Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Mallow | Mangetout | Mango | Marjoram | Mastic | Matzo | Matzo meal | Melon | Minnow | Moray eel | Mountain tea | Mussel | Milk Thistle | Marigold Flower Petals | Motherwort | Marshamallow | Mulberry leaves | Mentha | Myrrh Gum | Modified Citrus Pectin | Mantis Egg-Case | Maharasnadi quath | Mahayograj Guggul | Makardhwaj | Mandur bhasma | Mangifera indica | Melaleuca leucadendron | Meldespumatum | Mentha arvensis | Mentha piperata | Mentha spicata | Mesua ferrea | Mimosa pudica | Momordica charantia | Moringa pterygosperma | Mouktika bhasma | Mucuna pruriens | Mukta pishti | Myristica fragrans | Moringa Oleifera | Morus Alba | Mucuna Pruriens |
A family of plants, many of which are edible, e.g okra.
A variety of pea "Pisum sativum var. macrocarpum", which has a delicate skin and is eaten whole when young. (also called snow pea, sugar pea, Chinese pea)
The pulp from one large mango will yield one cup of puree. It's always a challenge to eat a mango. The pulp clings desperately to both peel and seed, and it usually turns into a mushy mess by the time you free it. Despite this, the mango is one of the most popular fruits in the world. It's sweet and juicy, and it has a wonderful, distinctive flavor. Select richly colored, firm mangoes, then let them ripen at home for a few days. Frozen mangoes are good substitutes for fresh.
The name given to species of the origanum group in particular "Origanum majorana"-sweet or knotted marjoram, "Origanum onites"-pot or French marjoram, and "Origanum heracleoticum"-winter marjoram. It has a very interesting and strong aroma.
Mastic:The resin exuded by the Mediterranean plant "lentesk" and other similar plants used as a flavouring in some Greek dishes and in Turkish delight.
Matzo:A large thin piece of very dry unleavened Jewish bread eaten during Passover. The bread is rather like a water biscuit or cream cracker. Crushed crackers are used in Jewish cooking.
Matzo meal:Finely powdered matzos often used as a flour substitute in Jewish cooking.
The fruit of a climbing annual vine related to the cucumber. It is round or oval with a hard thick skin enclosing a thick layer of sweet juicy flesh with a mass of inedible seeds at the center. The three principal types are cantaloupe, winter and musk.
Small mediterranean fish of the carp family.
Moray eel:A wild fish with a snake-like body, medium sized mouth with awesome teeth and a pointy snout. In color, it ranges from red-black to brown with yellow spots. Its flesh has a very distinct, heavy smell, but is nonetheless delicious. Moray eel can be grilled, fried or oven baked with tomatoes, onions and garlic. It weighs up to 6.5 kilos.
Mountain tea:Botanical Name:mountain tea
The mountain tea is one of the most popular herbs in Greece. It has a pleasing taste and is said to aid digestion.
A very common bivalve mollusc found worldwide usually attached to rocks near the water line, but some bury themselves in the sand. Generally sold live in their shells or removed, cooked and preserved in brine, sauce or by canning. Sometimes sold smoked.
Cooking Tips:When buying them raw, throw away all those that are open. Once boiled set aside clams which haven't opened.
Milk Thistle:Botanical Name:Carduus marianus syn. Silybum marianum, Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner
English Name:Cardui mariae fructus,blessed milk thistle, St. Mary thistle
Common Name:Milk Thistle,Mary Thistle,Silybum,Silymarin,Silybum marianum (L) Gacntm
Milk thistle, also known as the Marian, St. Mary's, or Our Lady's thistle, is a tall herb with prickly leaves and a milky sap. Milk thistle is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe but naturalized in California and the eastern United States. Botanically, milk thistle is known as Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., a member of the family Asteraceae. In older literature, as well as some modem European works, it is cited as Carduus marianus L.. Over the years, several other plants have been referred to as milk thistles, but authorities now reserve that common name for this species. Also, it must not be confused with the blessed or holy thistle, which is Cnicus benedictus L., an entirely different plant, although the similarity of the religiously inspired common names is confusing.
Marigold Flower Petals:Botanical Name:Calendula officinalis
English Name:Marigold Flower
Common Name:Target Erecta,Pot Marigold, Mary Gowles, Golds.
Calendula has a noteworthy place among our native herbs. It belongs to the plants which are beneficial in cancer and cancerlike growths. It is found in many gardens in the country, sometimes growing wild on wastelands. Since its healing powers have become recognized again and are in demand, it is now met not only in gardens, but also in fields. Calendula reaches a height of 30 to 40 cm. Its flowerheads are bright yellow to orange. Stems and leaves are fleshy and sticky to the touch. There are several varieties with full flowerheads, with dark or light stamens. The medicinal value is the same. Should its flowerheads be closed after 7 o'clock in the morning, it will rain the same day. It was considered a rain indicator in earlier times.
Motherwort:Botanical Name:Leonurus Cardiaca L. (Lamiaceae)
English Name:Motherwort Herb
Common Name:Motherwort, common motherwort, lion's tail, lion's tart, lion's ear, throwwort,Yi mu cao,Roman motherwort, throw-wort
Motherwort came from central Eurasia originally, but has spread to all temperate areas of the world, primarily as a garden plant but also as an escaped weed. A similar plant, Leonurus heterophyllus, is used in China. The Chinese name for motherwort is yi mu cao, meaning benefit mother herb. The leaves and flowers of this mint family plant are used as medicine. In Chinese herbal medicine, the seeds are also employed.
Marshamallow:Botanical Name:Althaea officinalis (L)
Common Name:schloss tea, mortification root, sweet weed, hock herb, wymote, mauls, cheeses,Marshmallow, althea, sweet weed, mallards, guimauve, mortification plant, schloss tea, wymote German = Malve, French = Guimauve, Spanish = Malvavisco, Italian = Malvavisce
Found in southern and western Europe, western Asia, and the northeastern region of North America, marshmallow originally grew in salty soils but now thrives in moist, uncultivated ground. Its fleshy, erect stems reach a height of three to four feet. The stems give off simple branches or, at most, a few sideways branches. The pale yellow roots are tapered, long, and thick, with a tough yet flexible exterior. The short-stemmed leaves are round, with irregularly toothed margins and three to five lobes. A soft and velvety down covers the leaves and stem. The flowers have five reddish-white petals. The whole plant, especially the root, is filled with mild mucilage.
Mulberry leaves:Botanical Name:Morus alba Linn. Moraceae
English Name:Morus alba L.
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Common Name:Morus leaf, Mulberry leaf,Folium Mori.
Traditionally mulberry leaf is used for treating the lungs, liver function and eyesight. Mulberry leaf is rich in amino acids, vitamin C and antioxidants. The latest Chinese research has shown mulberry leaf is effective in regulating blood fat, balancing blood pressure, reducing blood glucose, and boosting metabolism. Mulberry leaf is also considered a wonderful herb for anti-inflammation, anti-aging and maintaining health. Suggested dose 1- 2 teaspoonfuls made into tea or 0.5 - 1 teaspoon taken as a powder.
Mentha:Botanical Name:Mentha haplocalyx Briq. or Mentha haplocalyx Briq.var.piperascens (Malinvaud)C.Y.Wu et H.W.Li.
English Name:Field mint,Peppermint
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Common Name:Bo he,BOHE,su bo he,Common Mint Field Mint. (Mentha arvensis);Peppermint (Mentha piperascens) which is a hybrid of water mint (M. aquatica) and spearmint (M. spicata).
Traditional uses in Chinese medicine Mints, whether in herbal formulas, drinks, soups, or other food items, functions to release to the exterior, that is, to direct the body energy upward and outward. Bo he is used to dispel wind-heat, clear the head and eyesight, treat headaches, pharyngolaryngitis, and measles.
Myrrh Gum:Botanical Name:Commiphora myrrha (HOLMES)
English Name:Commiphora molmol (Engl.)
Common Name:Commiphora molmol, Engi.;Balsamodendron Myrrha;Commiphora Myrrha,Myrrh Gum,Bal, Bdellium, Bol, Commiphora molmol, Commiphora myrrha, Guggal Resin, Gum Myrrh, Heerabol, Opopanax,Commiphora myrrha (Holmes), Balsamodendron myrrha, gum myrrh tree, Commiphora resin, guggal gum or resin,Balsamodendron Myrrha. Commiphora Myrrha, var. Molmol. Mirra. Morr. Didin. Didthin. Bowl.
Myrrh Gum is also known by the names Mu Yao, Bola, Myrrh Tree, and Balasmodendron Myrrha. Myrrh is a large shrub (or small tree) indigenous to Northeast Africa, and collected in Southern Arabia and Iran. The part of this plant used medicinally is the resin. Myrrh is referred to in the Bible. Myrrh was used as a wine preservative in the ancient world. It was used by Egyptians in embalming mixtures. It was also used as an aromatic for perfumes, funerals, and insect repellents. Ancient Greek and Roman physicians used the herb to treat wounds, and prescribed it internally as a digestive aid and menstruation promoter. It was also used as a remedy for numerous infections, including leprosy and syphilis. Myrrh was an important trade item in ancient times. It is used today as an aid to repel tooth decay and gum disease. The word Myrrh is derived from a Hebrew and Arabic word "mur", meaning "bitter". The genus name Commiphora is from the Greek "kommi", meaning "gum", and "phoros", meaning "carrier".
Modified Citrus Pectin:Botanical Name:the peel and pulp of citrus fruits
English Name:Modified Citrus Pectin
Common Name:Modified Citrus Pectin,MCP.
Modified citrus pectin (MCP), also known as fractionated pectin, is a complex polysaccharide obtained from the peel and pulp of citrus fruits. Modified citrus pectin is rich in galactoside residues, giving it an affinity for certain types of cancer cells. Metastasis is one of the most life-threatening aspects of cancer and the lack of effective anti-metastatic therapies has prompted research on MCP's effectiveness in blocking metastasis of certain types of cancers, including melanomas, prostate, and breast cancers.
Mantis Egg-Case:Botanical Name:Tenodera sinensis Saussure,Statilia maculata (Thunb.),Hierodula patellifera (Serville)
English Name:Ootheca Mantidis
Common Name:Mantis Egg Case,Praying Mantis Egg Case
Mantis refers to any of various predatory long-bodied large-eyed insects of the family Mantidae, primarily tropical but including a few temperate zone species, usually pale green and having two pairs of walking legs and powerful grasping forelimbs. The mantis feeds on live insects, including others of its own kind.
Maharasnadi quath:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Maharasnadi quath
It is a decoction,which contains Rasna (Vanda roxburghii) as the main component. Maharasnadi quatha has analgesic, antiphlogistic and antipyretic properties and is used for the treatment of rheumatism and arthritis.
Mahayograj Guggul:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mahayograj Guggul
It is a multi-ingredient preparation, the main constituent of which is Commiphora wightii (Indian Bdellium, Guggul). It contains volatile oils that have astringent and antiseptic properties. It increases the leukocyte count, stimulates phagocytosis and is used in the treatment of rheumatism that has affected the joints and bones.
Malva sylvestris:Botanical Name:Malva sylvestris
English Name:Common Mallow
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Gul-khair
An erect, branched, woody biennial or perennial.
All parts of the plant are rich in mucilage. The petals are the source of the pigment malvin which is present in the malonated form,malvidin. The plant contains flavonols. However, they do not contain any detectable amounts of mutagenic flavonol aglycones. The herb possesses demulcent, cooling, antiseptic and emollient properties.
It is used in pulmonary and urinary affections and also in external applications for abscesses and inflammations. The flowers and immature fruits are used for whooping cough.
Makardhwaj:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Makardhwaj
English Name:Sulphide of Mercury
Makaradhwaj is a well-known inorganic preparation of the Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia. Chemically, it is red sulphide of mercury and gold in uncombined form. It is a sublimed product made from pure mercury, sulphur and gold.
Eight parts of mercury and one part of gold leaf are mixed together to form an amalgam. To this mixture 16 parts of sublimed sulphur are added and the resulting mixture is ground very thoroughly in a stone mortar for 24 hr. or more until the whole is converted to a lusterless, fine, impalpable powder of uniform consistence. This mixture is then placed in a narrow mouthed bottle and is gradually heated on a sand bath. On heating, the bottle is filled with reddish fumes of various hues. On cooling Makaradhvaja is found deposited in the inner surface of the neck of the bottle.
It is seldom used alone. In the majority of cases, it is mixed with various drugs called anupana or adjuvants. In cases of indigestion and diarrhea, Makaradhvaja is mixed with powdered bael fruit (Aegle marmelos); in cases of fever and cough it is given with the juices of ginger, betel (Piper betel) and tulsi leaves (Ocimum tenuiflorum). Generally, honey is used in the absence of proper adjuvants. The medicine can be used both for adults and children,the dosage being regulated according to age. Makaradhvaja, when taken regularly, is believed in indigenous systems of medicine to be a wonderful tonic and is said to increase longevity in a patient.
A valuable tonic in debilitating conditions and convalescent patients after acute illness, in failing circulation and cardiac asthenia; it increases the red blood corpuscles and improves general nutritional status. It is also used as a laxative with good results particularly in those cases when there are visceroptosis and atonic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. It is said to be of great value as an intestinal antiseptic and is supposed to relieve the gaseous distension of bowels due to fermentation. It is used widely as an alterative and an aphrodisiac.
Mandur bhasma:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mandur bhasma
English Name:Ferric Oxide Calx
It is prepared by purifying and calcinating iron rust. Mandura is specially useful in anemia, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia,chlorosis, hepatic and splenic disorders. It is also used in diarrhea,chronic bowel complaints, dyspepsia, intestinal worms, nervous diseases,neuralgia of the 5th nerve due to debility, kidney diseases, albuminuria,etc. It is a powerful hematinic and tonic and is valuable in the treatment of hemolytic jaundice and microcytic anemia.
Mangifera indica:Botanical Name:Mangifera indica
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Amra, Chuta
A large evergreen tree, with a heavy, dome-shaped crown. The mango is the most popular fruit in India.
The unripe, fully developed mangoes of pickling varieties contain citric, malic, oxalic, succinic and two unidentified acids. The ripe fruits constitute a rich source of vitamin A; some varieties contain fairly good amounts of vitamin C also. ß-Carotene and xanthophyll are the principal pigments in ripe mango. The leaves contain the glucoside mangiferine. The bark of the mango tree contains tannin (16-20%). Mangiferine has been isolated from the bark.
The bark is astringent; it is used in diphtheria and rheumatism;it is believed to possess a tonic action on the mucous membrane.It is astringent, anthelmintic, useful in hemoptysis, hemorrhage,nasal catarrh, diarrhea, ulcers, diphtheria, rheumatism and for lumbrici. The leaves are given in the treatment of burns, scalds and diabetes. Mangiferin from the leaves has been reported to possess antiinflammatory, diuretic, chloretic and cardiotonic activities and displays a high antibacterial activity against gram positive bacteria. It has been recommended as a drug in preventing dental plaques. Mangiferin shows antiviral effect against type I herpes simplex virus (HSV-I).
Melaleuca leucadendron:Botanical Name:Melaleuca leucadendron
English Name:Cajuput Tree, Tea Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kayaputi
An evergreen tree of small or moderate size with pendulous branches.
Fresh leaves and terminal branchlets yield, on steam-distillation,a volatile oil, known in the trade as Oil of Cajuput (Oleum Cajuputi) and used in medicine. Besides cineole, the oil contains a-terpineol and its esters, l -a-pinene, l -limonene, dipentene, sesquiterpenes,azulene, sesquiterpene alcohols, valeraldehyde and benzaldehyde.
It has antibacterial, antifungal, antiseptic and antidandruff properties. The oil is used internally as an expectorant in chronic laryngitis and bronchitis, and as carminative; overdoses cause gastro-intestinal irritation. It acts as an anthelmintic, especially against roundworms.The oil relieves toothache if introduced into hollow carious teeth.It forms a constituent of ointments and liniments and is considered efficaceous as a counter-irritant in chronic rheumatism. It is valued as a mosquito repellent and has the advantage over citronella oil in that it is less volatile.
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Madhu
It is generally recommended as a remedy for cold, cough, fever, sore throat, respiratory disorders, etc., by virtue of its bactericidal,antiseptic and expectorant properties.
Mentha arvensis:Botanical Name:Mentha arvensis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Pudina, Putiha
A downy perennial herb with running rootstocks and rigid branching stem.
The herb yields on steam-distillation, a volatile oil, known in the trade as Mint Oil or Peppermint Oil; the leaves and flowering tops give the highest yield. The main constituent of the oil is menthol. The oil is useful in neuralgia when applied externally and a febrifuge in fevers. It is useful in treating pain and inflammation of muscles and joints due to its counter irritant actions.
Mentha piperata:Botanical Name:Mentha piperata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Paparaminta
A perennial, glabrous, strongly scented herb.
The herb is the source of true Peppermint Oil. The oil contains menthol (50-55%), menthyl acetate, menthone and small amounts of pinene, phellandrene, l-limonene, terpinene, cadinene, cineole,amyl alcohol, acetic acid, isovaleric acid, acetaldehyde, isovaleric aldehyde and a lactone.
The dried leaves and flowering tops of the plant are official in the U.S. Pharmacopeia under the name Peppermint. The herb is considered aromatic, stimulant, stomachic and carminative, and used for allaying nausea, flatulence and vomiting. Bruised leaves are employed as an external application for relieving local pains and headache.A hot infusion is taken to allay stomach ache and colicky diarrhea. Peppermint is used as an antispasmodic, diuretic, choleretic and carminative and as an expectorant in bronchitis. It is a component in several sedative preparations.
Mentha spicata:Botanical Name:Mentha spicata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Pahari Pudina,Putiha
A glabrous, perennial herb with creeping rhizomes.
The fresh flowering herb on distillation yields 0.25-0.50% of volatile oil, known as Spearmint Oil. The characteristic constituent of the oil is l-carvone. The herb is considered stimulant, carminative and antispasmodic. A sweetened infusion of the herb is given as a remedy for infantile troubles, vomiting in pregnancy and hysteria.The leaves are used in fevers and bronchitis. The oil is a counter irritant.
Mesua ferrea:Botanical Name:Mesua ferrea
English Name:Ironwood Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Keshara, Nagakesara, Nagapushpa
Mesua ferrea is a medium-sized to large evergreen tree with solitary flower and numerous stamens.
It's principal constituent is the volatile oil from the flowers shows antibacterial, antifungal and anthelmintic activities. It exhibits significant anti-inflammatory and styptic activity.
Mimosa pudica:Botanical Name:Mimosa pudica
English Name:Sensitive Plant, Touch Me Not
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Lajjalu
A diffuse prickly undershrub the leaves of which are extremely sensitive to touch.
The plant contains tubulin and a new class of phytohormones called turgorines. The seeds of the plant contain a mucilage composed of d -xylose and d -glucuronic acid. A decoction of the root of the plant is considered useful in gravel and other urinary complaints.A paste of the leaves is applied to glandular swellings; the juice of leaves is used in dressings for sinus and also as an application for sores and piles.
Momordica charantia:Botanical Name:Momordica charantia
English Name:Bitter Gourd
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Karavella, Kathilla, Sushavi
Momordica charantia is a monoecious climber with slender stem and yellow flowers.
Its principal constituents are lectins, charantin and momordicine.The fruits have long been used in India as a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus. Lectins from the bitter gourd have shown significant antilipolytic and lipogenic activities.
Moringa pterygosperma:Botanical Name:Moringa pterygosperma / M.oleifera
English Name:Drumstick, Horse Radish
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shigru, Shobhanjana
It is a small or medium-sized tree, with tri-pinnate leaves and white flowers.
Its principal constituents are pterigospermin, spirachin and banzyl isothiocyanate. Leaves show strong antibacterial activity and are rich in vitamins A and C. Biological activity studies have confirmed the anti-inflammatory,antispasmodic and diuretic activities of the seeds. The seeds are used as antibacterial, anticholeric and anti-viral agents. These properties substantiate its used as an ecbolic as it helps maintain the normal physiology of the uterus.
Mouktika bhasma:Botanical Name:Mouktika bhasma / Muktashukti / Mouktika Sukti
English Name:Pearl Oyster Shell Calx
It is the ash obtained by calcinating the shells of Pinctada margaritifera. It is antacid, tonic and used in acid peptic disorders.
Mukta pishti:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mukta pishti
English Name:Processed Pearl
It is processed from the pearls of Mytilus magaritiferus.It is a powerful cardiac tonic and mood elevator.
Mucuna pruriens:Botanical Name:Mucuna pruriens
English Name:Cow-Itch Plant
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kapikachchhu
Mucuna pruriens is a twining annual climber.
Its principal constituents are L-DOPA and the bioactive alkaloids mucunine, mucunadine, mucuadinine, prurienine and nicotine as well as ß-sitosterol, glutathione, lecithin, oils, venolic and gallic acids. L-DOPA is a neurotransmitter precursor, an effective drug for relief in Parkinson's disease. The seed is a prophylactic against oligospermia and is useful in increasing sperm count, ovulation in women, etc.
It is a good aphrodisiac and also a nervine tonic. It is used in the treatment of spermatorrhea and diseases of the genitourinary system.
Mutilla occidentalis:Botanical Name:Mutilla occidentalis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Indravadhi
It is nervine, tonic,antispasmodic and used in paralysis.
Myristica fragrans:Botanical Name:Myristica fragrans
English Name:Mace, Nutmeg
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Jatikosha, Jatipatra, Jatipatri(Jaatipatree), Jatiphala, Jatiphalam
Its principal constituents are Nutmeg which has a fixed oil, a volatile oil and starch and Mace which has a volatile oil (Oil of mace) and amylodextrin.
The oil extract of the tree is used as a counter irritant and stimulates blood flow to the area applied. Nutmeg is reported to be an expectorant,vermifuge, aphrodisiac, and as a nervine used by psychiatrists. It is used in tonics and electuaries and is recommended for the treatment of inflammations of the bladder and urinary tract. Mace is used in folk medicine for the treatment of rheumatism.
It has anti-inflammatory, antifungal and antibacterial properties.
Moringa Oleifera:Botanical Name:Moringa Oleifera
Common Name:MORINGA, HORSE RADISH TREE, DRUMSTICK TREE, SAHIJAN
Part Used:Roots,Seeds, Leaves
Morus Alba:Botanical Name:Morus Alba
Common Name:WHITE MULVERRY, WHITE MULBERRY, SLIK WORM MULBERRY
Part Used :Morus bark, morus leaves, morus roots
Uses :Mulberry fruit is used to treat weakness, dizziness, tinnitus, fatigue, anemia, and incontinence. The leaves are used to promote sweating, and the branches and bark for lowering blood pressure. It is also said that Mulberry can inhibit the premature graying of hair, and when used topically can promote hair growth.Mulberry can help treat chronic diseases of the digestive tract, improve digestion, stimulate the appetite, promote gastric juice secretion and eliminate constipation. It has also been used in treating chronic gastritis and hepatitis. It is helpfull in cough, dyspepsia, facial dropsy, oedema, injury and Oligura.
Mucuna Pruriens:Botanical Name:Mucuna Pruriens
Common Name:COWITCH, COMMON COWITCH, KONCH
Part Used:Roots,Seeds, Leaves
Uses:The roots are bitter, sweet thermogenic emollient, stimulant, purgative, aphrodisiac, diuretic. The leaves are aphrodisiac. The seeds are astringent, laxative, anthelmentic, alexipharmic and tonic.
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