Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Feijoa |Fennel | Fettuccine | Fig | Fish | Flying fish |French bean | Fenugreek | Fourleaf Ladybell Root | Fructus Jujubae | Fo-Ti root |Flaxseed | FoxGlove Root | Feverfew | Forsythia Fruit | Frankincense | Flatstem milkvetch seed | Ficus bengalensis | Ficus carica | Foeniculum vulgare |
Feijoa:Botanical Name:Feijoa mellowing
English Name:Feijoa mellowing Fruit
The fruit of an evergreen shrub "Feijoa mellowing" a native of SA but now grown in Australia and Southern USA. It is about 5 cm long with a reddish green inedible skin and whitish to green flesh, which surrounds a core of soft seed-filled pulp. Tastes like guava with a hint of pineapple (also called Brazilian guava, pineapple guava).
Fennel:Botanical Name:dry fruit seed of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Common Name:Hsiao-hui-hsiang,Large fennel,Shatapushpa (Sanskrit name),Shih-lo (Chinese name),Sweet fennel,Tzu-mo-lo,Wild fennel,Xiao-hue-xiang (Chinese name),Fenchel,Fenkel,Hinojo,Sweet Fennel,Wild Fennel
A herb "Foeniculum vulgare" indigenous to the Mediterranean with an aniseed flavor. The dried seeds are used as a spice or may be sprouted for winter salads and the feathery leaves are used to flavor dishes or in salads.
Flat narrow ribbon noodles made from an egg based pasta dough, available fresh or dried.
Fig:Botanical Name:Ficus carica
The fruit of a tree Ficus carica that grows in warm and semi-tropical regions. The fruit which varies from round to pear shape has a soft skin varying from green to purple filled with a red to purple sticky seed filled pulp. They may be eaten raw for dessert, are easily skinned if required, but are commonly dried or canned and used for desserts, snacks, in cakes and biscuits and sometimes with meat and game.
Fish:Cold blooded, free swimming vertebrate animals with flat or spindle shaped streamlined bodies which live either in fresh or seawater and obtain oxygen for respiration by circulating water over gills from which mammalian vertebrate lungs evolved. They have fins instead of limbs and their skin is usually covered with scales.
Cooking Tips:The scales come off easier if the fish is dipped in warm water for a few minutes. The smells from the fried fish come from the oil, which is being burnt. To prevent this lower the temperature when frying. For the baked or poached fish, use celery tp absorb the smells. To remove the smell of fish from your hands rub strawberries and then water and soap.
Herbs that are usually used with fish are spice, cinnamon and ginger for poached fish, while for fried or baked the commonest used are marjoram, rosemary and sesame.
Flying fish:A strange little fish with large wings that somewhat resemble those of the butterfly. The flying fish has a regular body with an ugly head similar to that of the turtle. There are coral colored flying fish as well as beautiful blue colored ones. White flesh, which is very tasty and can be cooked in all ways.
French bean:Botanical Name:french bean
A South American, half hardy annual legume Phaseolus vulgaris usually a dwarf bush but occasionally climbing, which carries 10 to 15 cm long thin fleshy pods, usually green but some yellow or purple. When immature the whole pod is eaten as a vegetable. At a later stage when the pods become stringy the fresh green beans are known as flageolet beans and can be treated as peas, i.e.used as is or dried. When fully mature, cream or fawn coloured and completely dry the beans are known as haricot beans. Grown extensively all over the world (also called dwarf bean, kidney bean, string bean (USA), snap bean (USA), haricot vert (Fr).
Fenugreek:Botanical Name:Trigonella Foenum-Graecum
Latin Name:Trigonella foenum-graecum L.; Foenugraeci semen (for the seed)
English Name:Fenugreek Seeds
Common Name:Bird's Foot. Greek Hay-seed
Originating in the Mediterranean region and Asia, Fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum-graecum) is one of the oldest herbs known. Its seeds were highly praised for their beneficial uses in ancient Egypt and India and later among the Greeks and Romans. The seeds were also used to produce a yellow dye for coloring wool. As Fenugreek spread around the Mediterranean, ancient physicians learned that its seeds contained a great deal of mucilage and when mixed with water provided many health benefits. The most common uses of Fenugreek today are culinary, such as providing a maple flavor for confectionaries, an ingredient of curry powders, and as an enhancement for meats, poultry and marinated vegetables.
Fourleaf Ladybell Root:Botanical Name:Fourleaf Ladybell Root,Dried Root of Adenophora stricta Miq
English Name:Upright Ladybell Root
Common Name:Nanshashen,Fourleaf Ladybell Root,Mountain ladybell Root.
Herb plant with white milk liquid,stem height 50~100cm.Cross grow leaves and shapes round or long piece,3~9cm length,width 1.5~4cm,irregula sawtooth of leaf edge. long anthotaxy,bell shape 5 split at top,with needle shape small feather, purple and blue chaplet,wide bell shape,1.8cm long.Fruit ball shape, flower August to September fruit 1 month later.
Fructus Jujubae:Botanical Name:Dry fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill.var.inermis.Bge.Rend
English Name:Jujube Fruit,Jujube,Chinese Date,Ber,Jujube Berries,Zizyphus sativa,Brustbeeren,Judendornbeeren,Rhamnus Zizyphus
Common Name:Jujube fruit, Azufaifa fruit, Chinese Date, Chinese Jujube, Chinese Red Date, Common Jujube, Cottony Jujube, Indian Jujube,Jujube,Tsao.
The jujube (pronounced juh-ju-bee or juh-juh-bee) is a member of the buckthorn family, or Rhamnaceae. Its botanical name is Ziziphus zizyphus (formerly Zizyphus jujuba ), and its common names are common jujube, Chinese date, and Chinese jujube. Though the plant's origin is probably Syria, it was distributed throughout much of the Mediterranean region at least 3,000 years ago and today is most widely grown in China.
Fo-Ti root:Botanical Name:Dry root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.
English Name:Fleeceflower Root
Common Name:He-shou-wu, Fo-Ti,He-shou-wu,He's Black Hair,Chinese Cornbind,Chinese Knotweed,Climbing Knotweed,Flowery Knotweed,Fo Ti,Fo-Ti-Tient,Foti,He Shou Wu, He-Shou-Wu, Heshouwu, Ho Shou Wu, Ho-Shou-Wu, Hoshouwu, Multiflora Preparata, Polygonum, Radix Polygoni Multiflori, Radix Polygoni Shen Min, Shen Min, Shou Wu, Shou-Wu, Shouwu, Shou-Wu-Pian, Zhihe Shou Wu, Zhihe-Shou-Wu, Zhiheshouwu, Zi Shou Wu, Zi-Shou-Wu, Zishouwu.
The Chinese common name for fo-ti, he-shou-wu, was the name of a Tang dynasty man whose infertility was supposedly cured by fo-ti; in addition, his long life was attributed to the tonic properties of this herb. Since then, traditional Chinese medicine has used fo-ti to treat premature aging, weakness, vaginal discharges, numerous infectious diseases, angina pectoris, and impotence.
Flaxseed:Botanical Name:Linum usitatissimum
Common Name:flaxseed, common flax, lint bells, winterlien,Chih-ma,Common Flax,Flax,Flax Seed,Flax Weed,Linseed,Lint Bells,Toad Flax,Uma,flaxseed kernel,linseed kernel,L. crepitans[G] L. humile[B,G,P] L. usitatissimum subsp. transitorium[G] L. usitatissimum var. humile[B,G,P],Flax,Golden Flax, Ama, Annual Flax, Chih Ma,Lini semen,flaxseed,Common Flax, Cultivated Flax, Hu Ma, Kahtan, Keten, Kettan, Kittan, Lin, Linaza, Lino, Linseed, Linseed Flax, Linum usitatissimum,Ama [E ], Annual Flax [H ], Chih Ma [E ], Common Flax [P,H,L ], Cultivated Flax [B ], Flax [H,S,MS,E,L ], Flax, Common [S ], Hu Ma [E ], Kahtan [E ], Keten [E ], Kettan [E ], Kittan [E ], Lin [E ], Linaza [E ], Lino [E ], Linseed [E,H ], Linseed Flax [H ], Vlas [D ].
Flax is a plant raised for its fiber and seed. The fiber is made into linen fabric and a variety of other products, including rope, thread, and high quality paper. The seed contains linseed oil which is primarily in the production of paints and varnishes
FoxGlove Root:Botanical Name:Dry stem root of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.
English Name:Chinese FoxGlove Root
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Common Name:Rehmannia chinensis,Chinese foxglove,Rehmannia [H ], Sheng Di [E ], Sheng Ti Huang [E ], Shu Ti Huang [E ], Ti Huang [E ], Ti Huang Chiu [E ],JiuHu Hua(flagon flower), ShanYanGen(Mountain Tabacco Root), ShanYan(Mountain Tabacco), ShanBaiCai(Mountain Cabbage).
Rehmannia Root, also known as Chinese Foxglove, is native to China, where it is know as Sheng Di Huang. Rehmannia Root is high in iron, and thus has been used in the treatment of anemia. In Chinese medicine, Rehmannia Root is considered a protector of the liver and as a healer of ailments due to yin deficiency. It is used in combination with Wormwood to reduce fever. It is also considered beneficial in combating hypoglycemia.
Feverfew:Botanical Name:Chrysanthemum Parthenium (BERNH.),Tanacetum parthenium, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Pyrethrum parthenium, Tanacetum parthenium
Common Name:Feverfew, Featherfew,featherfoil, febrifuge plant ,Bachelor's Buttons, Bride's button, Altamisa, Featherfew, Featherfoil, Febrifuge plant, Feverfew, Flirtwort, Pyrethrum, Wild Chamomile,Pyrethrum Parthenium (Sm.). Featherfew. Featherfoil. Flirtwort. Bachelor's Buttons.
Feverfew, also known as Featherfew, Featherfoil, Bachelor's Buttons, and Febrifuge Plant, is an effective treatment for migraine headaches. Feverfew grows widely across Europe and North America. The name Feverfew is from the latin word, febrifuga, meaning "to lower fevers". The genus name, Tanacetum, is derived from anthanasis, meaning "immortal", as the flowers are long lasting. Cultivated for centuries, Feverfew has been used, like aspirin, primarily as a pain buffer. Feverfew inhibits the formation of two natural chemicals found in the body, prostaglandin and serotonin. Feverfew contains niacin and iron plus vitamin A and vitamin C. Helping regulate normal body functions, Feverfew works with the body to help heal itself.
Forsythia Fruit:Botanical Name:Forsthia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl
English Name:Forsythia Fruit
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Common Name:Forsythia Fruit,Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae,lian qiao.
The green fruit gathered in the period of White Dew (fifteenth solar term) is better than the yellow fruit picked in the period of Cold Dew (seventeenth solar term). The fruit is steamed, dried in the sun, and its seeds separated from the flesh.
Frankincense:Botanical Name:Boswellia carteri
English Name:Bible Frankincense, Olibanum. Boswellia carteri,boswellia carterii
Common Name:Gummiresina olibanum, Thus.
There are few essential oils available with a longer and more distinguished history than Frankincense, Myrrh, Galbanum, Labdanum, Cinnamon and Storax. These have all been known and used since ancient times and all are mentioned more than once in the Bible as well as other historical texts. This resin was known around the world for thousands of years simply as incense, and has been in use by mankind since antiquity.
Flatstem milkvetch seed:Botanical Name:Astragalus complanatus R. Br.
English Name:Semen Astragali complanati (Leguminosae)
Common Name:Flatstem milkvetch seed.
Perennial herb,Height 30~100cm. Stem weak and slim,little flat,small white pubes growing at stem root,Growing at mountain field,road side,planting. Spread at west China.,Seed Character: Shape flat kidney,2~2.5mm length,thick 1 mm,colored brown green or pale brown.
Ficus bengalensis:Botanical Name:Ficus bengalensis
English Name:Banyan Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Vata
A very large tree, with spreading branches. The stembark contains ß-sitosterol, a-D-glucose and meso- inositol. The leaves contain petunidin di-glycoside and quercentin 3-galactoside. The fruits contain cyanidin rhamnoglycoside and polysaccharides.
Various parts of the plant are considered medicinal. The milky juice is externally applied for pains and bruises and as an anodyne in rheumatism and lumbago. It is also used as a remedy for toothache. The leaves are heated and applied as poultice to abscesses. The bark is tonic, astringent and cooling. The seeds are also considered as cooling and tonic.
Ficus carica:Botanical Name:Ficus carica
It has a cooling effect on the skin.
Foeniculum vulgare:Botanical Name:Foeniculum vulgare
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shatapushpa
A stout, glabrous, aromatic herb with small, yellow flowers and oblong fruits.
The fruits are aromatic, stimulant and carminative. They are official in the pharmacopoeias of all countries and are considered useful in diseases of the chest, spleen and kidney. The main constituent of the oil from the fruits is anethole. Other constituents are d-a-fenchone,methyl chavicol, d -apinene, camphene, d -a-phellandrene, dipentene and foeniculin (p -anol prenyl ether); basic constituents, anisaldehyde and anisic acid, are also reported to be present.
Fennel oil is mildly carminative and is useful in infantile colic and flatulence. It relieves griping abdominal pain and distention.The essential oil from the seeds is reported to have emmenogogue,oxytocic and abortifacient properties.
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