Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Radish | Rainbow wrasse | Raspberry | Red cabbage | Red delicious apple | Red mullet | Red-leaf lettuce | Rocket | Romaine lettuce | Rome apple | Rose | Rosemary | Ruby seedless | Russet potatoes | Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza | Rhodiola rosea | Red Clover | Radix Bupleuri | Reishi mushroom | Rhubarb Root | Radix Ginseng | Radix Notoginseng | Radix Saposhnikoviae | Rauwolfia serpentina | Ricinus communis | Rosa damascena | Ruta graveolens | Rubia cordifolia | Rumex maritimus | Raphanus sativus |
Radish:Botanical Name:Raphanus sativus
The root of a plant "Raphanus sativus" Longipinnus Group of the mustard family grown in many forms and colors from 1 cm dia. spheres to 30 cm long carrot-like roots and with colors from white through red to black. The crisp white flesh has a slightly peppery flavor of varying degrees of strength. Generally used raw in salads and for decoration in many sculpted shapes. The larger varieties, e.g mooli, may be eaten raw, cooked or pickled. The young leaves are also edible.
Rainbow wrasse:A small, longish fish with a chestnut or green back and white belly. Small eyes and a pointy snout. It rarely weighs more than 150 grams. It is particularly tasty and can be eaten fried, grilled or in fish soup along with other varieties of rockfish.
A fruit similar to the blackberry q.v. but softer, light red, occasionally white or black, with a covering of fine down and a sweet, slightly acid, fruity, perfumed flavor. The wild variety are small to 5 mm but domesticated varieties can grow to 2,5 cm long. It is grown on a cool climate rambling plant Rubus idaeus, which is cultivated so as to produce new, relatively short canes each year. The fruit tend to soften and go mouldy quickly and must be used when fresh, canned or deep-frozen. Used raw or cooked and often pureed to form a coulis or sauce. One of the fruits in summer pudding.
Red cabbage:Botanical Name:red cabbage
One of the cabbages Brassica oleraceae Capitata Group with red to purple leaves and a round firm head, generally available in autumn and winter, often casseroled with sugar, sultanas and vinegar, or pickled.
Cooking Tips:When cooked the colour changes and becomes blue. Add some vinegar, to find its original colour. Boil with salt to rejuvenate the white cabbage, which has been in the fridge too long and is no longer taut. To avoid a smelly house after boiling the cabbage, place a slice of bread in the pot or cloves and vinegar. Preserve the cut cabbage in the fridge wrapped in plastic or aluminum foil for one week.
Red delicious apple:Botanical Name:red delicious apple
These sweet, soft apples are good for eating out of hand, but don't bake them or use them in pies. Avoid buying them in the summer; they sometimes get mushy.
Red mullet:This small fish with its golden tones rightfully lays claim to being the most delicious of all. We're all familiar with it. We also know that red mullet is eaten fried or grilled. What some may not be aware of, however, is that amongst true red mullet koutsomoura can also be found. This is red mullet of lower quality, which isn't actually all that bad, but nevertheless lacks the flavor and the merit of genuine red mullet.
Red-leaf lettuce:Green-leaf lettuce (different color, but otherwise similar) OR radicchio (for color).
Rocket:This mustard-like plant with pale yellow or whitish petals is cultivated as a salad plant. The plant part used are the seeds, 1 to 2 mm in diameter. Although called "white mustard", the seeds are yellow to light brown. Some people believe that the seeds make an excellent salad, others, however, detest their pungent taste. Nevertheless, the plant has captured the imagination of Italian, Greek and American gourmets.
Romaine lettuce:Botanical Name:Romaine lettuce
Romaine combines good flavor and crunch, plus it has a decent shelf life in the refrigerator. It's the preferred green for Caesar salad. Green romaine is the most common variety, but you can sometimes find red romaine, which is more tender.
Rome apple:These are best used for baking and for making applesauce. They don't work well in pies (also called Rome beauty apple).
Rose:A hardy shrub with pink to red fragrant flowers "Rosa" spp. The flower petals with the bitter white heel removed may be crystallized or used for decoration, in salads, in fruit pies or as a general flavoring. The bright red rose hips, after dehairing, may be used in jams or puree for use in sauces or to make a sweet syrup high in vitamin C.
Rosemary:Botanical Name:Rosmarinus officinalis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Rusmari
An evergreen perennial shrub "Rosmarinus officinalis" with woody upright stems and thin pointed aromatic leaves which grows in temperate and Mediterranean climates. Used to flavor meat dishes esp. lamb and strong-flavored soups. A twig of rosemary is often laid on fish or meat as it is being cooked.
The leaves of rosemary yield 1-2 per cent of a volatile oil (Oil of Rosemary) used in perfumery and medicine. In addition, the leaves contain a saponin, tannin, ursolic acid, carnosic acid, amyrins,betulin and rosmarinic acid. A phenolic fraction possessing antioxidant properties has been isolated from the leaves and also from the oil.A new triterpenoid, rofficerone, has been isolated from the aerial parts along with a-and ß-amyrenones, 3-O-acetyloleanolic,and 3-O-acetylursolic acids. The root contains diterpene quinones,taxodione, 7-a-hydroxyroyleanone and cryptotanshinone. The foliage contains (Z, E) and (E, E) isomers of the enol ester.
Rosemary is mildly irritant and has been used as a carminative.Internally, the oil may be taken as a stimulant in doses of a few drops: a 5 per cent tincture is used as a circulatory and cardiac stimulant. The oil is useful in headache and in tardy menstruation.It is a diaphoretic and is employed with hot water in chills and colds. An emulsion prepared from the oil is used as a gargle for sore-throat. The oil exhibits antibacterial and protistocidal activity.All parts of the plant are astringent and serve as a nervine tonic and an excellent stomachic. An infusion of the plant with borax is employed as a hair wash and is said to prevent premature baldness,treats dandruff and other scalp infections. The plant has been found useful in atonic dyspepsia. The flowering tops and leaves are considered carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, aperient, emmenagogue, stimulant and stomachic and possess a strong antibacterial action.
Ruby seedless:Grown commercially in the San Joaquin Valley since 1968, the Ruby Seedless is a deep-red, tender-skinned grape.
Russet potatoes:Cooking Tips:To reheat the already boiled potatoes, dip them in cold water and place them in the oven for 10 minutes at a temperature of 150 Deg C. To make French fries become more crispy, sprinkle salt before frying them, then slightly fry, drain them on paper towels and refry them again a few minutes before serving.
Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza:Botanical Name:Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza; Salvia miltiorrhiza B. (Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE,Labiatae,Tanshen)
English Common Name:Red-Rooted Salvia,Dan Shen,chinese danshen,Red Sage,red sage root,Red-rooted Sage,Chinese sage,Red Ginseng,Tan-Shen,Tzu Tan-Ken(roots of purple sage),Hung Ken(red roots),Shu-Wei Ts'ao(rat-tail grass),Ch'ih Shen(scarlet sage),Pin-Ma Ts'ao(horse-racing grass)
Salvia(chinese danshen)here refers to the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Figure as following:Salvia Root,Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza), sometimes described as Chinese sage or red sage root. Any herb of the Salvia genus may be called sage, but most people are familiar with the common garden plant-and the common Western kitchen herb-obtained from Salvia officinalis. There are significant differences in medicinal components of the tops and roots of the Salvia plants that influence their uses. The Western sage leaves are used medicinally to treat dyspepsia and excessive perspiration. Salvia root (danshen,Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae),as employed in Chinese medicine and the subject of the rest of this article, is different in nature from the other sage herbs, despite the botanical relationship.
Rhodiola rosea:Botanical Name:Rhodiola rosea L
Common Name:(En)Rose root, Golden root, Arctic root; (fr.)Rhodiole, Or pin odorant;Rhodiola arctica Boriss. Rhodiola scopolii Simonk. Sedum roseum Scop. (ted.)Rozenwurz
Rhodiola rosea is a popular plant in traditional medical systems in Eastern Europe and Asia with a reputation for stimulating the nervous system, decreasing depression, enhancing work performance, eliminating fatigue, and preventing high altitude sickness. Rhodiola rosea has been categorized as an adaptogen by Russian researchers due to its observed ability to increase resistance to a variety of chemical, biological, and physical stressors. Its claimed benefits include antidepressant, anticancer, cardioprotective, and central nervous system enhancement. Research also indicates great utility in asthenic conditions (decline in work performance, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, irritability, hypertension, headaches, and fatigue) developing subsequent to intense physical or intellectual strain. The adaptogenic, cardiopulmonary protective, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid pep ides such as beta-endorphins.
Red Clover:Botanical Name:Trifolium pratense L.
English Name:Wild clover,cow clover, meadow clover, Trefoil,Purple Clover,Meadow Trefoil, Cleaver Grass, Marl Grass, Sweet Clover, Wild Clover, Cow Clover, and Purple Clover.
Trifolium is a biennial or perennial plant reaching a height of up to 60cm. It is widespread throughout the world in grassy areas and thrives in the more humid upland areas. It has a short rootstock which produces several simple or slightly branched reddish stems with close-pressed whitish hairs. There is a basal rosette of long-stalked leaves. The stem leaves are alternate, the lower ones long-stalked with oval, tapering stipules, and the upper ones short-stalked to almost sessile. The palmate leaves have three oval to oblong-oval or obovate leaflets which are minutely toothed and sometimes blotched with a whitish crescent towards their base. The globular red to purple flowerheads grow in a dense, ovoid head in the axils of the upper and lateral leaves. Each flowerhead contains thirty to sixty sessile bractless florets. The calyx is hairy and the fruit is a pod.
Radix Bupleuri:Botanical Name:Bupleurum chinense, Bupleurum falcatum,Bupleurum chinense syn. B. scorzoneraefolium
English Name:Thorowax, Saiko, Hare's ear,Chai hu,Radix Bupleuri Chinensis,Bupleurum,Chinese Thorowax Root,Hare's Ear Root,Chinese Thorowax Roo,Bei Chai Hu, Chi Hu, Chinese Thoroughwax, Hare's Ear Root, Sho-saiko-to, Shrubby Hare's-ear, Sickle-leaf Hare's-ear, Thoroughwax. Bupleurum chinense; Bupleurum exaltatum; Bupleurum falcatum; Bupleurum fruticosum; Bupleurum longifolium; Bupleurum multinerve; Bupleurum octoradiatum; Bupleurum rotundifolium; Bupleurum scorzonerifolium.
Reishi mushroom:Botanical Name:Ganoderma lucidum
English Name:Ling zhi, ling chi, lin zi, mushroom of immortality,Lucky Fungus,Marvelous herb,Mushroom of Immortality,Reishi, Reishi Mushroom
The Chinese have always regarded the mushroom as having special properties. Mushrooms are regarded as "spirit medicine' because they are believed to nourish the shen, or spirit. As such, they are considered particularly important in vegetarian diets and regarded as a medicinal food that promotes longevity. Various medicinal mushrooms are used by the Chinese.
Rhubarb Root:Botanical Name:Rheum palmatum (also known as Rheum officinale and Rheum tanguticum )
English Name:Rhubarb Root
Common Name:Chinese Rhubarb, Da Huang (Mandarin), East India Rhubarb, Rhubarb Root
Rhubarb Root, cultivated in China and Tibet, has an illustrious history of inclusion in many laxative preparations. It is generally considered a mild laxative that produces a soft stool 6-10 hours after ingestion. Rhubarb is especially well suited for children since it is very mild in action.Rhubarb Root is both laxative and astringent dependent on dosage given, Rhubarb Root has a purgative action for use in the treatment of constipation, but also has an astringent effect following this. It therefore has a truly cleansing action upon the gut, removing debris and then astringing with antiseptic properties as well.
Radix Ginseng:Botanical Name:Panax ginseng (Meyer)
English Name:Ginseng radix
Common Name:Asian Ginseng, Chinese ginseng, Korean ginseng, true ginseng,Panax schinseng (Nees), schinsent, ninjin, jintsam, ren shen, Korean ginseng, Chinese ginseng, oriental ginseng, wonder of the world,Oriental Ginseng, Panax schinseng, Red Ginseng, Seng.
Ginseng products are made from the ginseng root, and the long, thin offshoots, called root hairs. Both Asian and American ginseng contain ginsenosides, saponins that are ginseng's active ingredients. In addition to ginsenosides, Asian ginseng also contains glycans (panaxans), polysaccharide fraction DPG-3-2, peptides, maltol, B vitamins, flavonoids, and volatile oil.
Radix Notoginseng:Botanical Name:Panax notoginseng (Burk. ) F. H. Chen
English Name:Radix Notoginseng
Latin Name(Full):Panax pseudo-ginseng notoginseng (Burkill.) G.Hoo.C.J.Tseng.
Traditional Chinese medicine practitioners have called notoginseng "the miracle root for the preservation of life."Research is showing that Notoginseng exerts a number of beneficial effects on several physiological functions, including the nervous, immune, and cardiovascular systems. It is widely used in Asia for angina, to help lower cholesterol and triglycerides, and to expand coronary arteries in order to promote blood circulation and prevent blood clots.
Radix Saposhnikoviae:Botanical Name:Dry root of Saposhnikovia divaricata(Turcz.) Schischk.
English Name:Divaricata Saposhnikovia Root
Long conical or long cylindrical, gradually tapering towards the lower part, some slightly tortuous, 15~30cm long, 0.5~2cm in diameter. Externally grayish-brown, rugged, with longitudinal wrinkles, numerous transverse-elongated lenticels and dotted raised rootlet scars. Root stock with obvious dense annulations, some annulations marked by brown hair-like remains of leaf bases. Texture light, easily broken, fracture uneven, bark brownish and cracked, wood yellowish. Odour, characteristic; taste, sweetish.
Raphanus sativus:Botanical Name:Raphanus sativus
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mulaka Kshara
An annual or biennial bristly herb with a white or brightly colored tuberous tap root and coarsely toothed leaves.
Radish is a good source of ascorbic acid. It is credited with refreshing and depurative properties. Radish preparations are useful in liver and gall bladder troubles. In homeopathy they are used for neuralgic headaches, sleeplessness and chronic diarrhea. The roots are said to be useful in urinary complaints, piles and in gastrodynia. A salt extracted from roots that are dried and burnt to white ash is used in stomach troubles.
Rauwolfia serpentina:Botanical Name:Rauwolfia serpentina
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Sarpagandha
An erect, evergreen perennating undershrub.
The pharmacological activity of Rauwolfia is due to the presence of several alkaloids of which reserpine is the most important. Rauwolfia has been employed for centuries for the relief of various central nervous system disorders, both psychic and motor, including anxiety states, excitement, maniacal behavior associated with psychosis,schizophrenia, insanity, insomnia and epilepsy. Extracts of the roots are valued for the treatment of intestinal disorders, particularly diarrhea and dysentery. It is also used as an anthelmintic.
Ricinus communis:Botanical Name:Ricinus communis
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Eranda, Gandharva hasta
An annual or perennial bush or occasionally a soft wooded small tree.
Castor oil consists principally of ricinoleic acid. The oil is used externally to relieve various inflammatory conditions of the skin and mucus membrane.
Small quantities of castor seed are used in the villages as a mild laxative for children. The seeds made into a paste or poultice are reported to be applied to sores, boils and gouty or rheumatic swellings.In Veterinary practice, castor oil is a safe and effective purgative for most animals and may be given also to pregnant animals. Castor oil is commonly used for the preparation of hair-oils, hair fixers and aromatic perfumes. It is used as an ingredient in hair lotions and tonics in concentrations of 0.5-20 per cent.
Rosa damascena:Botanical Name:Rosa damascena / Rosa centifolia
English Name:Persian Rose
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Satapatri / Satapatrika
An erect shrub, with red, pink or white flowers, which contain an essential oil.
The flowers also contain a bitter principle, tanning matter, fatty oil, and organic acids. The flower buds are astringent and are used in cardiac troubles, and as a tonic and aperient. The stamens and the fruit are astringent.
Ruta graveolens:Botanical Name:Ruta graveolens
English Name:Garden Rue
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Sudapa
Ruta graveolens was recognized as medicinally helpful for more than 80 complaints in the early Roman Empire. Dried Rue leaves have long been used as a folk remedy, particularly as an antispasmodic (to relieve cramps), emmenogue (to promote menstrual flow), and as an abortifacient.
It is a glabrous herb with strongly aromatic leaves and small,yellowish, dentate or wavy margined petals cultivated for its medicinal uses. The steam-distilled oil is strongly aromatic and bitter pungent in taste. It is used as anthelmintic, antispasmodic, antiepileptic,rubefacient and emmenagogue, particularly in veterinary medicine.
Rubia cordifolia:Botanical Name:Rubia cordifolia
English Name:Indian Madder
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Manjishtha, Samanga
Rubia cordifolia is a prickly creeper or climber with rootstocks.
Its principal constituents are purpurin, munjistin, xanthopurpurin or purpuroxanthin and Pseudopurpurin. The roots are credited with tonic, antiseptic, astringent and deobstruent properties. They are used in rheumatism. It is useful in skin infections, ulcers, inflammation and other skin disorders. It also has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiallergic action.
Rumex maritimus:Botanical Name:Rumex maritimus
English Name:Golden Dock
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chukra bheda / Jungli palak
A stout erect annual.The fruit contain rumarin, rutin and hyperin. Seeds contain 5.1 per cent tannin. Roots contain chrysophanic acid, saccharose and tannin. They are purgative, refrigerant and antipruritic.
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