Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.
Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.
Contents: Saddled bream | Saffron | Sage | Sand smelt | Sardine | Saupe | Savory | Savoy cabbage | Scorpion fish | Sea bass | Sea urchin | Shallot | Shiitake mushroom | Snapper | Sole | Star fruit | Strawberry | Stripped bream | Sugar | Sun dried tomatoes | Sweet pepper | Sweet potato | Swiss chard | Saw Palmetto | Schisandra chinensis | Siberian Ginseng | Sinomenium acutum | Soy Bean | St. John's Wort | Spine Date Seed | Smoked Plum | Senna leaves | Semen Sennae | Strawberry leaves | Shiitake mushrooms | Sweet Corn | Szechwan Lovage Rhizome | Small Flowered Willow Herb | Sea Buckthorn | Slippery Elm | Spinach | Sorghum bicolor | Sunflower Seed | Seaweed | Santalum album | Sapindus trifoliatus | Sapindus mukorossi | Saraca asoca | Saussurea lappa | Saxifraga ligulata | Sesamum indicum | Shankha / Shankh bhasma | Shilajeet | Shingraf | Shorea robusta | Shuddha Gairika bhasma | Sida cordifolia | Solanum lycopersicum | Solanum nigrum | Solanum virginianum | Sourashtri bhasma | Sphaeranthus indicus | Strychnos nux vomica | Suvarnavanga | Swarnamakshik chirayita | Swertia chirayita | Symplocos racemosa | Syzygium aromaticum | Syzygium cumini | Safed Musli | Sapindus mukorossi | Sarsaparilla | Syzygium Cumini |
Saffron:Botanical Name:Crocus sativus
The red/orange thread-like 3 branched styles of the perennial crocus "Crocus sativus" with a penetrating aromatic flavour that is medicinal in high concentration. It is the most expensive spice known but a small amount will both flavour a dish and colour it a brilliant gold.
Sage:Botanical Name:Salvia officinalis
A perennial bush herb "Salvia officinalis" of the mint family which grows worldwide. It has silvery leaves, a highly aromatic flavor and aroma and is used as a flavoring esp. in Italian cooking. It goes well with fatty meats and liver.
Sand smelt:Small, silver fish with a sweet flavour and a soft backbone. Its body is long and round (cylindrical) with a pointy snout. Silver sides, silvery-white belly and a greenish back, with fine black lines that form a lattice effect. Grows no longer than 10 to 12 cm. Can be fried, like white bait, either plain or with eggs in an omelette.
Sardine:A very well known plump, tasty little fish, which is silvery-blue in color and has soft bones. It is caught in large quantities and can be eaten fresh, salted, smoked or tinned. When buying sardines make sure there are no yellow stripes along the sides of the body as these are either pilchards or trohioi, which are far inferior in taste. Sardines should be grilled.
Saupe:A relatively small fish which resembles the saddled bream in shape. It is ash colored with bright, horizontal golden-yellow lines. It is related to the bogue, but has many intestines and tasteless flesh, which often smells boggy. At times, large saupe are caught in the cleaner waters of the open seas and these are very tasty. This fish should be fried, grilled or oven baked with tomatoes, onion and garlic.
Savory:A perennial herb similar to thyme which comes in two main forms, summer savory and winter savory, q.v. Traditionally used to flavor beans.
Savoy cabbage:A winter ball type cabbage with dark green crinkly leaves surrounding a tight ball of similar but light green leaves. Excellent boiled, braised or steamed, then wrung out, chopped, buttered, seasoned and reheated. The finest cabbage commonly available.
Scorpion fish:A small, short, plump rockfish with many poisonous spikes. A very bony fish. There are dark scorpion fish that are brown-green in color and a red variety that is twice,or even 4 times,the size of the darker version. The small-bodied black scorpion fish has delicious white flesh, but stock juices from this fish are far tastier. It is always boiled.
Sea bass:Nice-looking silver fish with a slender body. It weighs up to 7.5 kilos. Superb flesh, particularly when it comes from clean, salty ocean waters. It must be eaten very fresh and can be cooked in all ways.
Sea urchin:Name:Paracentrotus lividus
A spherical-spine covered animal "Paracentrotus lividus" and other species up to 8 cm in diameter, which lives on rocky coasts in all oceans and seas. The spines require careful handling. They are opened when alive and the orange colored ovaries are removed and either eaten raw or used as a garnish. Must be live when purchased and consumed as soon as possible.
Shallot:Botanical Name:Allium cepa
A small hard onion "Allium cepa" Aggregatum Group which grows in clusters, usually stronger flavored than the onion. The green leaves may be harvested for use as a flavoring. Also spring onion.
Shiitake mushroom:Botanical Name:Lentinus edodes
A variety of fungus fruiting body "Lentinus edodes" from the Far East where it is grown on tree trunks, now grown in Europe on wheat straw. They have a white stem, a brown flattish cap and white ruffled ruffled gills. They are high in protein and keep their shape when cooked. The flavor intensifies on drying and they become darker. Often sold dried in Chinese shops as winter mushrooms. Lit. tree mushroom (also called Chinese dried black mushroom, black forest mushroom, fragrant mushroom, oak mushroom).
Snapper:Well-known, excellent fish with a slim, slightly flat body, ash-red in color. It weighs up to 600 grams and can be cooked in any way.
Sole:An odd-looking, flat fish with a chestnut colored back and an off-white belly. It contains few intestines and its flesh is excellent. It is always eaten fried, in oil or butter. Before cooking, the skin is removed, this can be done quite easily if a little very hot water is poured on the tail. Two types of sole are normally available on the market,longish ones and the more rounded variety. Its weight varies from 150 to 500 grams.
Star fruit:Botanical Name:Averrhoa carambola
The fruit of a small evergreen tree "Averrhoa carambola" from SEA which when cut across axis has the appearance of a five pointed star. The crisp yellow flesh has an acid, sweet and aromatic flavor and it is often used for decoration. The flavor and color are improved by poaching it in a little light syrup. It can also be used for jam and chutney (also called carambola).
Strawberry:The sweet, flavorsome and decorative fruit of a ground creeping perennial plant Fragaria x ananasa generally conical, to 5 cm long and consisting of a cluster of small fleshy globules, each of which has a single seed on the outer surface, around a central fleshy stem, with the remains of the calyx at the broad end. Eaten on their own with cream and possibly caster sugar or in made up desserts, tarts, cakes and jams; see also wild strawberry, Alpine strawberry.
Stripped bream:Excellent silver fish, with fine black stripes from the back to the belly. A slightly flat but regular body with a thin snout. Delicious, white flesh that can be cooked in any way. Sometimes it can weigh around 600 grams.
Sugar:The sweet-tasting water-soluble, monosaccharides and disaccharides crystallized from plant juices or obtained, usually as syrups, by breaking down starch.
Cooking Tips:We could replace 1 cup of sugar with 3/4 cup honey. To soften brown sugar when it is too hard, place a slice of apple in the sugar for some time.
Sun dried tomatoes:Dried tomatoes have a richer, more concentrated flavor than ordinary tomatoes. They're great for snacking, or tossing in salads or sauces or on pizzas. Dried tomatoes usually come either dry or packed in oil. If they're hard and dry, steep them in boiling water for about 5 minutes before using them.
Sweet pepper:Botanical Name:Capsicum annuum
The fruit of an annual bush "Capsicum annuum" Grossum Group which is green when unripe and passes through yellow to red as it becomes riper. Some can be purple or brown. They are generally about 8-15 cm long, 6-10 cm in diameter, possible tapering with a fleshy outer covered with a tough shiny skin and with small seeds in the mainly hollow interior. Known by their color (i.e. green, red peppers) or as paprika or bell peppers. Their flavor is due to the compound capsaicin which is an irritant in high concentrations (also called Spanish pepper).
Sweet potato:A starchy tuber similar to an elongated potato which grows on a tender perennial "Ipomoea batatus", with trailing stems usually grown as an annual in tropical and subtropical climates (24 to 26 Deg C). It has a white to purple skin and a dense white to orange flesh with a sweetish perfumed taste. Used as a staple food and cooked like potatoes. The leaves may also be eaten as spinach.
Swiss chard:Botanical Name:Beta vulgaris
A variety of beet "Beta vulgaris" Cicla Group grown for its dark crinkly glossy leaves with thick white or red stems which grow in a cluster from the base. The leaves and stems are generally cooked as seperate vegetables usually by steaming. Common in the Mediterranean countries and similar to spinach,also called chard, silver beet (Aus USA), white beetleaf beet, seakale beet.
Saw Palmetto:Botanical Name:Serenoa serrulata (Hook).
English Name:Sabal serrulata syn. Seronoa repens; Saw Palmetto
Common Name:Sabal, Shrub Palmetto, American Dwarf Palm, Cabbage Palm,Serenoa repens (Bartram), Sabal serrulatum (Roem Schult.), saw palmetto berries, sabal
The herb has proven to work faster than Proscor, a drug prescribed for an enlarged prostate. New theories hold that the herb may inhibit the action of an important hormone-regulating enzyme that converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone, a process believed to be important in the development of both an enlarged prostate and prostate cancer. Preventing this conversion is also the way finasteride works, which is the standard medication. Furthermore, it does not impair sexual function as does finasteride.
Schisandra chinensis:Botanical Name:Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.)Baill.
English Name:Schisandra fruit;Wu-wei-zi
The major active compounds in schisandra are lignans (schizandrin, deoxyschizandrin, gomisins, and pregomisin) found in the seeds of the fruit. Modern Chinese research suggests these lignans have a protective effect on the liver and an immuno-modulating effect. At least two human studies in China, one controlled and the other open, have shown that schisandra can help people with hepatitis.
Siberian Ginseng:Botanical Name:Eleutherococcus senticosus (or Acanthopanax senticosus)
English Name:Siberian Ginseng
Common Name:Siberian Ginseng, Ciwujia, Devil's Shrub, Touch-Me-Not, Ussurian thorny pepper-bush.
Siberian Ginseng is used by deep sea divers, long-distance drivers, mountain rescue workers, factory workers, athletes, submariners, and cosmonauts. After nearly a thousand studies, Siberian Ginseng has been shown to increase energy and stamina and to help the body resist viral infections, environmental toxins, radiation, and chemotherapy. In Chinese Medicine, E. senticosus has been used to prevent bronchial and other respiratory infections as well as viral infections.
Sinomenium acutum:Botanical Name:Sinomenium acutum (Thunb.) Rehd. et Wils.
English Name:Sinomenium acutum
Herbalists around the world know of many plants with inflammation inhibiting and anti-arthritic properties. Whether it be Bogbean (Menyanthes trifoliata), Nettles (Urtica dioica) or the Kalahari desert herb Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens), they all work. Such remedies are under intense investigations as anti-inflammatory agents. In a well known study, 163 species of plants and fungi were tested to determine their anti-inflammatory activity. Of the species tested, 17 exhibited between 30/39% inhibition of inflammation, 21 between 40/49%, 15 between 50/59%, 4 between 60/69%, and 2 gave greater than 70 % inhibition.
Soy Bean:Botanical Name:Soy Bean
English Name:Soy Bean
Known as the "cow of China", soy has been cultivated in China since at least the 11th century B.C. beginning of Spring - festival, celebrants scatter lucky roasted soybeans at home to ward off evil and to welcome in the new year with happiness.These soybeans are then eaten in a quantity equivalent to ones age to guarantee good health for the coming year. Soy-based products include glycerine,soaps,paint,linoleum, varnishes,enamel,rubber substitutes,artificial petroleum,and ink.
St. John's Wort:Botanical Name:Hypericum perforatum (L)
English Name:Common St. John's Wort, perforate St. John's wort, amber, goatweed, Johnswort, Klamath weed, Tipton weed, Hyperici herba
6th Century Christians named St. John's Wort ("wort" means plant) after St. John the Baptist,as they believed the flowers bled at his beheading. In fact, small glands in the flower petals exude a red oil which contains the marker chemical of interest, hypericin.
Safflower:Botanical Name:Carthamus tinctorius L.
English Name:Flos Carthami Tinctorii
Common Name:Alazor, Azafran, Beni-Bana, E'Sfer, False Saffron, Habb Et Quirthim, Huang Lan, Hung Hua, Hung Lan Hua, Kasumba, Kesumba, Qurtum, Saffloer, Safflower, Yao Hua
Safflower,Carthamus tinctorius L., is a member of the family Compositae or Asteraceae, is a thistle-like plant with a strong central branch stem, a varying number of branches, and a tap-root system. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. The seed oil content ranges from 30 to 45 percent. Flower color is usually yellow or orange, although some varieties have red or white flowers. Plant height in North Dakota varies between 15 and 30 inches depending on environmental conditions.
Spine Date Seed:Botanical Name:Semen Ziziphi Spinosae, dry seeds of Ziziphus spinosa Hu
English Name:Spine Date Seed
Common Name:Wild or Sping Jujuba Seed,suan zao ren,Chinese Sleeping Elixir,Sour Jujube,Zizyphus Seed,Zizyphus spinosa (Spine Date) seed,Semen Ziziphi Spinosa,Sour Jujube,Zizyphus Seed,Zizyphus spinosa; Zizyphus jujuba; Sour Jujuba Seed; Suan Zao Ren.
Sweet and acid in flavour, neutral in nature, it acts on the heart, liver and gallbladder channels. This herb is sweet in flavour and moist in nature. The sweetness and sourness can tonify Yin and nourishing liver and bladder, nourishing the heart and calming the mind. It is often used of insomnia and dreaminess due to deficiency of both Qi and blood and insufficient nourishing of heart and mind. This herb is sour in taste and astringing sweating. It can be used for treatment of hyperhidrosis due to general deficiency.
Smoked Plum:Botanical Name:Prunus mume (Sieb.) Sieb.et Zucc. (Fam. Rosaceae).
This herb is the smoked unripe fruit (green plum) of Prunus mume (Sieb.) Sieb. et Zucc. (family Rosaceae) which is produced mainly in Zhejiang, Fujian and Yunnan provinces of China. It is collected in summer and baked with mild heat till the pulp looks yellowish brown, and then covered tightly while hot till the pulp looks black. The black plum is dried in the sun after removal of the nucleus and used without further preparation or stir-baked to charcoal.
Senna leaves:Botanical Name:Cassia Angustifolia or Cassia acutifolia.
English Name:Cassia Senna(Cassia angustifolia or Cassia acutifolia)
Common Names:Alexandrian Senna, Cassia lenitiva, Cassia lanceolata, Cassia officinalis, East Indian Senna, Nubian Senna, Tinnevelly Senna,Cassia senna, Senna, Rajavriksha, Fan xia ye,American senna,locust plant
Senna is the most widely used anthranoid drug today and has been used for centuries in Western and Eastern systems of medicine as a laxative, usually taken as a tea or swallowed in powdered form.
Semen Sennae:Botanical Name:Cassia obtusifolia L. or Cassia tora L.
English Name:Semen Sennae
Common Name:Foetid Cassia seed,Juemingzi,chakramarda,chakunda,Jue ming zi,Prapanna
This herb is especially good for conditions of the eyes. it will brighten them and relieve pain, congestion, itchiness, redness, or sensitivity to light when caused by wind-heat conditions. It can also be used when there is headache along with some of the above conditions in cases of liver yang rising. It is useful when there is either chronic or acute constipation accompanying liver yin deficiency. it has been shown to be effective in lowering cholesterol and reducing blood pressure.
Strawberry leaves:Botanical Name:Fragariae folium
English Name:Strawberry leaves
Strawberry derived its name from "streowan" ("to stray"), probably a reference to its habit of casting runners to wander from its original position. Non-resident clergymen were often called strawberry preachers, because they strayed from their flocks for most of the year. The Latin title fragaria comes from fragrans in reference to the berries fruity scent. Perhaps the switch to the current name originated with farmers carting those berries to market on beds of straw.
Shiitake mushrooms:Botanical Name:Lentinus edodes (Berk.)Sing.
English Name:Lentinus elodes
Common Name:Lentinula edodes, Lentinus shiitake ,Cortinelus edodes,Armillaria edodes,Armillaria mellea,Hua gu,Oak Mushroom,golden oak mushroom, Oriental Black Mushroom,Chinese black mushroom,Glossagyne,Chinese shiitake mushrooms,shiitake,shiitake mushroom.
The Shiitake mushroom (or black Chinese Mushroom) has been hailed for both its culinary and medical benefits in Asia and especially China for hundreds of years, and its popularity worldwide increases every year. Shiitake has a hearty flavor and meaty texture that is wonderful sauted, broiled, baked, grilled, or stir fried. Shiitake makes a fabulous addition to almost any dish, and dried shiitakes can absorb your cooking sauce and add a unique flavor to your favorite meal.
Sweet Corn:Botanical Name:a).Zea mays L. b).Zea mays L. var rugosa
Common Name:Corn,Indian corn,Maize,Ix-im,Mais,Maiz,Thurah Safrah,Yu Kao Liang,Yu Shu Shu,Jagong,Bactrian typha, Barbary corn, ble de Turquie, Corn, Cornmeal, Cucurutz, Dent maize, Egyptian corn, Flint maize, Floury maize, Guinea corn, Indian corn, Indian meal, Kana, Maize, Mealies, Milbo, Popcorn, Roman corn, Sara chulpi, Sicilian corn, Spanish corn, Sweet corn, Syrian dourra, Turkie corne, Turkish wheat, Virginia wheat, Waxy maize, Welsch corn, Yellow maize.
Szechwan Lovage Rhizome:Botanical Name:Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.
English Name:Szechwan Lovage Rhizome
Common Name:Szechwan Lovage Rhizome,Rhizoma Chuanxiong,Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort.;Rhizoma Ligustici
This herb is the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort. (family Umbelliferae)which is manly produ-ced in Sichuan Pro-vince. It is collectedin summer,washed cleanafter getting rid ofthe hairy rootlets,baked dry, slice,and used unprepared or stir- baked with wine.
Small Flowered Willow Herb:Botanical Name:Epilobium parviflorum Schreber
English Name:Hoary willowherb
Common Name:Small Flowered Willow Herb,Rosebay Willowherb(Rose Bay Willow herb),hoary willowherb,Epilobium parviflorum,WILLOWHERB (Hairy) EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM
The name of the genus Epilobium is from the Greek words epi (upon) and lobos (a pod), from the fact that the flowers stand upon the top of long, thin, pod-like seed-vessels, having somewhat the appearance of rather thick flower-stems. In Ireland, we find it called 'Blooming Sally,' Sally being a corruption of the Latin Salix, the Willow, really a reference to the willow-like leaves. In America, it springs up on ground recently cleared by firing, being one of the plants called 'Fireweed'.
Sea Buckthorn:Botanical Name:Hippophae Rhamnoides
English Name:Sea Buckthorn
Common Name:Sea Buckthorn (English), Sanddorn (German), Argousier (French), Finbar (Swedish), Homokt?vis (Hungarian), Star-Bu or Dhar-Bu (Tibetan), Oblepiha (Russian), Tindved (Danish), Rokitnik (Polish) ,Espino Falso, Oblebicha, Olivella Spinosa, Sallow Thorn, Duindoorn, Seabuckthorn.
Sea Buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) is a very thorny shrub or small tree native to eastern Europe and Asia. It has nitrogen fixing properties and is very tolerant of drought and poor soils, so has been introduced as a shelter belt plant in some of the plains States and Canada. In eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union the berries are commonly harvested for juice, which has nutritious and other healthful properties. Medicinal uses of extracted plant oils are also well documented in Europe and Asia.
Slippery Elm:Botanical Name:Ulmus fulva (MICH.)
English Name:Sibiria Elm
Common Name:Ulmus rubra, Ulmus fulva,Slippery Elm,Michaux,Ulmus rubra Muhl., Ulmus fulva Muhl.Slippery elm,Ulmus pumila L.,American Elm, Elm, Indian Elm, Moose Elm, Red Elm, Sweet Elm, Ulmus fulva, Ulmus rubra, Winged Elm,Ulmus rubra (Muhl.), rock elm, winged elm,Red Elm,Moose Elm,Indian Elm.
Slippery elm inner bark is very rich in mucilage, a complex mixture of polysaccharides that form a soothing gelatinous fiber when water is added. The pleasant tasting high fibre 'gruel' or porridge made by adding water to the bark was traditionally used as both a food and a medicine by First Nations peoples, and later by European colonists.
Spinach:Botanical Name:Spinacia oleracea (LINN.)
English Name:Spinacia oleracea
Spinach has been used as a food throughout the world, but it has several medicinal applications as well. In addition to being a great source of vitamins and minerals, Spinach also shows promise as a cancer fighter, a mental stimulant, an anti-oxidant, and an aid against bone loss.
Sorghum bicolor:Botanical Name:Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench
English Name:broomcorn, durra, forage sorghum, grain sorghum, great millet, Kaffir-corn, milo, shallu sorghum, sweet sorghum,Milo
Common Name:Sorghum guineense Stapf, Sorghum nervosum Besser ex Schultes,Sorghum,Sorghum (Eng.) graansorghum (Afr);mabele (Pedi,Sotho,Ndebele);amabele(Z) amazimba (Xhosa),broomcorn, durra, forage sorghum, grain sorghum, great millet, Kaffir-corn, milo, shallu sorghum, sweet sorghum,Milo
Sorghum is a secondary noxious weed in Iowa because it can cause problems in corn and soybean fields, but it is also planted as a crop for syrup and grain. Horticultural selections have been made for color and height. Ornamental sorghum is an easily grown annual. The attractive seed heads can be used for fresh or dried arrangements. Many of the available selections are very tall and are a dramatic backdrop for other plants.
Sunflower Seed:Botanical Name:Helianthus annuus
English Name:Sunflower Seed,sunflower Kernels
Common Name:Marigold of Peru. Corona Solis. Sola Indianus. Chrysanthemum Peruvianum.
What is called the flower is actually a head (formerly composite flower) of numerous flowers crowded together. The outer flowers are the ray florets and can be yellow, maroon, orange, or other colors. These flowers are sterile. The flowers that fill the circular head inside the ray flowers are called disc florets. The arrangement of florets within this cluster is typically such that each is separated from the next by approximately the golden angle, producing a pattern of spirals where the number of left spirals and the number of right spirals are successive Fibonacci numbers. The disc florets mature into "seeds". However, what we commonly call the seeds are actually the fruit (an achene) of the plant, with the true seeds encased in an inedible husk.
Seaweed:Botanical Name:Seaweed Laver
From the polars to the tropics, estimates range from 20,000 to 130,000 species of seaweed can be found, but the real figure is probably around 45,000. Between the United States and Africa in the North Atlantic Ocean, lies a free-floating meadow of seaweed almost as large as a continent. This is the famous Sargasso Sea. Christopher Colombus is said to have discovered it as he sailed toward the New World in 1492.
Santalum album:Botanical Name:Santalum album
English Name:Sandalwood Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Chandana
A small to medium-sized, evergreen semi-parasitic tree, with slender branches, valued for its heartwood.
Both the wood and the oil have long been employed in medicine.The main constituent of sandalwood oil is santalol. It is used to alleviate itching and inflammation. It is credited with cooling,diaphoretic, diuretic and expectorant properties, and sandalwood finds several applications in household remedies.
Sapindus trifoliatus:Botanical Name:Sapindus trifoliatus
English Name:Soapnut-tree of South India
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Arishta, Phenila
A medium-sized deciduous tree found wild in south India, usually with 2-3 pairs of leaves and with partially united 2-3 smaller (pea sized) drupes.
The saponins A and C and sapindosids A and B extracted from the rind of the fruit showed antifungal activity. The pericarp contains two new triterpenoid saponins, emarginatoside-B and emarginatoside-C.The fruits possess tonic and astringent properties.
Sapindus mukorossi:Botanical Name:Sapindus mukorossi
English Name:Soapnut-tree of North India
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Phenila, Arishta
A deciduous tree found wild in north India, usually with 5-10 pairs of leaves, solitary with large drupes.
The fruit is valued for the saponins (10.1 %) present in the pericarp which constitutes up to 56.5 per cent of the drupe. The fruits are credited with expectorant and emetic properties and are used in the treatment of excessive salivation, epilepsy and chlorosis. The powdered seeds are said to possess insecticide properties. They are employed in the treatment of dental caries. It cleanses the skin of oily secretion and is even used as a cleanser for washing hair and a hair tonic, and forms a rich, natural lather. Its detergent action, which cleanses the hair and removes, accumulated debris and a sebaceous material further more imparting speculiar reflection and hair luster.
Saraca asoca:Botanical Name:Saraca asoca / Saraca indica
English Name:Ashoka Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ashoka, Gandhapushpa
Saraca asoca is a small evergreen tree.
Its principal constituents are a steroid component and a calcium salt. The bark of Saraca indica contains the estrogenic compound ketosterol. The bark has a stimulating effect on the endometrium and ovarian tissue, is useful in menorrhagia due to uterine fibroids,in leucorrhea and in internal bleeding, where ergot is indicated.It is well established for its effectiveness in menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. It also has a stimulatory effect on the ovarian tissue and may produce an oestrogen-like effect that enhances the repair of the endometrium and stops bleeding.
Saussurea lappa:Botanical Name:Saussurea lappa
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kushtha
An erect robust perennial herb, the dried roots of which constitute the drug.
The roots contain resinoids, essential oil, alkaloid, inulin, a fixed oil and other minor constituents like tannins and sugars.The essential oil of the roots has strong antiseptic, disinfectant and anti-inflammatory properties. An alcoholic extract of the herb has been found very useful in the treatment of bronchial asthma.
Saxifraga ligulata:Botanical Name:Saxifraga ligulata / Bergenia ligulata / B.ciliata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Pasanabheda
A perennial herb with stout rootstock.
The dried rhizomes constitute the drug that contains an active principle, bergenin, as well as gallic acid, glucose, mucilage and wax. The presence of ß-sitosterol and four flavonoids is also reported. The drug is reported to possess astringent, tonic, antiscorbutic,and laxative properties. It is given in pulmonary affection, dysentery,ulcers, dysuria, spleen enlargement, cough and fever. It is helpful in dissolving kidney stones.
Sesamum indicum:Botanical Name:Sesamum indicum
English Name:Sesame, Gingelly
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Tila
It is an annual herb cultivated in the plains throughout India, for its edible oil from seeds. It used for preparation of pharmaceutical products and ointments especially in inflammatory conditions.
Sesbania sesban:Botanical Name:Sesbania sesban / S. aegyptiaca
English Name:Common Sesban, Egyptian Rattle Pod
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Jayantika, Jayanti
It is a soft wooded, tall, short-lived plant with yellow dotted purple or red flowers. Saponins were identified from the aerial parts. It has antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial properties.
Shankha:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shankha / Shankh bhasma
English Name:Conch Shell Calx, Conch Shell Ash
It is the calcinated conch shell of Turbinella pyrum. It mainly consists of calcium, iron and magnesium. It is well known for its antacid and digestive properties.It is useful in hyperchlorhydria, sprue, colic, and hepato- splenomegaly.
Shilajeet:English Name:Mineral Pitch
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shilajeet
It has astringent and anti-inflammatory properties and is used in the treatment of painful, bleeding piles and varicose veins.It has anti-stress, hypolipidemic, anxiolytic and nootropic activity.
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shingraf, Hingula
This sulfide occurs in nature as a fine grained, dark-red, very heavy mineral ore of mercury called Cinnabar in many parts of the world. This substance, except for slight impurities, which it may contain, has the same chemical composition as "Makaradhvaja". In ayurvedic practice, however, Hingula and Makaradhvaja are claimed to possess entirely different properties. Not only is it considered different from Makaradhvaja (the prepared red sulfide of mercury), but it is also believed to be different from the other sulfide of mercury like Kajjali and Krishnaparpati(both of which are black sulphides of mercury) and Rasa-sindhura (red sulfide of mercury).
Shuddha Hingula (Purified Cinnabar) is prepared by grinding cinnabar with goats milk for over 6 hours, followed by grinding this mixture with lime juice for one hour. This process is repeated 7 times till a fine powder is obtained. The small doses of mercury diminish the amount of oxidation of the tissues, as evidenced by the variations in the gaseous interchange. The administration of small doses of mercury to rabbits, dogs and men causes an increase in the number of red blood corpuscles while the body gains in weight and the general nutrition is improved.
Mercury is tonic, alterative, purgative, indirect cholagogue, antiphlogistic,antiseptic and sialagogue. In small doses it acts as a blood tonic by increasing the number of red blood corpuscles and thus in syphilis it counteracts the effects of toxins in the blood. In large doses it impoverishes the blood and lessens its coagulability and therefore it should not be used in hemorrhagic diathesis and cases of repeated attacks of menorrhagia.
Red sulfide of mercury is extremely efficacious in liver complaints,such as commencing cirrhosis of the liver, dyspepsia, chronic dysentery and similar and other allied diseases, such as chronic diarrhea.
Shorea robusta:Botanical Name:Shorea robusta
English Name:Sal Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shala
A large sub-deciduous tree, which on tapping yields an oleoresin, which contains triterpenoids, the derivatives of ursonic and oleanane and a new triterpene acid.
The resin is used in the indigenous systems of medicine as an astringent and detergent and is given in diarrhea and dysentery. It is also used as an ingredient of ointments for skin diseases and in ear troubles.
Shuddha Gairika bhasma:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shuddha Gairika bhasma
English Name:Hematite Calx
Sida cordifolia:Botanical Name:Sida cordifolia
English Name:Country Mallow
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Bala, Vatya
Sida cordifolia is a small, downy, erect shrub with tawny-yellow flowers.
Its principal constituent is Ephedrine which is one of the alkaloids reported to be present. It contains phytosterol and potassium nitrate.The phytosterols have estrogenic activity. It is used traditionally in cases of spermatorrhea, polyurea, leucorrhea and certain nervine disorders such as monoplegia, sciatica, palsy, etc.
Solanum lycopersicum:Botanical Name:Solanum lycopersicum / Lycopersicon esculentum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Raktamaci, Tamatar
An unarmed, spreading, pubescent herb with a strong characteristic odor and grayish green, curled, unevenly pinnate leaves, cultivated throughout the world for its fruit.
Tomato contains general tonic, folic acid, pantothenic acid, biotin,vitamin K and inhibitols which are related to vitamin E. The principal organic acid present in the tomato fruit is citric acid. Carotenoids,ß-carotene and lycopene, constitute the chief coloring matters of tomato. The alcoholic extract of tomato has central depressant and analgesic property.
Solanum nigrum:Botanical Name:Solanum nigrum
English Name:Black Nightshade
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kakamachi
Solanum nigrum is a suffrutescent weed. Its principal constituents are a- and b-solamargine and solasonine. The plant is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis of the liver and is also credited with emollient,diuretic, antiseptic and laxative properties.
It has a protective effect on the liver and has shown hepatoprotective activity in cases of toxicity induced by drugs and chemicals.
Solanum xanthocarpum:Botanical Name:Solanum xanthocarpum / S. virginianum / S. surattense
English Name:Yellow Berried Nightshade
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kantakari
A very spiny diffuse herb with blue flowers and yellow, globose berries.
Solasonine is present in the fruits. The plant is employed for cough, asthma and pains in the chest. The plant is also credited with diuretic properties and is used to cure dropsy.
Sourashtri bhasma:English Name:Alum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Sourashtri bhasma / Saurashtri
The term 'alum' is applied to a group of hydrated double salts, which are characterized by easy solubility in water and a strong astringent taste. Common alum refers to potassium aluminum sulfate. It is also known as potash alum. Medicinally,it has styptic and astringent properties.
Sphaeranthus indicus:Botanical Name:Sphaeranthus indicus
English Name:East Indian Globe Thistle
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Mundi
An aromatic herb,with purple flower heads.Flowers are credited with alterative, depurative, and tonic properties.The flowers contain albumins, a semi-drying fatty oil, reducing sugars, tannins, mineral matter, a volatile oil, and a glucoside.
Squalus carchorius:Botanical Name:Squalus carchorius
Sanskrit / Indian Name:
Shark liver oil is the oil obtained from fresh or carefully preserved liver of various species of shark. Shark liver oil is a rich source of Vitamin A. It is used in burn and sun burn ointments. It is an emollient and protectant classified in the FDA.
Strychnos nux vomica:Botanical Name:Strychnos nux vomica
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Shudha kupilu, Vishamushti
An evergreen or deciduous tree with coin like seeds that contain the strongly toxic alkaloids strychnine and brucine.In indigenous medicine, it is used as a tonic, stimulant and febrifuge and its preparations are prescribed for nervous disorders.
English Name:Mosaic Gold
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Suvarnavanga
It is an unsublimed tin preparation having a golden luster and flaky texture. It is useful in complaints of the reproductive organs.It is indicated as a rejuvenator and a tonic of high potency which induces health, vigor, improves appetite, increases memory, generates semen of high quality, cures gonorrhea, spermatorrhea, and leukorrhea.
Suvarnavanga has been used as an aphrodisiac, brain tonic, antiemetic and in skin diseases, night sweats, diseases caused by the derangement of vata and kapha. It improves the complexion.It also has anthelmintic property in addition to the above mentioned uses.
Swarnamakshik chirayita:Sanskrit / Indian Name:Swarnamakshik chirayita
English Name:Chalcopyrites Calx
It is prepared from chalcopyrites, the main ore of copper. It contains copper, iron, calcium, sodium and potassium. It is a tonic, alternative and useful in rheumatism, gonorrhea, heart disease, anemia, leukorrhea,eye diseases, etc.
Swertia chirayita:Botanical Name:Swertia chirayita / S.chirata
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Kirata
An erect annual with a four angled stem.Chiretta is reported to contain a yellow bitter acid, ophelic acid, two bitter glucosides, chiratin and amarogentin, gentiopicrin, two yellow crystalline phenols and a new xanthone, swerchirin. lt is particularly useful as a tonic or mild febrifuge. In Indian medicine,chiretta is prescribed in a variety of forms and combinations in chronic fevers and anemia. It is credited with tonic, febrifuge,laxative, stomachic, anthelmintic, and anti diarrhoeal properties.It also exhibits hypoglycemic activity.
Symplocos racemosa:Botanical Name:Symplocos racemosa
English Name:Lodh Tree
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Lodhra
It is an evergreen tree or shrub, with white flowers turning yellow and purplish black drupes.
Its principal constituents are the three alkaloids, viz. loturine,loturidine and colloturine. The astringent bark is given for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and liver complaints. It is recommended in the treatment of menorrhagia and other uterine disorders. The stem bark is having anti-inflammatory property as well as hypothermic properties.
Syzygium aromaticum:Botanical Name:Syzygium aromaticum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Lavanga
A pyramidal or conical evergreen tree with gland dotted leaves cultivated mainly for the flower buds (cloves).
The clove bud oil contains free eugenol, eugenol acetate, Gallic acid and caryophyllene as its main constituents that are good antioxidants.The cloves are aromatic, stimulant and carminative. They are used in various forms of gastric irritation and dyspepsia. They are administered to relieve nausea and vomiting, to correct flatulence and to excite languid digestion. The oil is used as a local analgesic for hypersensitive dentine and carious cavities; a mixture of oil and zinc calx is used as a temporary filling for tooth-cavities. Used externally,the oil is rubefacient and counterirritant; internally, it is carminative and antispasmodic.
Syzygium aromaticum is useful in coughs and other respiratory disorders. It improves the breath and is a popular remedy for sore throat, headaches and coryza.
Syzygium cumini:Botanical Name:Syzygium cumini / Eugenia jambolana
English Name:Black Plum
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Jambu
It is a large, evergreen tree.Its seeds have b-sitosterols, its fruits contain citric, malic and Gallic acids. Its fruit, powdered seed-kernel and its aqueous extract have all been shown to lower the level of blood sugar in diabetes mellitus. It diminishes the level of sugar in the urine and allays the unquenchable thirst typical in diabetes. The bark and leaf are used in diarrhea.
Safed Musli:Botanical Name:CHLOROPHYTUM BORIVILIANUM
English Name:Safed Musli
Uses:Aphrodasiac, tonic, pain reliever and used to cure general debility and impotency. Its powder increases lactation in feeding mothers and lactating cows. It is being increasingly used in Ayurvedic and Pharmaceutical Industries.
Part Used : Seeds; Habitat : Northern and Western India.
Sapindus mukorossi:Botanical Name:Sapindus mukorossi
Common Name:SOAPNUT SHELLS, SOAPNUT LAURIFOLIA, SOAPNUT WHOLE, SOAPNUT POWDER, SOAPNUT IN PRINTED COTTON BAGS WITH REVERSIBLE STRINGS ALONG WITH WASH BAGS
Part Used:Soapnuts, soapnut shells, soapnut shells powder
Habitat :Through out India, Nepal in lower forests
Uses:Soap nut is used in Cleansing Lotion, Protein Shampoo, Protein Shampoo with Conditioner. Soap nut contains a high level of saponins. Antibacterial mild foaming agent, cleanser, exfoliant. Soap nut Powder is used to cleanse hair, skin and laundry. Helpful in removing stains from hands. May soothe the eczema, psoriasis, itchy skin, sensitive skin . Soapnut is an excellent hair tonic. Soap Nut extract comes from the fruit of the Soapnut tree. The pulp of the fruit contains a high level of natural foaming agents. This extract can be used to wash skin and hair. Soap nut when added to a facial mix of milk powder and clay to provide delicate cleansing of the skin, it is added to salt scrubs to add cleansing action.
Description:medium sized deciduous tree upto 20m in height with grey smooth bark, peeling offin scales, leaves pinnate, leaflets 2-3 pairs, terminal pair being the largest, flowers white, polygamous, male flowers many, bisexual flowers few, all in the same pubescent panicle, fruits fleshy drupes, the pulp becoming a saponaceous wrinkled rind on drying, seeds black.
Sarsaparilla:Botanical Name:HEMIDESMUS INDICUS
Common Name:SARASAPARILLA, INDIAN SARASAPARILLA, ANANTAMOOL
Uses: It is Tonic, Diuretic, Demulcent, Disphoretic and Blood purifier. Employed in Nutritional disorders, syphilis, chronic rheumatism, gravel and other urinary diseases and skin afections. It is also employed as a vehicle for Pottasium Iodine.
Syzygium Cumini:Botanical Name:Syzygium Cumini
Common Name:EUGENIA JAMBOLANA, PLUM, BLACK PLUM, JAMAN, JAMBOLAN
Part Used:Seeds,Leaves, Fruits,Bark
Uses:The leaves are antibacterial, and are used for strengthning the teeth and gums.. The fruit and seeds are sweet, acrid, sour, tonic, and cooling, and are used in diabities, diarrhoea and ringworm. The bark is astringent, sweet sour, diuretic, digestive and anthelmintic.
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