E ],Ti Huang Chiu [E ]
Part Used : Dry stem root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch
Rehmannia Root, also known as Chinese Foxglove, is native to China, where it is know as Sheng Di Huang. Rehmannia Root is high in iron, and thus has been used in the treatment of anemia. In Chinese medicine, Rehmannia Root is considered a protector of the liver and as a healer of ailments due to yin deficiency. It is used in combination with Wormwood to reduce fever. It is also considered beneficial in combating hypoglycemia.
Chrysanthemum(Ju Hua):Botanical Name:Flos Chrysanthemi
Common Name:Florist's Chrysanthemum, Ju Hua, Mum. Anthemis grandiflorum; Anthemis stipulacea; Chrysanthemum morifolium; Chrysanthemum sinense; Chrysanthemum stipulaceum; Dendranthema morifolium; Matricaria morifolia.
The flower comes in several varieties but originally the chrysanthemum was just a small yellow flower. After generations of cultivation, the number of varieties grew rapidly. In the Chrysanthemum Book of the Song Dynasty (960-1279), 35 varieties were noted but by the time of the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368), the number had risen to 136. In Li Shizhen's famous book, "Ben Cao Gang Mu", finished in the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), more than 900 varieties of chrysanthemum were listed. Today more than 3,000 varieties are blooming in China.
Decoct the ingredients for drinking. Yellow chrysanthemum (Hangzhou chrysanthemum) is mostly used to dispel pathogenic wind-heat, while white chrysanthemum (Chuxian chrysanthemum) is largely used to calm the liver and improve eyesight.
Cortex Dictamni:Botanical Name:Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.
English Name:Densefruit Pittany Root-bark
Common Name:Densefruit Pittany Root-bark,Cortex Dictamni,Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz.,Baixianpi,Dittany bark,Fraxinella
Part Used : Dry root-bark of Dictamnus dasycarps Turcz.
Densefruit Pittany Root-bark is the dried root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz:Habitat: grow at hill and woods, main output from hebei,shandong,shanxi,neimeng,and some other provinces.Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. is a tall herb 50~60cm height. small leaves 9~13 pieces, long 3~9cm, width 1.5~4cm.The roots are dug in spring or autumn. After the fibrous roots have been removed, the bark is peeled off, cut into slices and dried in the sun.
Chaste Berry:Botanical Name:Vitex agnus-cast
Botanical Source:Vitex trifolia L.var.simplicifolia Cham; or Vitex trifolia L.
Scientific Name:Vitex agnus-castus L.
Common Name:Chaste Berry, Vitex, Chasteberry, Monk's pepper, Cloister pepper, Agnus Castus, Man jing zi,Agnus Castus, Cloister Pepper, Monk's Berry, Monk's Pepper, Vitex, Vitex agnus-castus
Chasteberry or Vitex (vitex agnus-castus, chastetree berry) stimulates the hormones involved in ovulation, restores female hormonal balance, and increases ovulation frequency. Vitex is useful in normalizing pituitary gland functions and the balance of progesterone and estrogen levels. Vitex is often used as herbal treatment for infertility and is especially helpful for women with irregular menstrual cycles, anovulation (failure to ovulate) or a short luteal phases (a shortened second half of the menstrual cycle). The effectiveness of vitex increases over time with continued use.
Coleus Forskohlii:Botanical Name:Coleus Forskholii
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Makandi,Sanskrit
Part Used : Root
Coleus Forskohlii is a member of the mint family and is recognized in the world of herbal medicine as the only plant source of the diterpene compound known as forskolin. What makes forskolin so important is its ability to stimulate the synthesis of cyclic AMP, which among other outcomes, triggers the release of fat from fat cells and speeds up metabolism by increasing thermogenesis (the rate at which the body burns calories at rest, emitting it as heat to the environment.) The other agent known to produce a similar effect is ephedrine and its adrenaline-like sister compounds, which are known to have dangerous side effects.
Capejasmine Fruit:Botanical Name:Gardenia jaminoides Ellis
English Name:Gardenia fruit, Capejasmine fruit
Part Used : The fruit is gathered in autumn or winter when it is ripe. Either the raw herb or the carbonized herb is used.
Prolate-ovoid or ellipsoid, 1.5~3.5 cm long, 1~1.5 cm in diameter. The outer surface reddish-yellow or brownish-red, with 6 longitudinal winged ribs and a conspicuous longitudinal and branched vein between two ribs. Summit bearing remains of sepals, base somewhat tapering and having a remain of fruit stalk. Pericarp thin and brittle, somewhat lustrous; the inner surface relatively pale in colour, lustrous, with 2~3 raised false septa. Seeds numerous, flattened-ovoid, aggregated into a mass, deep red or reddish-yellow, with fine and dense warts on the surface. Odour slight; taste, slightly sour and bitter.
Common Onion:Botanical Name:Allium cepa
English Name:Common Onion,Onion,Garden Onion,Allium cepa,Red Onion.
An Onion a Day Keeps the Doctor Away? Sound a bit far-fetched? It's actually not such a bad idea health-wise. Onions are highly recommended for people trying to prevent cardiovascular disease, cancer, and infections. Like most vegetables, sweet, yellow onions are fat- and cholesterol-free, and contain very little sodium.
Cicada Slough:Botanical Name:Periostracum Cicadae(Periostracum Cicadae Cryptotympana atrata Fab- ricius)
English Name:Periostracum Cicadae
Common Name:Cicada Slough
Part Used:The slough shed by the cicada is found on the ground or on the branches of trees then dried in the sun.
Cicada refers to any medium to large (2 to 5 cm) insects of the order Homoptera, with two pairs of membranous wings, prominent compound eyes, and three simple eyes (ocelli). Most of the species belong to the family Cicadidae.Male cicadas produce loud noises by vibrating membranes (timbals) near the base of the abdomen. Most North American cicadas produce rhythmical ticks, buzzes, or whines, although in some species the "song" is musical.
Calamus:Botanical Name:ACORUS CALAMUS
Common Name:CALAMUS, SWEET-FLAG, SWEET ROOT, BACH
Part Used:Dried Rhizome
It is Nauseant, Stomachic, Anthelmentic, Stimulants, Emetic, Expectorant, Carminative, Antispasmodic and Nervine Sedative. Rhizome is used in the cure of host of diseases such as epilepsy, mental; ailments, chronic diarrhoea and dysentary. It is used in incense sticks and dhup and is widely used as insecticide for lice, bedbugs, worms etc.
Cassia Angustifolia:Botanical Name:Cassia Angustifolia
Common Name:SENNA, INDIAN SENNA, TINNERVELLY SENNA, CASSIA SENNA
Part Used:Pods,Stems, Leaves
It is recognised by British and US pharmacopoeias. It is useful in habitual costiveness. It lowers bowels, increases peristaltic movements of the colon by its local action upon the intestinal wall. It is used as expectorant, wound dresser, antidysentric, carminative and laxative.
Cassia Fistula:Botanical Name:Cassia Fistula
English Name:Cassia Fistula
Common Name:FISTULA, LABURNUM, PURGING FISTULA, GOLDEN SHOWER, AMALTAS
Part Used : Fruits And Bark
Pulp from fruits called "Cessia Pulp" is a well known Laxative. Bark of tree is rich in tannins.
Cassia Tora:Botanical Name:Cassia Tora
Common Name:FOETID CASSIA, TORA, SICKLE SENNA, SICKLE POD, COFFEE POD, TOVARA, CHAKVAD
Uses:It is Aperient, Germicide, Mucilaginous Laxative. Uses : It is used as a coffee substitute and has a maturant and anodyne action. Useful in treating skin diseases like ring worm and itch and psoriasis.
Cinchona Officinalis:Botanical Name:Cinchona Officinalis
Common Name:QUININE, PERUVIAN BARK, QUININE BARK
Part Used:Quinine Isolated From Bark
Uses : Quinine is Bitter,Astringent, Acrid, Thermogenic, Febrifugre, Oxytoxic and Anodyne. It is digestive,antipyretic,cardiotonic,dystocia,eumbago etc.
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