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Glossary Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!

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 A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.

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 Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.

 Contents: Eel |Egg | Enokitake | Erontas-dittany | Evening Primrose | Eyebright |Eucommia bark | Elderberry | Ecliptae Herba | Elecampane root | Epimedium herb |Echinacea Purpurea | Eclipta prostrata | Elettaria cardamomum | Embelia ribes | Emblica officinalis |Eucalyptus globulus | Evolvulus alsinoides |

 Egg:A most important food item both for its nutritive and texturizing properties. Most eggs have a hard shell made of calcium carbonate, an inner membrane, an air pocket at one end between the membrane and the shell, a central yellow to orange yolk supported by two filaments and a surrounding transparent white.
Cooking Tips:When using eggs in cooking and pastry, they must be in room temperature. To quickly bring them to this temperature, once out of the fridge, dip them in warm water. Never wash them before placing in the fridge because it thins the shell and absorbs smells. Wash them carefully with a wet towel. If it falls on the floor, sprinkle plenty of salt on top so it will absorb it. If the eggs are stuck to the paper cups, then wet the paper until it comes off. The tools we use for uncooked eggs, we always wash first with cold water, never warm, and then with vinegar so there won't be any smell. If you get some yolk in the egg whites for the meringue, then you must remove it so that it will be beaten correctly. Remove the yolk with a wet towel. If they are cracked and we wish to boil them, then wrap in aluminum foil. To peel the shell easily from a boiled egg, crack the shell all around and peel under cold water. For poached eggs a few drops of vinegar will prevent the eggs from spreading all over the pot. We could preserve the egg whites for months in the freezer. Place one by one in the ice cube container and once they are frozen, place them all together in a plastic bag. To beat the egg whites to make meringue, the eggs should be in room temperature and the mixing components completely dry. Add a pinch of salt to make them fluffier. The yolks could be preserved in the fridge, if they are not cracked, covered in water or milk. To freeze them, stir in a pinch of salt or sugar for each yolk and depending on how they will be used, we follow the same procedure as the egg whites.
 Enokitake:Botanical Name:enokitake
A small delicately flavored mushroom "Flammulina velutipes" which grows in clumps at the base of the Chinese hackberry tree. They have slender stalks (to 8 cm long) with a white gold cap. Available fresh or dried (also called enoki).
 Erontas-dittany:Botanical Name:erontas - dittany
This hairy plant with round leaves and delicate flowers creeps along the steep slopes of Mt. Pseiloritis, Mt. Dikti and the White Mountains of Crete. Since Minoan times the "Erontas" was considered one of the most important medicinal herbs and was therefore, exported to neighbouring islands.
 Escarole:Botanical Name:escarole
Escarole has sturdy leaves and a slightly bitter flavor. Young escarole leaves are tender enough to add to salads, otherwise escarole is best cooked as a side dish or used in soups.
 Evening Primrose:Botanical Name:Primula veris,Oenothera biennis
English Name:Evening Primrose
Common Name:Evening primrose,Sun Drop,Common Evening Primrose [L], Common Eveningprimrose [P], Esekotu [E], Evening Primrose [H], Evening Primrose, Common Or Great [S], Evening-Primrose [MS], Great Evening Primrose [S], King's-cureall [B], Middelste Teunisbloem [D], Primrose,Evening [E]
 Eyebright:Botanical Name:Euphrasia officinalis L.
Common Name:Euphrasia.Euphrasy
The name Euphrasia is of Greek origin, derived from Euphrosyne (gladness),the name of one of the three graces who was distinguished for her joy and mirth, and it is thought to have been given the plant from the valuable properties attributed to it as an eye medicine preserving eyesight and so bringing gladness into the life of the sufferer. The same Greek word is also given to the linnet, whence another old tradition says that it was the linnet who first made use of the leaf for clearing the sight of its young and who then passed on the knowledge to mankind, who named the plant in its honour.
 Eucommia bark:Botanical Name:Eucommia Ulmoides Cortex. (Eucommia ulmoides oliv.)
English Name:Cortex Eucommiae
Common Name:Che Si Bark, SiZhong, Silk Cotton Bark, Jade Silk Bark
This herb consistsof the trunk bark of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (family Eucom-miaceae), which is mainly produced in Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Hubei provinces. The bark is stripped off between April and June, dried in the sun after scraping off the cork, and cut to pieces for use or stir- baked till all rubber fibres are smashed and then stir-baked with saltwater for use.
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 Elderberry:Botanical Name:Sambucus Nigra,Sambucus canadensis
English Name:Sambucus canadensis L. (American elder) and Sambucus nigra L. (European elder)
Common Name:Black elder; European elder; Pipe tree; Bore Tree; Hylantree; Eldrum; American Elderberry, Sweet Elderberry,Sambucus cerulea var. mexicana, Sambucus orbiculata, Sambucus mexicana, Sambucus canadensis, Sambucus simpsonii,Elderberry,Autum-Flowering Elder, sweet elder,Black-Berried Elder,Bore Tree, common elder, sambucus, American elder, European elder,Black Elder, Common Elder, Elderberry, Rob Elder,Sweet Elder, blue elder, blue elderberry, bourtree, bush, common elder, danewort, dwarf elder, elderberry, European elder, European red elder, genus Sambucus, red-berried elder, Sambucus, Sambucus caerulea, Sambucus canadensis, Sambucus ebulus, Sambucus nigra, Sambucus pubens, Sambucus racemosa, shrub, stinking elder, sweet elder,S. canadensis var. laciniata[B,P] S. canadensis var. submollis[B,P] S. cerulea var. mexicana[B,P] S. mexicana[B,C,P] S. nigra ssp. canadensis[B,CPHOTO,CAL,CAL,P] S. orbiculata[B,P] S. simpsonii[B,P]
The flowers, leaves, berries, bark and roots have all been used in traditional folk medicine for centuries. The fruits have been used to make elderberry wine, and when cooked, can be used in pies and jams. The berries contain more vitamin C than any other herb except rosehips and black currant.
 Ecliptae Herba:Botanical Name:Herba Ecliptae
English Name:Dry herb of Eclipta prostrata Linn
Common Name:Daun Dakelin [E ], Eclipta [H ], False Daisy [B,P ], Keremek Hutan [E ], Li Ch'Ang [E ], Mo-han-lian [H ], Rumput Migus [E ], Takasaburo [E ], Ubat Rambut Panjang [E ], Urang-aring [E ]
The whole plant is astringent, deobstruent, depurative, emetic, febrifuge, ophthalmic, purgative, styptic and tonic. It is used internally in the treatment of dropsy and liver complaints, anaemia, diphtheria etc, tinnitus, tooth loss and premature greying of the hair. Externally, it is used as an oil to treat hair loss and is also applied to athlete's foot, eczema, dermatitis, wounds etc.
 Elecampane root:Botanical Name:Inula helenium L. or Inula racemosa Hook.f.
English Name:Inula helenium
Common Name:Elecampane
The name Elecampane is derived from the Latin "campana", meaning "country". The species name, helenium, is said to be named after Helen of Troy, who was collecting Elecampane when she was captured by Paris.
Elecampane is a robust and stately perennial plant. It was used by the early Romans, Greeks and Celts to counter the ill effects of overeating. The parts of this plant used medicinally include the root and the flower.
 Epimedium herb
 Epimedium herb:Botanical Name:Epimedinm Brericornum Maxim;Shorthomed Epimedium herb (Horny Goat Weed)
English Name:Horny Goat Weed
Common Name:Shorthorned Epimedium Herb extracts; Epimedium segittatum ( Zucc.) Maxim extracts;Horny Goat Weed,Lusty goat herb,etc.
Horny Goat Weed has been used as an aphrodisiac for hundreds of years, and research has also proven its effects on improving sexual desire and performance. So how does Horny Goat Weed work? Research has shown that Horny Goat Weed can inhibit an enzyme called acetylcholinesterase (AChE). AChE rapidly stops neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses like those found in the brain and at neuromuscular junctions, which are needed for speedy responses in the neuromuscular system. By inhibiting AChE,Horny Goat Weed supports higher levels of the key cholinergic neurotransmitters associated with sexual arousal.
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 Echinacea Purpurea
 Echinacea Purpurea:Botanical Name:Echinacea purpurea (L.) Muench, Echinacea angustifolia D.C. var. angustifolia, Echinacea angustifolia D.C. var. strigosa McGregor, and Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.
English Name:Echinacea Purpurea
Common Name:Purple Coneflower, Black Sampson, Niggerhead, Rudbeckia, Sampson Root, Hedgehog, Red Sunflower, Snakeroot, Kansas Snakeroot, Narrow-leaved Purple Coneflower, Scurvy Root, Indian Head, Comb Flower, Black Susans,Echinacea; E. angustifolia: narrow-leaved purple coneflower, black sampson, snake root; E. purpurea: purple coneflower; E. pallida: pale purple coneflower. Other common names applied to one or more species include: American coneflower, black Susan, comb flower, hedgehog, Indian head, Kansas snakeroot, Missouri snakeroot, scurvy root.
Echinacea, the purple coneflower, is the best known and researched herb for stimulating the immune system. Thousands of Europeans and Americans use echinacea preparations against colds and flu, minor infections, and a host of other major and minor ailments. This native American herb has an impressive record of laboratory and clinical research. Thousands of doctors currently use echinacea for treating infectious diseases
 Eclipta prostrata:Botanical Name:Eclipta prostrata / Eclipta alba
English Name:Thistles
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Bhringaraja, Kesharaja,Kesharanjana
Eclipta alba is an erect or prostrate, much branched, strigosely hirsute, annual herb often rooting at the nodes, with opposite and sessile, leaves.
Its principal constituent is the herb which contains wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone. The herb is used as a tonic and deobstruent in hepatic and splenic enlargements and in skin diseases. The plant juice is administered in combination with aromatics for catarrhal jaundice. The fresh juice leaves is applied on the scalp for promoting hair growth. The plant possesses antihepatotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities. The fresh plant is considered anodyne and absorbent.
 Elettaria cardamomum:Botanical Name:Elettaria cardamomum
English Name:Cardamom, Lesser Cardamom
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ela
A tall, herbaceous perennial with branching subterranean rootstock,from which arise a number of upright leafy shoots.
In medicine, it is used as an adjuvant to carminative drugs. It is official in the British and U.S. pharmacopoeias and used as an aromatic stimulant, carminative and flavoring agent.
Cardamom owes its aroma and therapeutic properties to the volatile oil present in the seeds. The major components of the oil are 1,8-cineole and terpinyl acetate. Volatile components of cardamom exhibit antimicrobial activity. The oil has anti-aflatoxin substances.
In herbal medicine, cardamom is chewed slowly to sweeten the breath, as aphrodisiac, to soothe digestion, stimulate the appetite, used against flatulence, colic and disorders of the body, often combined with purgatives to offset griping.
It is also reported to possess anti-inflammatory, analgesic and cardiotonic properties.
 Embelia ribes
 Embelia ribes:Botanical Name:Embelia ribes
English Name:False Black Pepper, False Pepper
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Krimighna, Tandula, Vidanga
Embelia ribes is a large scandent shrub with slender branches and gland-dotted leaves.
Its principal constituents are embelin, quercitol and fatty ingredients.An alkaloid, christembine, a resinoid, tannins and minute quantities of a volatile oil are present. The dried fruit is considered anthelmintic,astringent, carminative, alterative and stimulant. It has been used in India since ancient times, as an anthelmintic. It is effective in the treatment of ascariasis. The dried fruits are used in decoction for fevers and for diseases of the chest and skin. The fruit also shows antibacterial activity.
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 Emblica officinalis:Botanical Name:Emblica officinalis
English Name:Indian Gooseberry
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Amalaki
Emblica officinalis is a deciduous tree with exfoliating bark. Its fruit contains the highest amount of vitamin C in natural form and cytokine-like substances identified as zeatin, z.riboside, z.nucleotide.
Its fruit is acrid, cooling, refrigerant, diuretic, laxative and used in the preparation of hair dyes. A fixed oil extracted from the fruits is reported to have the property of promoting hair growth. The dried fruit is useful in hemorrhage, diarrhea and dysentery. It has anabolic, antibacterial, expectorant, cardiotonic, antipyretic,antioxidative, antiviral, anti-emetic and resistance building properties and used in the treatment of leucorrhea and arteriosclerosis.
It is antibacterial and its astringent properties prevent infection and help in the healing of ulcers. It is used as a laxative to relieve constipation in piles.
 Eucalyptus globulus:Botanical Name:Eucalyptus globulus
English Name:Eucalyptus, Tasmanian Blue Gum Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Tailapatra, Tailaparna, Sugandhapatra
Eucalyptus globulus is a large tree attaining a height of 300 ft. or more, with opposite and sessile leaves on juvenile shoots under forest conditions.
The leaves and terminal branchlets of E. globulus grown in Nilgiris yield 0.9-1.2% of a pale yellow essential oil containing cineole as a major component.Eucalyptus oil is used locally as an antiseptic, especially in the treatment of infections of the upper respiratory tract, and in certain skin diseases. It is found to have potent pain relieving and anti-inflammatory action. Mixed with an equal amount of olive oil, it is useful as a rubefacient for rheumatism, which help in reducing joint swelling.It is also used in ointments for burns. Internally it is used as a stimulating expectorant in chronic bronchitis and asthma. It is frequently given by inhalation.
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 Evolvulus alsinoides:Botanical Name:Evolvulus alsinoides
The plant is a hairy perennial herb with spreading wiry branches arising from a small woody rootstock.
The plant is bitter and is used as a tonic and febrifuge.

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