Pharmacological,Clinical Studies of Rhodiola rosea and its Constituents Rosavins and Salidroside,Administration Guide.
- Basic Botanical information of Rhodiola rosea.
- History of Rhodiola rosea and Discovery of Adaptogens.
- Rhodiola rosea in Traditional Medicine.
- Specific Constituents set Rhodiola rosea apart from other Rhodiola species.
- Rhodiola rosea and its Indications in Modern Medicine Practice.
- Pharmacological,Clinical Studies of Rhodiola rosea and its Constituents Rosavins and Salidroside,Administration Guide.
- HPLC Analysis of rosavins and salidroside.
- Phytochemistry and Composition of Rhodiola rosea.
- Rhodiola Rosea:Applications in Summary and Side Effects.
- Introduction of Rhodiola Crenulata and its Traditional Uses.
- Research Update of Rhodiola rosea.Rosavin.
- Photo Gallery of Rhodiola Rosea and Rhodiola Crenulata.
The traditional use of R. rosea as a tonic in Siberian and Russian medicine stimulated extensive research leading to identification of R. rosea as an adaptogen a substance that nonspecifically increases the resistance of an organism and does not disturb normal biological parameters. Studies in cell cultures, animals, and humans have revealed antifatigue, anti-stress, antihypoxic (protection against damaging effects of oxygen deprivation), anticancer, antioxidant, immune enhancing and sexual stimulating effects.Since the Russian and Bulgarian literature is so extensive, this discussion will highlight seminal studies and major reviews. The authors were fortunate to gain access to original reviews, articles, and doctoral theses. This overview relies heavily on monographs and peer-reviewed publications. The research data contained in these documents are helpful for understanding recent human studies in normal and pathological conditions.
Pharmacological activity - quality matters!:
There are products on the market that contain Rhodiola rosea. But unfortunately these products often have only limited or even no biological activity at all. Common reasons for these deficiencies are bad harvesting during the wrong season, harvesting from a climatic rigion not suitable for the plant or from a bad geographic area, harvesting wear species of the plant, also overdrying, or using an inferior extraction method. The manufacturing process also is a key factor in the preparation of a high quality adaptogenic extract, as is the selection of high quality raw materials using proper assay methods. The main active components of true Rhodiola rosea that are responsible for the extraordinary potency of Rhodiola rosea are cinnamol alcohol glycosides, especially ROSAVIN - cinnamyl-O-(6-O-L-arabinopyranosyl-D-glucopyranosid) and SALIDROSIDE. Quality Rhodiola rosea extract should contain at least 3% rosavins and 1% or less salidroside.
1.Effects of Salidroside upon the Central Nervous System.:
The systematic study of the pharmacological effects of Rhodiola rosea, begun in 1965, found that small and medium doses had a simulating effect, such as lengthening the time mice swim and remain on vertical perches to the limit of their abilities. In contrast, larger doses were found to have more sedative effects. Small doses increased the bioelectrical activity of the brain, presumably by direct effects on the brainstem ascending and descending reticular formation.Further studies showed that medium range doses, unlike tranquilizers, enhanced the development of conditioned avoidance reflexes in rats and facilitated learning based on emotionally positive reinforcement.Overall, in small and medium doses, R. rosea stimulated norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT), and nicotinic cholinergic effects in the central nervous system (CNS). It also enhanced the effects of these neurotransmitters on the brain by increasing the permeability of the blood brain barrier to precursors of DA and 5-HT.
In comparing studies of Rhodiola rosea, Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey., Araliaceae), meclofenoxate (centrophenoxine), piracetam, citicholine, and other nootropics (substances that enhance cognition, protect the brain, and have low toxicity and few side effects), Petkov and colleagues noted that all of these agents enhance learning and memory in animal models and increase 5-HT levels in the frontal cerebral cortex. Diagram 1 illustrates the possible effects of R. rosea on neurotransmitters in multiple neuronal pathways.Starting in the brain stem, R. rosea promotes release of NE, 5-HT, and DA in ascending pathways that activate the cerebral cortex and the limbic system.Consequently, the cognitive (thinking, analyzing, evaluating, calculating, and planning) functions of the cerebral cortex and the attention, memory, and learning functions of the prefrontal and frontal cortex are enhanced. Other neuronal systems also contribute to the many aspects of memory: encoding, sorting, storage, and retrieval. For example, the cholinergic system uses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) and contributes to memory function via pathways ascending from the memory storage systems of the limbic system to various areas of the cerebral cortex (memory retrieval). Agents that block Ach suppress the activity of these ascending pathways and interfere with memory. R. rosea reverses this blockade. The deterioration of these systems with age results in age-associated memory loss. Rhodiola rosea may prevent or ameliorate some age-related dysfunction in these neuronal systems.
Anti Depression:Rhodiola boost serotonin precursors
Depression is a consequence of insufficient serotonin levels in the body brought about by various stimuli. Active compounds found within rhodiola (rosavin and salidroside) improve the passage of serotonin precursors through the blood-brain barrier. Research has also shown rhodiola to help preserve serotonin by inhibiting the activity of COMT (catechol-o-methyl transferase.) Rhodiola can increase serotonin by 30% and decrease COMT by up to 60%.
Prozac, St John's Wort and Rhodiola - different actions We have seen that depression can be due to low levels of serotonin. Prozac effectively puts a cork on the cell to stop serotonin leaking. St John's Wort has a gentler action. It is a MAO inhibitor, (MAO breaks down serotonin). Rhodiola effects a balancing action on serotonin by enhancing the production, distribution and uptake of key nutrients essential for the production of serotonin in the brain. St John's Wort can effect the utilisation of orthodox drugs. St John's Wort appears to enhance their utilisation and excretion through the liver. There is no evidence to conclude that Rhodiola would have a similar effect on the liver.
2.Rhodiola rosea as super antioxidant for nevous system.:
As an antioxidant, R. rosea may help protect the nervous system from oxidative damage by free radicals. Stress interferes with memory functions and, over time, causes deterioration in memory systems. In addition to enhancing cognitive functions, learning, and memory by stimulating NE, DA, 5-HT, and Ach neuronal systems, Rhodiola rosea may exert positive effects on memory and cognition by improving resistance to physical and emotional stress. Thus, the dual action of cognitive stimulation and emotional calming creates benefits for both immediate cognitive and memory performance and for the long-term preservation of brain functions.
The psychostimulant effects of R. rosea were studied in 53 healthy subjects and 412 patients with neuroses and asthenic syndromes (of both functional and organic origin). Symptoms of asthenia (fatigue, decline in work capacity, trouble falling asleep, poor appetite, irritability, and headaches) responded favorably to Rhodiola rosea 50 mg three times a day. Treatment durations ranged from 10 days to 4 months. The asthenic states included both psychiatric and physical causes, for example, following influenza or other illness. In an open study of 128 patients aged 17-55 years, Rhodiola rosea alleviated fatigue, irritability, distractibility, headache, weakness and other vegetative symptoms in 64 percent of cases.Improvement was assessed by psychological testing and work productivity.
In 1869 Beard coined the term "neurasthenia" to include various forms of nervous asthenia. Controversy over this term has centered on the overlap of symptomatology and co-morbidity with other conditions (e.g., depression, neuroses, somatoform disorders, and chronic fatigue syndrome). Although this diagnosis has fallen out of favor in the United States and no longer appears in The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV), it is still widely used throughout the world. Neurasthenia is defined by the World Health Organization in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) as:
Either persistent and distressing feelings of exhaustion after minor mental effort, or persistent and distressing feelings of fatigue after minor physical effort;
Accompanied by one or more of the following symptoms: muscular aches or pains; dizziness; tension headaches; sleep disturbance; inability to relax; and irritability;
Inability to recover through rest, relaxation, or enjoyment;
Does not occur in the presence of organic mental disorders, affective disorders or panic, or generalized anxiety disorder.
In an open study 27 healthy students, physicians, and scientists aged 19-46 years were given 10 drops of Rhodiola rosea tincture (equivalent to 100-150 mg R. rosea extract) once or twice a day for 2-3 weeks, beginning several days before intense intellectual work, such as final exams.The extract improved the amount and quality of work and in all cases prevented asthenic decompensation (loss of work capacity due to fatigue). A series of studies using a proofreading test showed that a one-time dose of Rhodiola rosea did not significantly increase the number of symbols corrected, but very significantly decreased the percent of errors made, particularly over an 8-hour period. Positive results found in the studies of proofreading tests were based on 300 mg/day or more. In medical treatments, the usual doses are 200-600 mg/day. Rhodiola rosea increased intellectual capacity (particularly by improving perception and processing of information) to a greater degree than an extract of eleuthero, formerly called Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus Rupr. et Max., Araliaceae).
Increase serotonin activity,Increase energy and confidence:
Rhodiola is an adaptogenic herb that can increase serotonin activity by up to 30%. Rhodiola also increases the activity of two other mood-related neurotransmitters - dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) - by inhibiting the activity of COMT, an enzyme that breaks DA and NE.1 Rhodiola produces quick results, usually within a few days. Rhodiola users report increased energy and motivation, reduced anxiety, and elevated feelings of confidence and optimism.Numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials show that Rhodiola can increase general wellbeing, reduce mental fatigue, and improve learning and memory.
3.Rhodiola rosea and Salidroside benefit on physical health.:
Rhodiola rosea was beneficial in posttraumatic and vascular lesions of the brain. It was especially effective in combination with piracetam for patients with marked cognitive dysfunction.However, it did not reduce manic symptoms and could worsen paranoid states. In one study of more clearly depressed patients,Rhodiola rosea in combination with tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) produced significant improvement in the majority of cases and decreased side effects of the TCAs. Ultimately, some of these patients were able to respond to Rhodiola rosea alone.
Antipsychotic medications used in large doses over many years to treat schizophrenic patients sometimes affect the dopaminergic nerves in the basal ganglia, the same nerves that are damaged in patients with Parkinson's Disease. When these nerves are compromised, patients develop a constellation of "Parkinsonian" symptoms, including stiffness, tremors, bradykinesia (slowed movements), and others.Anticholinergic medications have been used to relieve these symptoms when they are caused by antipsychotic medication; however, they sometimes fail to help. In schizophrenic patients whose anticholinergic medications had failed to relieve Parkinsonian symptoms, R. rosea was found to be of benefit.
Rhodiola Rosea Benefit Heart.:
The heart:By decreasing the release of catecholamines and corticosteroids triggered during the stress response, rhodiola has a positive effect on preventing cardiac damage. Rhodiola's support of the adrenal glands may also explain its ability to help normalize blood sugar, potassium levels and blood pressure reducing risk factors in heart disease.
4.Rhodiola rosea affect on Physical Work Capacity.:
A number of studies have shown that Rhodiola rosea increased physical work capacity and dramatically shortened the recovery time between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These studies included normal individuals exposed to maximal work on a bicycle ergometer and Olympic-level cross country skiers and biathletes. In one study, 52 men (18-24 years of age) were given one dose of either 15 drops of R. rosea extract, 2 ml eleuthero, or 1 ml of a 1 percent solution piridrol (a stimulating psychotropic similar to methylphenidate). Fifteen drops of Rhodiola rosea extract is approximately equivalent to 150 mg of dry encapsulated root extract standardized to 3 percent rosavin and 1 percent salidroside. After 30 minutes, they pedaled an electric bicycle ergometer to produce a precise amount of work-induced baseline fatigue. After a 5-minute rest, they performed further work to determine the maximal duration of work they could accomplish at a specific intensity. During the second period of work, R. rosea drops, eleuthero extract, and piridrol increased work capacity by 9 percent, 6 percent, and 6 percent respectively (p less than 0.04) compared to placebo controls. Recovery was defined by the time of normalization of heart rate and arterial pressure. During the recovery period, at 10 minutes, the pulse slowed by a factor of 2.5 (67 beats per minute) in the Rhodiola rosea group versus 1.9 (87 beats per minute) in the control group. During the 3-day total recovery period, subjects given piridrol complained of insomnia, excitability, and irritability; whereas those given Rhodiola rosea had no adverse side effects and no complaints.
Endurance is the capacity to maintain work despite fatigue. Forty-two master level competitive skiers (20-25 years of age) took either Rhodiola rosea extract or placebo 30-60 minutes before training races (30 km) and a biathlon (20 km race on skis carrying a rifle and shooting targets at stops). Athletes given Rhodiola rosea had statistically significant increased shooting accuracy, less arm tremor and better coordination. Thirty minutes after work performance, the heart rate in the Rhodiola rosea group was 104-106 percent of baseline, versus 128.7 percent in the placebo group (p less than 0.02). Rhodiola rosea improved recovery time, strength, endurance, cardiovascular measures, and coordination.
Rhodiola Rosea Improve Physical and Mental Performace.:
Rhodiola has been shown to increase the levels of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and creatine phosphate in muscle tissue. The level of fatty acids in the blood has also been shown to increase with the use of rhodiola. Some research shows that lower levels of dopamine and norepinephrine increase the mental capacity of the brain. Because of rhodiola's ability to regulate the release of these hormones, improved mental performance has been noted.
Rhodiola Rosea Improve Male and Female Sexual Health.:
For centuries rhodiola has been prized for its virtues as a powerful stimulant and has been a major ingredient in many folk-lore love potions. Along with much anecdotal information research has shown that rhodiola can normalize prostate fluid and increase 17-ketosteroids in the urine (a key indicator of male hormone production) in men with erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation. Positive results from studies have also been shown in improving both primary and secondary amenorrhea in women. It would seem that that the benefits of rhodiola are not gender biased and that performance improvements are likely in women with sex gland dysfunction.
5.Adaptogenic, Anti-Stress, and Neuroendocrine Effects.:
Adaptogens differ from other stimulants during forced, exhaustive muscular work. With classical stimulants the initial increase in work-capacity is followed by a period of substantially decreased (markedly below average) work-capacity. Repeated use of CNS stimulants depletes brain catecholamines and decreases conditioned reflexes. In contrast, with extracts of R. rosea, the initial increase in work-capacity is followed by a lesser diminution, such that the work-capacity continues to be above average.
In their classic 1968 paper, Soviet pharmacologists Brekhman and Dardymov surveyed the literature on 189 medicinal plants and identified five (including R. rosea) that met the three defining criteria for an adaptogen:
An adaptogen should be innocuous and cause minimal disturbance of the normal physiological functions of an organism; The action of an adaptogen should be nonspecific (i.e., it should increase resistance to adverse influences of a wide range of harmful factors of physical, chemical, and biological nature);
An adaptogen may possess normalizing action irrespective of the direction of the preceding pathological changes (i.e., if a body parameter is high, the adaptogen brings it down towards normal; if a parameter is low, the adaptogen brings it up towards normal).
A recent study showed that Rhodiola rosea and eleuthero protected the embryos of freshwater snails (Lymnaea stagnalis) from a variety of environmental stressors.Enhancement in resistance was studied by applying phyto-adaptogen extracts for a period of 20 hours to 3-day old L. stagnalis larvae. Subsequently the larvae were exposed to the following highly toxic environmental stressors: a physical stress (heat shock: 43 degrees C for 4 minutes); an oxidative stress (superoxide radicals induced by menadione 600 microM for 2 hours); and heavy metal-induced stress (copper 50 microM for 1 hour or cadmium 20 microM for 1 hour). Both eleuthero and Rhodiola rosea strongly protected snail embryos from lethal heat shock, from the adverse effects of menadione-induced superoxide radicals, and from toxic exposure to heavy metals (copper and cadmium). Although the degree to which resistance was enhanced depended on the type of stressor applied, these results confirm the definition of phyto-adaptogens as being universal enhancers of non-specific resistance against different kinds of stress conditions. The mechanisms of nonspecific resistance are not entirely clear, but probably involve improvements in cellular energy metabolism, based in part on ATP (as discussed above).
Adaptogens and Stress Fighters:
Adaptogenic (anti-stress):An adaptogenic herb is one that helps the body adapt to various stressors, whether they are physical, mental or environmental. Rhodiola rosea is a superior plant and is generally regarded as harmless whilst exerting profound supportive effects. Given that we are basically a primitive organism struggling to adapt to a modern high technological environment, now more than ever adaptogens offer protection against the negative effects of stress.
According to modern science, adaptogens are natural plant products that increase the body's ability to cope with internal and external stress factors, and normalize the functions of the organism. They help maintain the stable internal environment inside the organism known as homeostasis. An important characteristic is that they are safe, possessing few known side effects.
The three phases of stress progression:
1) Alarm phase - When some new stress factor strikes the body this causes a sudden release of internal stress-hormones - corticosteroids and catheholamines. If the stress is very intense it can damage the regulatory systems of the body permanently and immediately (for example in the case of exposure to high levels of nuclear radiation); but if one is lucky, or if the person takes adaptogens, than it is possible to smoothly progress further to the "adaptation phase".
2) Adaptation phase - If the stress factor continues (for example, in sport it might be heavy athletic training) our body learns to tolerate the stressful stimulus - "adapt" - and increases its resistance to the stress factor. The "adaptation phase" is usually a safe period. The longer we can stay in the "adaptation phase", the better.
3) Finally, the exhaustion phase appears, when the body fails to fight stress anymore and simply gives up. In this "exhaustion phase", disease symptoms rapidly appear and get worse.
Diseases associated with stress may appear in the first "alarm phase", but they mainly appear in the third "exhaustion phase" when the body cannot fight stress anymore. This third phase usually develops after a period of months or years. Everything depends on the duration of the "adaptation phase". Sometimes the body may be fortunate and escape this third phase altogether, provided it can keep the stress under control. It is possible to do this by taking adaptogens; they can help you to stay in the "adaptation phase" for as long as possible.
Taking Rhodiola rosea extract, can make coping with stress much easier! When regularly taking Rhodiola the initial "alarm phase" of your stress will smoothly progress to the "adaptation phase". Rhodiola rosea can help you to stay in this safe "adaptation phase" for a much longer time or even permanently, so preventing your body from proceeding further to the extremely dangerous "exhaustion phase".
Promising "second-generation" adaptogen Rhodiola rosea (Russian Rhodiola) is a perennial plant with red, pink, or yellowish flowers. It has no biological relation to the "common" rose, but due to its similar fragrance it has been used as a substitute for Attar of Roses. One of the greatest things Rhodiola does is enhance mental and physical performance. It has been widely used by Russian athletes and cosmonauts to increase energy. Rhodiola is cardio-protective, normalizing the heart rate immediately after intense exercise. It improves the nervous system and mental functions such as memory, by increasing blood-supply to the muscles and brain, and it also increases protein synthesis. Rhodiola rosea has extraordinary pharmacological properties as an anti-mutagen and anti-depressive agent. In this respect Rhodiola rosea is much more powerful than other adaptogens. In one study done by O.M. Duhan and colleagues, the anti-mutagenic activities of Panax Ginseng and of Rhodiola rosea were compared. It became clear that the extracts of Rhodiola rosea had a higher capacity to counteract gene mutations induced by various mutagens (up to about 90% inhibition in some cases). The anti-depressive and anti-stress activity of Golden root is higher than that of St. John's Wort, Ginkgo biloba and Panax Ginseng. Furthermore, Rhodiola rosea is five times less toxic than Panax ginseng. In an experiment on rats with Pliss lymphosarcoma (PLS) it was shown that partial hepatectomy, a course application of Rhodiola rosea extract or combined effects inhibit the growth of tumors by 37%, 39% and 59%, respectively, and that of metastases by 42%, 50% and 75%. In one human study oral administration of Rhodiola rosea extract to 12 patents with superficial bladder carcinoma (T1G1-2) improved the characteristics of the urothelial tissue integration, parameters of leukocyte integrins and T-cell immunity. The average frequency of relapses for these patients was found to fall twice. In another clinical trial 150 individuals suffering from depression took Rhodiola rosea extracts for a period of one month. At the end of that period two-thirds of them had full remission of clinical manifestations of depression, and had become more active and more sociable. Daytime weakness and general weakness disappeared. Rhodiola rosea extracts reduce significantly the yield of cells with the chromosome aberrations in vivo and inhibit unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea in vitro (8). It is emphasized that Rhodiola rosea extracts have rejuvenative properties due to their ability to raise the efficiency of the intracell DNA repair mechanisms.
Fast and Slow Helath Benefit:
Both of these adaptogens are found in Frutaiga and are responsible for many of the health benefits being reported by our distributors and customers across the country. Some results are noticed very quickly and some over the course of a month or more. These include:
Fast Acting Benefits Reported (1 to 3 weeks):
stress reduction.increased sexual vitality.increased physical vitality.ability to concentrate better.greatly improved sleep and energy.shortened recovery after workouts.
Slow Acting Benefits Reported (6 weeks or more):
optimize weight.helps balance cholesterol.increased feeling of well being.supports healthy, pain free joints.improved memory and brain function.enhances cellular and liver detoxification.cellulite melting off thighs and buttocks.
Increase serotonin activity,increase energy and confidence:
Rhodiola rosea is an adaptogenic herb that can increase serotonin activity by up to 30%. Rhodiola also increases the activity of two other mood-related neurotransmitters - dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) - by inhibiting the activity of COMT, an enzyme that breaks DA and NE.1 Rhodiola rosea produces quick results, usually within a few days. Rhodiola rosea users report increased energy and motivation, reduced anxiety, and elevated feelings of confidence and optimism.
Numerous double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials show that Rhodiola can increase general wellbeing, reduce mental fatigue, and improve learning and memory.
6.Antioxidant and Anti-carcinogenic Effects of R.rosea,Salidroside,Rosavin.:
Rhodiola rosea is rich in phenolic compounds, known to have strong antioxidant properties.Animal studies have shown that R. rosea decreases toxicity from cyclophosphamide, rubomycin, and adriamycin (anti-cancer drugs), while it enhances their anticarcinogenic effects. Udintsev and Schakhov studied the effect of R. rosea root extract (RRRE), a tincture manufactured according to the Russian Pharmacopoeia standards (minimum 0.8 percent salidroside and 3 percent rosavin), on tumor cells (transplanted into mice) and normal bone marrow cells in two mouse cancer models.One group of mice with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) and another group with Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) were first treated with 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (a chemotherapy agent) that suppressed tumor growth to 31-39 percent and limited 3LL metastases to 18 percent, while also reducing the number of normal bone marrow cells, leucocytes, and myelokariocytes, to 40-50 percent and 20-25 percent of normal, respectively. In comparison, RRRE, 0.5 mg/kg/day given orally 2-8 days after tumors had been transplanted, suppressed growth of both tumors by 19-27 percent and 3LL metastases 16 percent. However, in contrast to cyclophosphamide, RRRE caused no reduction in normal bone marrow cells. In animals given both RRRE and cyclophosphamide, the RRRE increased the antimetastatic effect of cyclophosphamide by 36 percent (p less than 0.05). RRRE also increased the number of leukocytes by 30 percent and myelokariocytes by 16-18 percent.
In another mouse tumor model, Udintsev and colleagues showed that RRRE (minimum 0.8 percent salidroside and 3 percent rosavin) increased the antitumor effect of the drug adriamycin while substantially reducing its liver toxicity.Many chemotherapy agents are hematotoxic (reduce the number of normal blood cell precurs ors in bone marrow) or hepatotoxic (cause damage to the liver). These serious side effects were significantly ameliorated by RRRE. Thus, the research suggests that RRRE can both enhance tumor inhibition by chemotherapeutic drugs while alleviat ing dangerous side effects.
Substances that reduce the incidence of chromosomal aberrations are termed antimutagenic. Salikhova and colleagues found that in mice injected with cyclophosphamide, RRRE (minimum 0.8 percent salidroside and 3 percent rosavin) had antimutagenic effects.Compared to placebo controls, RRRE reduced the development of chromosomal aberrations by 50 percent and reduced the incidence of cells with micronuclei by more than 50 percent. RRRE also increased indices of DNA repair in bone marrow cells after exposure to the mutagen N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU).
In a small pilot study of 12 patients with superficial bladder carcinoma (TIG1-2), treatment with RRRE (minimum 0.8 percent salidroside and 3 percent rosavin) improved parameters of leukocyte integrines and T-cell immunity.The average frequency of relapse was reduced, but did not reach statistical significance. Larger placebo-controlled studies of R. rosea extracts to augment tumor inhibition and reduce toxic effects of chemotherapy agents are needed.
Experimental Studies and Application Study of Rhodiola rosea.
Rhodiola rosea appears to offer generalized resistance against physical, chemical, and biological stressors in rats and other animals studied. Evidence also suggests cardioprotective and anticancer benefits in animals.
In the test of swimming "to the limit," Rhodiola rosea administration increased the swimming time of rats 135-159 percent. Working capacity of the rats consistently improved throughout the supplementation period.
Eggs from the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis were incubated in water extracts of Rhodiola rosea and subsequently exposed to a variety of environmental stressors, including heat shock (43 for four minutes), oxidative stress (600 menadione for two hours), and heavy metal-induced stress (one-hour exposure to 150 copper sulphate or 20 cadmium chloride). Exposure to these environmental stressors kills 80-90 percent of larvae within four days post-exposure. Pre-incubation with Rhodiola rosea extract afforded a significant degree of non-specific resistance against each of these environmental stressors as measured by rate of survival. While only nine percent of the control population survived exposure to heat shock, approximately 90 percent of snail larvae pre-incubated with Rhodiola rosea (40.5 mg/ml) survived. Pre-incubation with Rhodiola resulted in non-specific resistance to oxidative stress (survival of approximately 68 percent) and heavy metal stress (approximately 28-35 percent of larvae survived depending on the metal exposure).
Two experiments have suggested possible benefit on various aspects of learning and memory in rats under certain experimental conditions. Rhodiola rosea extract administered orally at a dose of 0.1 mL/day for 10 days resulted in a non-significant trend toward protection against impairments in memory, as assessed by step-down passive avoidance, induced by electroshock in rats.Rhodiola rosea extract was administered in a single dose of 0.10 mL. Improvements in both learning and memory retention, as determined by using a maze test with negative reinforcement, were observed. Repeated dosing with the same quantity of the extract over a 10-day period generated significant improvement in long-term memory as assessed by the maze test with negative enforcement and the "staircase" method with positive enforcement. However, in this experiment two other doses were tested (0.02 and 1.0 mL) and were found to have no substantial effect on learning and memory.
This suggests the possibility of an efficacious dose of Rhodiola rosea administration, above and below which beneficial physiological effects might be less likely. In the other experimental conditions investigated (active avoidance with negative reinforcement using a "shuttle box" and passive avoidance using "step down" and "step through") no beneficial effects on either learning or memory were observed with any of the administered doses of Rhodiola rosea.
Rhodiola rosea has been shown to moderate against stress-induced damage and dysfunction in cardiovascular tissue. Treatment with Rhodiola rosea extract prevents the decrease in cardiac contractile force secondary to environmental stress in the form of acute cooling and contributes to stable contractility. In animals, acute cooling leads to a decrease in myocardial contractile activity that partially recovers during the first 18 hours after the cold-stress is removed. This recovery is viewed as only partial, since the heart tissue is incapable of stable contractility during perfusion. Pretreatment with Rhodiola rosea extracts appears to create a beneficial adaptive response in this type of stress. When Rhodiola pretreated rats were exposed to acute cooling, the decrease in contractility was prevented and stable contractility of heart tissue occurred during perfusion.
Other reports suggest administration of Rhodiola rosea protects cardiovascular tissue from stress-induced catecholamine release and mitigates against adrenaline-induced arrhythmias in rats. The antiarrhythmic effect of Rhodiola rosea is suggested to be secondary to an ability to induce opioid peptide biosynthesis13 and related to the stimulation of peripheral kappa-opioid receptors.
Administration of Rhodiola rosea appears to have potential as an anticancer agent, and might be useful in conjunction with some pharmaceutical antitumor agents. In rats with transplanted solid Ehrlich adenocarcinoma and metastasizing rat Pliss lymphosarcoma, supplementation with Rhodiola rosea extract inhibited the growth of both tumor types, decreased metastasis to the liver, and extended survival times.Administration of Rhodiola rosea extract also directly suppressed the growth of and the extent of metastasis from transplanted Lewis lung carcinomas.When Rhodiola rosea extract was combined with the antitumor agent cyclophosphamide in these same tumor models, the antitumor and antimetastatic efficacy of drug treatment was enhanced. The authors also commented that, "complete abrogation of the haematotoxicity of cyclophosphamide" was observed. The chemotherapeutic drug Adriamycin is known to induce pronounced liver dysfunction, generally reflected by an increase in transaminase levels. In animal experiments, adding Rhodiola rosea extract to a protocol with Adriamycin resulted in an improved inhibition of tumor dissemination (as compared to that found with Adriamycin alone), and the combined protocol prevented liver toxicity.
Application Study.:Muscle Superman
There is some herb formula named Muscle Superman formulated following: These three anabolic supplements push muscle growth from a variety of angles:
Believe it or not, the best way to pack on lean muscle mass isn't by concentrating just on increasing muscle growth. You need a multitiered approach that includes 1) boosting the processes in muscle fibers that lead to more mass and 2) enhancing other physiological systems that can influence muscle hypertrophy.
To build more muscle, testosterone isn't the only concern ~ the immune and endocrine systems must be running at full efficiency. Keeping your thyroid gland in optimal health helps keep muscles growing because thyroid hormones are actually anabolic. As for your immune system, if it's run down due to excessive stress from superintense training or other daily stressors, your body won't spend energy on growth. Instead, it'll focus on kicking up your immune system in an effort to fight off any foreign invaders that could be making you sick.
Taking a supplement stack that stimulates protein synthesis in muscle fibers (aka muscle growth) and enables the body to better deal with stress is a smart idea. This jump-starts the process of muscle growth and keeps it ramped up. The following three supplements, when taken together, do just that. They'll help increase protein synthesis, strength and endurance, and defend against stress and fatigue.
This phytoecdysteroid ~ a plant chemical produced to defend against insects ~ is actually a steroid hormone that has potent anabolic properties. Research shows it can enhance lean muscle growth, even in instances when calorie intake was reduced. The mechanism involves pathways in muscle fibers that cause the muscle to synthesize more muscle protein. And the more muscle protein a muscle has, the bigger it is.
Researchers say 20-beta-ecdysterone provides numerous other effects, such as increasing muscle endurance by enhancing the amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ~ the energy currency of all cells ~ in muscle cells. It also increases insulin sensitivity, not only allowing insulin to enhance glycogen storage in muscle cells but having a more potent anabolic effect on them.
Dose: Look for products that give you about 2~3 mg per pound of bodyweight per day, or about 300~800 mg total daily for those weighing between 150 and 250 pounds. The best way to take ecdysterone is in 3~6 doses daily with food.
Considered an effective adaptogen, this plant increases the body's resistance to a variety of chemical, biological and physical stressors, such as intense exercise, anxiety, pollution, poor sleep habits and emotional stress. Regardless of the source, stress leads to the same outcome: disturbances in key physiological systems in your body.
Two systems most at risk from stress are the immune and endocrine systems. While an immune system compromised by stress leaves you highly susceptible to colds and infections, taking rhodiola allows your body to better deal with most stressors to help ward off infections and keep growing. When your endocrine system is battered by stressors, most anabolic hormones, such as testosterone, growth hormone, IGF-1 and the thyroid hormones, become blunted. And since these guys are critical drivers of muscle growth, muscle growth gets blunted, too.
To add insult to injury, the catabolic hormone cortisol peaks in times of stress, inhibiting testosterone's effects in muscle cells and instigating muscle breakdown. Taking an adaptogen, such as rhodiola rosea, however,helps prevent the blunting of anabolic hormones and inhibit the rise of catabolic hormones, ultimately leading to greater gains in muscle size and strength.
One way rhodiola works is by increasing cellular ATP and creatine phosphate levels, which should lead to not only greater muscle endurance but also muscle strength.
Dose: The recommended dosage is 100~300 mg daily of a standardized extract yielding a minimum of 3% rosavins and 0.8%~1% salidrosides (3:1 ratio of rosavins to salidrosides). Take it in 2~3 divided doses throughout the day.
An adaptogen like rhodiola, this herb has strong anti-stress and antioxidant properties, plus it promotes memory and concentration and enhances visual processing (great for athletes whose sports require hand-eye coordination). While its adaptogenic properties are great for stabilizing the body's critical systems so muscle growth adaptations can take place, bacopa's effects on the thyroid gland may be the most critical. Research shows it can increase anabolic thyroid hormone levels by more than 40%, which can have a dramatic impact on muscle growth and plays a major role in regulating the metabolic rate. Higher thyroid hormone levels mean you burn more calories in a typical day, so you can add muscle while keeping fat off.
Dose:Take 100~300 mg of bacopa monnieri extract standardized to at least 20% bacosides in 2~3 divided doses throughout the day. M and F
Guide or Dosage Suggestions:
Take these three supplements in several divided doses per day. Supplement Daily Dose:20-beta-ecdysterone 300~800 mg,Rhodiola rosea 100~300 mg,Bacopa monnieri 100~300 mg.
An Example:Eva Birath-a swedish bodybuilder
This is what I eat:Fish, shrimps, turkey, chicken, eggs and red meat with salads and vegetables. I use oil for cooking, casew and peanuts for snacks.
This I don't eat:Diary products. sugar, almost no complex carbohydrates like pasta, rice, potatoes and soft bread.
Following an example of what I eat on a weekday:
Supplements:Multivitamin,Vitamin C,Glocusamin and MSM,Aminoacids,Rhodiola Rosea,Tribulus,E-Bol.
9.00 Wholeweat bread with two eggs and caviar
12.00 Chicken 150g, salad with avocado, lettuce, peas and tomato
15.00 Banana and 1 dl casew or peanuts
17.30 Two chicken filets with salad, peppers avocado and broccoli and some oil
21.00 Shrimps 175g, tomato, wholeweat bread and 1dl casew or peanuts
Toxicity, Side Effects, and Contraindications of Salidroside.:
Rhodiola rosea has a very low level of toxicity. In rat toxicity studies, the LD50 (lethal dose at which 50 percent of animals die) was calculated to be 28.6 ml/kg, approximately 3,360 mg/kg.25 The equivalent dosage in a 70 kg man would be about 235 gm or 235,000 mg. Since the usual clinical doses are 200-600 mg/day, there is a huge margin of safety.
Overall, R. rosea has very few side effects. Most users find that it improves their mood, energy level, and mental clarity. Some individuals, particularly those who tend to be anxious, may feel overly activated, jittery, or agitated. If this occurs, then a smaller dose with very gradual increases may be needed. Rhodiola rosea should be taken early in the day because it can interfere with sleep or cause vivid dreams (not nightmares) during the first few weeks. It is contraindicated in excited states. Because Rhodiola rosea has an activating antidepressant effect, it should not be used in individuals with bipolar disorder who are vulnerable to becoming manic when given antidepressants or stimulants. Until this has been further studied, the authors advise caution in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. The herb does not appear to interact with other medications, though it may have additive effects with other stimulants. It is best absorbed when taken on an empty stomach 30 minutes before breakfast and lunch. As with any herbal preparation, patients should inform their primary healthcare practitioner when taking R. rosea.
Side Effects and Toxicity:
Clinical feedback indicates, at doses of 1.5-2.0 grams and above, Rhodiola rosea extract standardized for 2% rosavin might cause some individuals to experience an increase in irritability and insomnia within several days.Evidence on the safety and appropriateness of Rhodiola rosea supplementation during pregnancy and lactation is currently unavailable.
What about side effects? With high doses of Rhodiola, irritability and insomnia may be a risk. A high dose is considered to be daily intake of 1,500 to 2,000 mg and above of a Rhodiola Rosea extract containing 2% rosavin.Rhodiola should not be taken during pregnancy or while breast-feeding; risks have not been adequately studied. Due to its stimulating nature, Rhodiola should be avoided by individuals with Bipolar Disorder.
Although rare, certain individuals who experience nervous excitability, feverish states, and hypertension, should not use rhodiola unless supervised by a qualified practitioner. Persons who experience coronary spasm and fluctuations in arterial pressure should also use under supervision. Not recommended for use during pregnancy and lactation.
Rhodiola has been the subject of many clinical studies. Animal studies indicate that rhodiola has a low level of toxicity.Don't take rhodiola during pregnancy or while breast-feeding. There is no information available about the safety of rhodiola in pregnancy or lactation. Insomnia may be a risk with high doses of rhodiola. A high dose is considered to be daily intakes of 1,500 to 2,000 mg and above of a Rhodiola rosea standardized extract.
There are no well-known drug or nutrient interactions associated with Rhodiola rosea. However, much remains to be learned about this herb and how it may interact with other adaptogens, such as Siberian ginseng, as well as with other dietary supplements.
The PDR 4th noted:"Rhodiola rosea has demonstrared very low occurrences of side effects,and available clinical evidence sujggests it has a low toxicity.There are currently no contraindications with prescription medications.Most users find that it improves their mood,energy level,and mental clarity.R.rosea should be taken early in the day because it can interfere with sleep or cause vivid dreams(not nightmares) during the first few weeks.It is contraindicated in excited states."
Precautions and Adverse Reactions:
Because R.rosea has an activating,antidepressant effects,it should not be used in individuals with bipolar disorders who are vulnerable to becoming manic when given antidepressants or stimulants.
Potential Interactions:Rhodiola does not appear to interact with other medications,although it may have additive effects when taken with other stimulants.
8.Chemistry of Rhodiola rosea.:
Botanists have identified more than 20 species of Rhodiola and just a few of which have undergone serious intensive investigation. The chemical composition and pharmacological activity of Rhodiola is strongly a species-dependent phenomenon. The most important chemical molecules that were clinically relevant and specific to Rhodiola rosea species are rosavin, rosin, and rosarin. Out of all the different species, R. rosea is the most biologically active and clinically tested to be safe for human consumption.
Unfortunately, some products under the name "Rhodiola rosea" are currently available on the U.S. market and show no presence of rosavin. They are standardized using salidroside and meaningless total polyphenols as a marker compound. I is absolutely evident that the presence of salidroside is not specific to Rhodiola rosea.
9.Medicinal Action and Uses.:
Health tonic, Improve immunity and antifatigue. It also have aphrodisiac effect and to treat diabetes.
Efficacy: It can relieve the fatigue, postpone caducity, resist the the sideeffect of anoxia and microwave radiation,it also have the ability of promoting the mental energy and body function etc.
For Whom Rhodiola rosea:
Rhodiola has been used in connection with fatigue, mental performance and athletic performance (to improve endurance). The Russian medicine has traditionally given Rhodiola rosea to its cosmonauts, soldiers, sportsmen and ageing political leaders as an effective anti-aging medicine. Rhodiola rosea helped them to improve cognitive functions and physical performance.
Prevention of development of fatigue, asthenic states, catarrhal seasonal diseases;
Use in comprehensive therapy for treatment of neuroses, depression, hypotension, and other diseases;
Restoration of health following recently endured communicable and somatic diseases;
Increased bodily resistance to physical and mental overloads, and negative environmental effects;
In sport - improved performance, resistance to strain, restoration of strength with increased physical loads;
Prevention of alcohol and drug addiction;
For elderly and aged persons;
Increased physical and mental efficiency[dagger];
Relieved symptoms of asthenia due to psychiatric and physical causes, including fatigue, decline in work capacity, sleeplessness, poor appetite, irritability, headache#;
Improved the amount and quality of intellectual work and prevented loss of work capacity due to fatigue in healthy students, doctors, scientists with a history of poor endurance and tiredness at work#;
Increased physical work capacity, coordination, general wellbeing and decreased mental fatigue and situational anxiety in a study involving 60 foreign students at a Russian high school[section];
Improved mental activity in 25 to 35-year-old students, and decreased the quality of intellectual work in students (14 to 16 years old) [dagger];
Improved symptoms of depression in 64% of patients with depression and neurasthenia; improved intellectual workload by the fourth day of treatment#;
Improved energy levels, day-time sleepiness and mood in a majority of patients with depression#;
Improved sleep in 67% of patients with chronic sleep-related problems#;
Improved anxiety and mood in patients with depressive disorders who were medicated with tricyclic antidepressants, but intensified symptoms in patients with hysteric-depressive and depressive-phobic symptoms;
Provided some benefit in schizophrenic patients whose anticholinergic medications had failed to relieve Parkinson's disease induced by antipsychotic medications;
Improved sexual function in men with erectile dysfunction and/or premature ejaculation;
Produced normal menstruation in over 60% of women with amenorrhoea (oral Rhodiola or salidroside by injection);
Reduced the frequency of recurrence of superficial cancer of the bladder, improved the characteristics of the urothelial tissue integration and improved T-cell immunity in patients who had undergone removal of the primary tumor;
Speed up the recovery of patients with acute infections of the mouth (as adjunctive treatment);
Did not influence nausea-induced stress hormone release or prevent motion sickness;
Did not improve blood oxygenation, but demonstrated the potential to decrease oxidative stress in simulated altitude-induced hypoxia.
It may be successfully taken by drivers, flight personnel, traffic controllers, as well as other professional cohorts of people occupationally engaged in work requiring increased attention.
Potential applications: Stress, adrenal support, fatigue, sports performance, depression, cardiovascular maintenance, colds and infections, cellular health, learning and memory, blood sugar control, amenorrhea, male/female sexual dysfunction, adjunct treatment with chemotherapy, liver protection, antioxidant, protection against gum disease, improving auditory function.
Indicated for:Amenorrhea, asthenia, cancer, cardiac problems, colds and flu, debility (symptoms of asthenia), depression, enhancing thyroid and thymus gland function and immune system, fatigue, headaches, hypertension, improving hearing, improving sexual function. Increasing attention span, mental performance, alertness and memory, physical exercise ability, strength and mobility. Insomnia, maintaining energy levels, premature ejaculation, preventing stress-induced cardiac damage, protect the liver from environmental toxins, quicker muscle recovery, regulating blood sugar levels for diabetics, SAD (seasonal affected disorder), schizophrenia, sexual dysfunction (male), stress, weak erections.
Use in conjunction with: Multi-vitamins, B complex, vitamin B5, EFAs, echinacea, licorice, hawthorn, Co Q10, ginkgo, l-arginine/l-ornithine, antioxidant, grape seed/pycnogenol.
Uproven Uses:Traditional folk medicine used R.rosea to increase physical endurance,work productivity,longevity,resistance to high altitude sickness,and to treat fatigue,depression,anemia,impotence,gastrointestinal ailments,infections,and nervous system disorders.
Probable Efficacy:Rhodiola may be helpful in relieving mental and physical fatigue and improving endurance exercise performance and general well-being.
Dosage and Suggestions:
Proper Rhodiola rosea extract is made only from the roots, and, as stated earlier, is standardized to contain at least 0.8 percent salidroside and 3 percent rosavins. Ideally, the Rhodiola rosea extract should not be spray-dried onto maltodextrins, as the high temperature and/or pressure may cause a bonding of the Rhodiola rosea and maltodextrins, reducing bioavailability.
Dosage varies depending upon standardization. For chronic administration, a daily dose of 360-600 mg Rhodiola extract standardized for 1% rosavin, 180-300 mg of an extract standardized for 2% rosavin, or 100-170 mg of an extract standardized for 3.6% rosavin is suggested. Administration is normally begun several weeks prior to a period of expected increased physiological, chemical, or biological stress, and continued throughout the duration of the challenging event or activity. When using Rhodiola rosea as a single dose for acute purposes (e.g., for an exam or athletic competition), the suggested dose is three times the dose used for chronic supplementation. Rhodiola rosea has been administered for periods ranging from as little as one day (acute administration) up to four months. Until more specific information is available, a dosing regimen following the established patterns used with other plant adaptogens - with periodic intervals of abstinence - seems warranted when Rhodiola rosea is being used chronically.
The usual amounts taken are 200 to 600 mg per day of a Rhodiola rosea extract standardized to contain 2-3% rosavins and 0.8-1% salidroside. The nonstandardized amount would be 1 gram of the root three times daily (usually 5-6 tablets per day), the amount for the alcoholic extract (40% alcohol) is 5 to 40 drops (0.5 - 1 teaspoon) two to three times per day and for the tea from Rhodiola rosea roots is 1 - 2 cap per day. Rhodiola is usually taken with water before meals or at mealtimes. Please note, that Rhodiola has a more stimulating effect at lower amounts, and a more sedating effect at higher amounts.
Typical dosages used in human studies have ranged from 50 to 250 mg taken two or, occasionally, three times daily. It is best taken 30 minutes before breakfast and lunch, with a third dose before an afternoon workout if necessary. It is best not to take Rhodiola rosea after dinner or in the evening, as it can be stimulating and may cause insomnia. Those suffering from mania or bipolar disorder should not take it without medical supervision. Rhodiola rosea may potentiate the action of stimulants, so it should not be taken with them. Extremely sensitive individuals may need to reduce the dosage as low as 50 mg twice daily, and work up slowly to higher doses.
Daily Dosage:50 to 200mg per day is recommended for clinical effectiveness.
Dosage and Toxicity:
In the two double-blind clinical trials, the dose of a standardized Rhodiola rosea extract ranged from 100-170 mg per day. The content of rosavin consumed in these daily doses is approximately 3.6-6.14 mg. The therapeutic dose of available Rhodiola rosea preparations will vary depending on degree of standardization; however, for chronic administration rosavin content within the above range seems prudent. This would suggest a dose of approximately 360-600 mg Rhodiola rosea daily of an extract standardized for one-percent rosavin, 180-300 mg of an extract standardized for two-percent rosavin, or the dose of between 100-170 mg for an extract standardized for 3.6-percent rosavin. As an adaptogen, chronic administration is normally begun several weeks prior to a period of expected increased physiological, chemical, or biological strain, and continued throughout the duration of the challenging event or activity. When using Rhodiola rosea as a single dose for acute purposes (e.g., for an exam or athletic competition), the suggested dose is three times the dose used for chronic supplementation.
The Russian approach to long-term supplementation with adaptogens generally calls for repeating cycles characterized by short periods of adaptogen administration, followed by an interval with no supplementation.Rhodiola rosea has been administered for periods ranging from as little as one day (acute administration) up to four months. Until more specific information is available, a dosing regime following the established patterns used with other plant adaptogens, with periodic intervals of abstinence, seems warranted when Rhodiola rosea is being used chronically.
At the doses administered in the clinical trials, a complete absence of all side effects has been reported. However, preliminary clinical feedback indicates that at doses of 1.5-2.0 grams and above of Rhodiola rosea extract standardized for two-percent rosavin, some individuals might experience an increase in irritability and insomnia within several days. It is possible that other physiological parameters that benefit from a lower dose of Rhodiola rosea extract might be exacerbated by a dose that is inappropriately high and/or sustained for prolonged periods of time.
Evidence on the safety and appropriateness of Rhodiola rosea supplementation during pregnancy and lactation is currently unavailable.
Safety and Acute toxicity:
General Safety of Rhodiola root:
The toxicity of Rhodiola root is regarded as very low. The LD50 values for Rhodiola and a number of other adaptogens including Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus were measured between 10 and 30 g/kg (route undefined, but likely to be oral).
Reference:Brekhman II, Dardymov IV. Ann Rev Pharmacol 1969; 9: 419
Chemical Name: beta-D-Glucopyranoside,2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl.
CAS No.10338-51-9.Molecular Formula: C14-H20-O7.Molecular Weight: 300.34.
LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Subcutaneous.Rodent-mouse.28600 uL/kg.[28.6(25.2~32.6)ml/kg,]
Details of toxic effects not reported other than lethasl dose value.
Reference:CTYAD8 Zhongcaoyao.Chinese Traditional and Herbal Medicine.(China International Book Trading Corp.,POB 2820,Beijing,Peop.Rep.China)V.11-1980-Violume(issue)/page/year:19,229,1988.
Clinical Data:R.rosea extract (standardized to 2% rosavin).Patient.Oral.1.5~2.0 grams(1500~2000 mgs).
Toxic Effects:Cause impetuous frequency,more insomnia.
Rhodiola Rosea.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Mainline Injection.Rodent-mouse.L95.[32.8 +- 4.1] g/kg.[[28700~ 36900] mgs/kg,].Bliss Sequential Method
Salidroside.LD50.Lethal dose,50 percent kill.Mainline Injection.Rodent-mouse.L95.[1130 +- 23] mg/kg.Bliss Sequential Method
10.Proposed Mechanisms of Action.:
What does it do?
In recent years, dozens of uses for Rhodiola Rosea have been proposed, including support for depression and fatigue, enhancing memory and intellectual capacity, increasing work performance and endurance, and stimulating the nervous system. Many of these potential benefits relate to the herb's adaptogenic qualities.
Interestingly, Rhodiola appears to work differently within the body than other adaptogens (such as the very popular Siberian ginseng). Some current findings on the herb are as yet preliminary and relate to the complex physiological interactions in the body's chemistry. Put simply, Rhodiola appears to work by influencing key central nervous system chemicals~neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin, for example.
Some studies have shown Rhodiola benefits such varied areas as increased learning capacity and memory enhancement, regulation of menstrual periods and infertility, reduction of side effects from cancer chemotherapy, increased sexual libidio and erectile dysfunction, enhancement of thyroid gland function, increased capacity for work and endurance, and protection from environmental toxins.
Proposed Mechanisms of Action:
The adaptogenic properties, cardio-pulmonary protective effects, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of monoamines and opioid peptides such as beta-endorphins.
Oral administration of a water extract of Rhodiola rosea to rats for 10 days modulated biogenic monoamines in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and hypothalamus. In the cerebral cortex and brain stem, levels of nor-epinephrine and dopamine decreased, while the amount of serotonin increased substantially. In the hypothalamus, the results were reversed with a 3-fold increase in the amount of norepinephrine and dopamine, and a trend toward reduced serotonin levels. It is believed these changes in monoamine levels are a result of Rhodiola rosea inhibiting the activity of the enzymes responsible for monoamine degradation, monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase. It is also believed Rhodiola rosea facilitates the transport of neurotransmitters within the brain.In addition to these central effects on monoamines, Rhodiola rosea has been reported to prevent both catecholamine release and subsequent cAMP elevation in the myocardium, and the depletion of adrenal catecholamines induced by acute stress.
Abstracts of untranslated Russian research indicate that a great deal of the activity of Rhodiola rosea might be secondary to an ability to induce opioid peptide biosynthesis and through the activation of both central and peripheral opioid receptors.Lack of current availability of the complete text of these articles make verification of these effects impossible.
Mechanisms of Action:
The adaptogenic properties, cardiopulmonary protective effects, and central nervous system activities of Rhodiola rosea have been attributed primarily to its ability to influence levels and activity of biogenic monoamines such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and hypothalamus. It is believed the changes in monoamine levels are due to inhibition of the activity of enzymes responsible for monoamine degradation and facilitation of neurotransmitter transport within the brain.
In addition to these central effects, Rhodiola has been reported to prevent both catecholamine release and subsequent cyclic AMP elevation in the myocardium, and the depletion of adrenal catecholamines induced by acute stress.
Rhodiola's adaptogenic activity might also be secondary to induction of opioid peptide biosynthesis and through the activation of both central and peripheral opioid receptors.
- Brief Introduction,History and Modern Uses,Pharmacological Application of Rhodiola species,Phytochemicals of Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola Crenulata.
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