Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Laurel (bay) |Leaf lettuce | Lemon | Lemon balm | Lemon juice | lima bean | Lime |Lobster |Long bean |louiza (lemon-scented verbena) |Lychee nut |Lighiyellow Sophora Root |Lesser Galangal |Licorice |Lentil seeds |Linseed |Lalang Grass Rhizome |Lettuce |Lotus Seed |Leek |Lactuca scariola |Lens culinaris |Leptadenia reticulata |Lilium polyphyllum |Linum usitatissimum |
Laurel (bay):Botanical Name:laurel (bay)
An evergreen laurel-like shrub "Laurus nobilis"whose fresh or dried leaves are used for flavoring, esp. in a BG, marinades, Bechamel sauce, milk puddings and fish.
Leaf lettuce:Botanical Name:leaf lettuce
With their crispness and mild flavor, these lettuces are great in salads and sandwiches (also called lechuga).
This very sour citrus fruit is rarely eaten out of hand, but it's widely used for its juice, rind, and zest. Varieties include the Eureka lemon, which is what you're most likely to find in markets, the Lisbon lemon, which shows up in the winter and is smaller and smoother than the Eureka, and the trendy Meyer lemon, which is much sweeter and pricier than an ordinary lemon. When buying lemons, select specimens that are smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size.
Lemon balm:Botanical Name:lemon balm
A clump forming perennial plant "Melissa officinalis" with lemon-scented oval leaves used as flavoring herb with fish, poultry and ham. Also used in fruit drinks, salads, mayonnaise and sauerkraut (also called "melissa").
Lemon juice:Botanical Name:lemon juice
The juice of lemons used for flavouring, souring and to prevent cut fruit and vegetables from browning or to whiten fish and fish bones for stock.
Cooking Tips:Before extracting the juice from a lemon, roll it on a hard surface and apply pressure with the palm of your hand. Boil the lemons in particular for 5 minutes to produce more juice. We could also bake them in the oven for 5 minutes at 160 Deg C. If the lemons we have are not enough, replace a small quantity of lemon juice with 1/2 tablespoon vinegar for each tablespoon of lemon juice. To avoid the seeds falling in the juice, wrap a cloth around them when squeezing. If you need just drops of lemon juice then pierce a lemon with a fork and squeeze.
lima bean:Botanical Name:lima bean
The butter colored, kidney shaped seed of the legume "Phaseolus lunatus" and "P. limensis", grown worldwide in warm climates. May be eaten like broad beans in the country of cultivation but usually ripened and dried for export. Must be boiled for 15 minutes to destroy protease inhibitors.
These tart green fruits are similar to lemons, but they're more acidic and have their own unique flavor. Varieties include the common Persian lime = Tahiti lime and the smaller, less juicy, and more acidic Florida key lime = key lime = Mexican lime. When buying limes, select specimens that are dark green, smaller, thin-skinned, and heavy for their size.
Lobster:The largest sea crustacean with eight legs, two forward facing strong crushing claws, several antennae and a muscular tail. They are blue grey when alive and pink when cooked.
Long bean:Botanical Name:long bean
A relative, Vigna sesquipedalis of the cow pea grown extensively in India, China and SEA both for the mature yellow beans which are harvested from pods (up to 1 m long) or for the young pods (to 35 cm) which are cooked whole. The plants need high supports (also called yard long bean, long-podded cow pea, snake bean).
louiza (lemon-scented verbena):Botanical Name:louiza (lemon-scented verbena)
It's aroma is related with the lemon grass and it is used in lemon sauces and as a soothing beverage.
Lychee nut:Botanical Name:lychee nut
These are sun-dried litchis.The outer shells are brown and the meat inside looks like a large raisin. Look for them in Asian markets.
Lighiyellow Sophora Root:Botanical Name:Sophora japonica (kushen,Sophora flavescens Ait.);Lighiyellow Sophora Root;Sophora flavescens Ait.root
English Name:Sophora japonica(kushen),Sophora alopecuroides L.;Radix Sophorae Flavescentis
Common Name:Sophora japonica (kushen);sophoraal opecuraidesl;Sophora flavescens Ait.,Ku GanCao,KuShen Cao,KuDou Gen,XiDou Gen,Ku Ping Zi,Ye Huai Gen,Shan Huai Gen,Gan Ren Cen("Gan" means dry,Recn Cen means Ginseng),Ku Gu(means bitter bone).
Sophora japonica (kushen) is a kind of Sub-Shrub,grow up to 50~120 cm,root column,skin outside appear yellow,stem and branches herbage like,color green,yellow hair on young stem.Singular feather shape leaves,cross grow,line shape stipule; leaves reach to 20-25cm length,with small leaves 5 to 21 pieces,oval shape,complete edge. flower 10-20cm, short hair,flower yellow to white,10 stamen,1 pistil.bloom from May to July, Fruit from july to September.Seed 3 to 7,color black,similar ball shape.
Lesser Galangal:Botanical Name:Alpinia officinarum (HANCE.),Rhizoma Alpiniae Officinarum
English Name:Lesser Galangal
Common Name:Galangal,Galanga.China Root.India Root.East India Catarrh Root. Lesser Galangal. Rhizoma Galangae. Gargaut. Colic Root. Kaempferia Galanga. Arabic Khalanjan ginger.mild ginger.the Chinese Ko-liang-kiang,the mild ginger from Ko. Aromatic Ginger, China Root, Chinese Ginger, Colic Root, East Indian Catarrh Root, East Indian Root, Gargaut, India Root, Siamese Ginger.
smaller than the greater as the name implies. The leaves are long and slender, roughly half the dimensions of the greater. The whole plant, rarely more than 1m (3 1/4ft) high, vaguely resembles an iris. The flowers are small, white with red streaks. The rhizomes are reddish brown, about 2cm (3/4in) in diameter. They are more pungent than the greater and are similarly ringed.
Licorice:Botanical Name:Glycyrrhiza glabra (L)
English Name:licorice root
Common Name:Liquirita officinalis (L.), reglisse, lacrisse, sweet licorice, licorice root, sweet wood,gancao.
Liquorice was one of the most widely known medicines in ancient history, and records of its use include Assyrian tablets of around 2000 BC and Chinese herbals of the same period. Theophrastos of Lesbos, writing in the fourth century BC wrote that 'it has the property of quenching thirst if one holds it in the mouth'. Dioscorides gave the plant its botanical name (Greek glukos = sweet, riza = root). Its 13th century English name was Lycorys, a corruption of glycyrrhiza. The plant originated in the Mediterranean and the Middle East, but has been cultivated in Europe since at least the 16th century. In China, G. uralensis or gan cao, known as the 'great detoxifier', is thought to drive poisons from the system. It is also an important tonic, often called 'the grandfather of herbs'. Gan cao is used as an energy tonic, particularly for the spleen and stomach, and the root is added to many Chinese formulae to balance other herbs. It is also used for asthmatic coughs, as an antispasmodic and ulcer remedy, and to cool 'hot' conditions. The dried root is given to Chinese children to promote muscle growth. Liquorice is often used as a method for disguising the taste of medicines and as a flavouring in confectionery.
Lentil seeds:Botanical Name:Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris
English Name:Lens culinaris
Common Name:Lentil (English), Adas (Arabic), Mercimek (Turkey), Messer (Ethiopia), Masser (India),Cicer lens Willd., Ervum lens L., Lens esculenta Moench,Lens culinaris Medik., Lens esculenta Moench. , Lentilla lens (L.) W.Wight ex D.Fairchild, Cicer lens (L.) Willd., Ervum lens L., Vicia lens (L.) Cosson Germ., Lens lens Huth.,Black lentil, Brown lentil, Green lentil, Green mung bean, Large-seeded lentil, Lentil, Red mung bean, Small-seeded lentil, Wild lentil, Yellow lentil, Adas (Arabic), Mercimek (Turkey), Messer (Ethiopia), Masser (India). ,Ervum lens L.;Lens esculenta Moench;Lens lens Huth;Vicia lens (L.)Cosson Germ.;Common Lentil;Lenteja;Lentil;Lentille.
Lentil is a small, erect, softly pubescent herb. Leaflets are 4-6 pairs, sessile lanceolate and mucronate. Racemes are 2-4 flowered. Calyx teeth are linear and silky. Corolla is white, rose, red or violet. The Pod is smooth, compressed, oblong or rhomboids, containing two smooth, compressed, lenticular seeds, which vary in colour from pale pinkish buff to Prussian red.Lentils show a wide range of variation in the colour of flowers and the type of pods and seeds. The seeds may have various colours and three major sizes. About 66 pure types have been isolated from seeds, which were collected from different places of India.
Linseed:Botanical Name:Linum usitatissimum L.2n=30
Common Name:Oil flaxseed
Oil flaxseed as a agro plant in china normally divided into 3 types, one is mainly for fibre use, could be named as Fibrous Oil flaxseed (or fibre flaxseed ); one is mainly for oil processing use, could be named as Oil only flaxseed(or oil flaxseed); and the third one is for both fibre purpose and oil purpose.
Lalang Grass Rhizome:Botanical Name:dry Rhizome of gramineous plant Imperata cylindrica Beauv. var. major(Nees)C.E. Hubb.
English Name:Lalang Grass Rhizome,Cogongrass Root
Common Name:Maogen,HuangMao(yellow mao); orchid root; thread Maogen, sweet root.
Many reports revealed that cogongrass root is a rather effective remedy for acute nephritis (acute or chronic inflammation of the kidney caused by infection). It was reported that a group of 70 cases of acute nephritis had total daily urine volume of 1,500-3,000 ml 1-5 days after cogongrass administration. Laboratory exams showed normal urine. Blood pressure returned to normal, too.
Lettuce:Botanical Name:Lactuca sativa (milk sap),Lactuca virosa; Lactuca sativa L.
Wild Lettuce, also known as Lactucarium, Green Endive, and Lettuce Opium, is the precursor to the common forms of cultivated lettuce. Wild Lettuce probably originated in Central Asia, but it is now grown throughout the world. Lettuce was cultivated as a food crop by the Ancient Greeks, Romans, and Chinese. Lettuce was brought to the New World very early; so early in fact, that the Hopi tribe incorporated it into their religious rituals. They smoked the resin of Wild Lettuce Leaf to induce dream states.Wild Lettuce Leaf is a good source of Vitamin A, fiber, and many other vitamins and nutrients. Medicinally, Wild Lettuce Leaf is used as a mild sedative, with the added benefit of being easy on the digestive system. It has been used to treat dropsy, colic, and cough, and is also a mild diuretic and diaphoretic. Some people use Wild Lettuce Leaf as a sleep aid.
Lotus Seed:Botanical Name:Semen Nelumbinis
English Name:Semen Nelumbinis
Common Name:Lotus Seed,Lotus Seed, Lian Zi. Nelumbo nucifera.
Lotus seed is used primarily as an astringent in Kidney and Spleen tonic formulations. It is in own right a good mild tonic. It is useful for preventing the leakage of essence, and thus is commonly used to prevent or treat premature ejaculation, spermatorrhea, and is also used in women's formulas to treat leucorrhagia.
Leek:Botanical Name:Allium ampeloprasum(Linnaeus) ;Allium porrum
Common Name:Allium ampeloprasum porrum ((L.)J.Gay.) ;A. ampeloprasum; A. ampeloprasum var. porrum;Garden Leek [P,B], Hawar [E], Kurrath [E], Leek [H], Pirasa [E], Poireau [E], Prasium [E].
Ampeloprasum var. porrum (L.) J. Gay) is a vegetable belonging, with onion and garlic, to the Alliaceae, the onion family. Also in this species are two very different vegetables: The elephant garlic (Allium ampeloprasum var. ampeloprasum) grown for its bulbs, and kurrat which is grown for its leaves in Egypt and elsewhere in the Middle East. The leek is also sometimes classified as Allium porrum (L.)
Lactuca scariola:Botanical Name:Lactuca scariola,L. serriola
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Vanya kahu
An erect leafy plant, usually prickly towards the base.The seeds yield a greenish yellow, semidrying oil. They are used for coughs and as a decoction for insomnia. The seeds are also reported to possess hypnotic and antipyretic properties.
Lens culinaris:Botanical Name:Lens culinaris
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Masura
A small, erect, softly pubescent herb.The paste of the seeds is a cleansing application on the face.
The seeds contain flavonoids, kaempferol-3-a-L-rhamnopyranoside-7-O-ß-glucopyranoside and kaempferol- 7-O-rutinoside, saccharides, ciceritol (manninotriose,a-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->6)-a-D-galactopyranosyl-(1->2)-4-O-methyl-chiro-inositol), D-glucose, D-fructose, sucrose, raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, and sterol, 24-methylene-25-methylcholesterol.
Leptadenia reticulata:Botanical Name:Leptadenia reticulata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Jivani, Jivanti, Madhusrava
It's principal constituents are Leptadenol , n-triacontane, cetyl alcohol,ß-sitosterol, ß-amyrin acetate, lupanol 3-O diglucoside and leptidin. The plant is stimulant and restorative and shows anti-bacterial activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Lilium polyphyllum:Botanical Name:Lilium polyphyllum
English Name:White Lily
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ksirakakoli
The plant is a narrow bulbous herb with few narrow subequal fleshy scales.
It has soothing, astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. The bulbs are sweet, bitter, refrigerant, galactagogue, expectorant,aphrodisiac, diuretic, antipyretic and tonic. They are useful in agalatia, cough, bronchitis, vitiated conditions of pitta, seminal weakness, strangury, burning sensation, hyperdipsia, intermittent fevers, hematemesis, rheumatalgia and general disability.
Linum usitatissimum:Botanical Name:Linum usitatissimum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Atasi
It is an erect, herb, cultivated for its oily seeds. Leaves narrow and entire. Flowers are large, blue or bluish violet and entire. Flowers are large, blue or bluish violet and pentamerous in terminal panicles.Stamens 5 and alternating with staminodes. Fruits capsular, with five cells, each containing 2 seeds. Seeds are yellowish or blackish brown,small, flattened, oval, with smooth and shining seed coat and small albumen. It is cultivated throughout India.
It is used internally in habitual constipation, functional disorders of the colon resulting from the misuse of laxatives and irritable colon, as a demulcent preparation in gastritis and enteritis. Externally,the powdered seeds or the press-cake are used as an emollient, in poultices for boils, carbuncles and other skin afflictions.
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