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Glossary Online Glossary edited with meticulous attitude and published as convenience for site content reference,including glossaries of related different topics,Glossary Recipes are dedicated to ancient recipes and spices.The earliest known recipes date from approximately 1600 BC and come from an Akkadian tablet from southern Babylonia!

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 A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, leaf, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for the purpose of flavour, colour, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth.Spices, however, are dried and often ground or grated into a powder.

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 Many of these substances are also used for other purposes, such as medicine, religious rituals, cosmetics, perfumery or eating as vegetables. For example, turmeric is also used as a preservative; liquorice as a medicine; garlic as a vegetable. In some cases they are referred to by different terms.

 Contents: White Willow Bark | Wild Yam | White Peony Root | Watermelon Peel | Wild Cherry Bark | Western Larch | Withania somnifera | Woodfordia fructicosa | Wrightia tinctoria |

 White Willow Bark
 White Willow Bark:Botanical Name:Salix alba
Common Name:Salicin willow,Willow withe,Withy
White willow bark is the original source of salicin, a weaker forerunner of aspirin. Through the ages, long before the discovery of its constituent salicin, white willow bark was used to combat many painful conditions, including rheumatism, headache, neuralgia, arthritis, gout, and angina.
 Wild Yam
 Wild Yam:Botanical Name:Dioscorea Villosa
Common Name:Colic-root, Devil's-bones, Rheumatism Root, Wilde Yamwurzel, rheumatism root, China root, devil's bones, yuma, Mexican wild yam, wilde yamwurzel,wild Mexican yam.
Dioscorea root contains diosgenin, which has anti-fatigue, anti-inflammatory, anti-stress, hypocholesterolemic, and estrogenic effects. Dioscorea is antispasmodic, and could be helpful for nausea of pregnant women (morning sickness), spasmodic hiccough and asthma.Most women experience lack of progesterone, not estrogen.Natural progesterone supplements are used to balance estrogen. Natural progesterone has a structure similar to that of human progesterone and is made form plant fats; one of such fats is diosgenin. Wild Yam is reach in diosgenin, so it became the most popular source of natural progesterone.
 White Peony Root
 White Peony Root:Botanical Name:Paeonia lactiflora Pall
English Name:Chinese Peony Root
Common Name:Baishao, bo-baishao, chuan-baishao, hang-baishao, mu-shaoyao, mudan, paeoniae alba, paeony, pai shao yao, pe-shou, peony, peony root, Pfingstrose, shakuyaku, shaoyao, syakuyaku, white peony, white-flowered peony.
Peony Root was used at one time to keep away evil spirits and to prevent nightmares. Since the days of Hippocrates (470-377 B.C.), Peony Root has been recommended as a remedy for epilepsy. The seeds of this plant were even worn as necklaces to ward off the disease. Only Paeonia suffruticosa (Tree Peony) is used as an antiseptic and hepato-tonic, as well as used for female infertility. Peony clears blood congestion following traumatic injury. Peony Root is used for many female complaints. In particular, it is considered to be highly effective in relieving menstrual cramps. It reduces muscle tension, yet at the same time stimulates uterine muscles.
 Watermelon Peel:Botanical Name:Exocarpium Citrulli
English Name:whitish skin of watermelon
Watermelon native to Africa and spread to Asia,Europe,America,spread to Kitan Kingdom at about year 950~1000,then come into the China mainland.Phytochemicals and Nutrients of Watermelon Peel:Watermelon rich in water,citrulline,deiminase,Alanine,Glutamic Acid,Fructose,sugarcane,Glucose,Vitamine C,Calcium,Potassium,Phosphorus and other minerals.
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 Wild Cherry Bark
 Wild Cherry Bark:Botanical Name:Prunus serotina
English Name:Wild Cherry Bark
Common Name:Virginian Prune. Black Cherry,Wild or Choke Cherry Alias - Choke or Black Cherry Part used - Bark ;Wild Cherry, Virginian Prune, Black Cherry, Black Choke, Choke Cherry, Rum Cherry ,Wild Black Cherry,Prunus serotina,Ajamoda,Black Cherry,Black Choke,Caban Cherry,Choke Cherry,Padmaka,Rub Cherry,Virginia Prune.
Native Americans were the first to discover its healthful qualities, using Wild Cherry Bark to treat diarrhea and pulmonary complaints. Some used Wild Cherry Bark in tea form to ease labor pains. Later, European settlers used Wild Cherry Bark in cough syrups and as a poultice for abscesses and ulcers. Wild Cherry Bark is still used as a cough suppressant, especially in cases of bronchitis, whooping cough, and asthma. It contains prussic acid, which is known to calm the nerves associated with the coughing reflex.
 Western Larch
 Western Larch:Botanical Name:Larix occidentalis Nutt.
English Name:Larch Arabinogalactan
Common Name:Western Larch,Larch Arabinogalactan,AG.
Larch arabinogalactan is extracted from the heartwood of the western larch Larix occidentalis. These arabinogalactans have a backbone of (1-3)-linked beta-D-galactopyranosyl units each of which containa a side chain at position C-6. Most of these side chains are galacrobiosyl units containing a (1-6)-beta-D-linkage. Another side chain type that occurs is a single L-arabinofuranose unit or 3-O-(beta-L-arabinopyranosyl)-alfa-L-arabinofuranosyl units. Applications for the arabinogalactan are as emulsifiers, stabilisers and binders in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. More recently interest has been focussed on the use of this polysaccharide as a low viscosity dietary fibre and as a probiotic.
 Withania somnifera
 Withania somnifera:Botanical Name:Withania somnifera
English Name:Winter Cherry
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Ashvagandha
Withania somnifera is an erect shrub. The plant has steroidal lactones- withanolides, withaferin, which are estrogenic compounds.
The principal constituents of its roots are the alkaloids somnine,somniferine, withanine, tropine, psuedotropine and anaferine. It is used in asthma and as a uterine sedative. Its alkaloids showed relaxant and antispasmodic effects against several spasmogens on intestinal, uterine, bronchial, tracheal and blood vascular muscles.
It is a rasayana agent in the indigenous system of medicine, Ayurveda. It helps in increasing the sense of well being and improves sexual performance.
 Woodfordia fructicosa
 Woodfordia fructicosa:Botanical Name:Woodfordia fructicosa
English Name:Fire Flame Bush
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Dhataki
A much-branched, beautiful shrub, with fluted stems and long, spreading branches.
The flowers yield a red dye. They contain a fairly high level of tannin. They are used in bowel complaints and hemorrhages and administered in menorrhagia and seminal weakness. An extract of the plant was found to stimulate the contraction of the intestinal loop, and investigations have corroborated the clinical use of the drug in bowel complaints.The drug also shows antipyretic action which compares favorably with that of acetylsalicylic acid. The dried flowers are powdered and sprinkled over ulcers and wounds to diminish discharge and promote granulation.
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 Wrightia tinctoria
 Wrightia tinctoria:Botanical Name:Wrightia tinctoria
English Name:Sweet Indrajao
Sanskrit / Indian Name:Stri kutaja,Hyamaraka
A small, deciduous tree with a light gray, scaly smooth bark.
It is effective in psoriasis and nonspecific dermatitis. The leaves are used in various skin disorders including herpes. It has astringent and anti-inflammatory activities, used as an antibacterial in several skin disorders. It has antidandruff activity and is used in the treatment of various scalp and skin disorders.

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