Botanical Information of Silybum marianum.
- Botanical Information of Silybum marianum.
- Phytochemicals and Constituents of Milk Thistle Seed.
- History of Milk Thistle till recent years.
- Applications and functions of Milk Thistle and its constituents.
- The Awesome Power of the Milk Thistle.
- Modern finding of Milk Thistle.
- Photo Gallery of Silybum marianum.
Botanical Information of Silybum marianum.
Scientific Name: Carduus marianus syn. Silybum marianum
Botanical Source: Carduus marianus syn. Silybum marianum
Latin Name: Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner,Silybum marianum
Pharmacopeial Name: Cardui mariae fructus
Other Names: blessed milk thistle, St. Mary thistle, Cardui mariae, Carduus marianum, Holy Thistle, Lady's Thistle, Legalon, Marian Thistle, Mariendistel, Mary Thistle, Our Lady's Thistle, Silimarina, Silybin, Silymarin, St. Mary Thistle,Cardui mariae, Carduus marianum, Holy Thistle, Lady's Thistle, Legalon, Marian Thistle, Mariendistel, Mary Thistle, Our Lady's Thistle, Silimarina, Silybin, Silybum, Silymarin, St. Mary Thistle, Wild Artichoke
Botanical Synonyms and Common names: Milk Thistle, Mary Thistle, Silybum, Silymarin, Silybum marianum (L) Gacntm
Description: Milk thistle, also known as the Marian, St. Mary's, or Our Lady's thistle, is a tall herb with prickly leaves and a milky sap. Milk thistle is native to the Mediterranean region of Europe but naturalized in California and the eastern United States. Botanically, milk thistle is known as Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., a member of the family Asteraceae. In older literature, as well as some modem European works, it is cited as Carduus marianus L.. Over the years, several other plants have been referred to as milk thistles, but authorities now reserve that common name for this species. Also, it must not be confused with the blessed or holy thistle, which is Cnicus benedictus L., an entirely different plant, although the similarity of the religiously inspired common names is confusing.
Botanical Description of Silybum marianum:
Common herbal classics defined the herb Herba Silybi, or the "all-grass of St.Marys, all-grass of Blessed Thistle, all-grass of Holy Thistle" as the achene of the Asteraceae(Compositae) family Silybum genus plant species (1).Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.This commonly used species is introduced as:
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., annual or biennial herbs, high 30-120cm. Stems erect, much branched, with length. Basal leaves large, rosette-shaped, with handles, leaf blade oblong-lanceolate, 15-40cm long, 6-14cm wide, pinnately divided, margin teeth with hard spiked, glossy leaves on the mask, a lot of white markings , Following short hairs, veins long hairs, midvein prominent prominent on leaf blade; stem leaflets smaller, base amplexicaul. Head involucre, 4-6 cm in diam., Terminal or axillary, drooping; involucre broad, subglobose; involucral bracts multi-layered, hard, with long thorn, or apex caudal; tip fleshy with hard Care hair; flowers are tubular flowers, both sexes; lilac or purple, red with white. Achenes, oval, about 7mm, 3mm wide, brown or dark brown, vertical stripes on the surface, glands protruding; crested white, bristles. Flowering and fruiting from May to October.
Habitat: This plant grows in ventilated, cool, dry and sunny wasteland, saline and other places. Now cultivated in North and Northwest of China.This plant is originated from southern Europe to North Africa.
Habitat and Genus of milk thistle members:
Native to the Mediterranean grows wild throughout Europe and is widely naturalized in California and Australia. Milk thistle thrives in open areas. Also cultivated as an ornamental plant, milk thistle prefers a sunny position and self-seeds readily. The flower heads are picked in full bloom in early summer. Seeds are collected in late summer.
Milk thistle fruit consists of the ripe seed of S. marianum (L.) Gaertner [Fam. Asteraceae], freed from the pappus, and its preparations in an effective dosage. The preparation contains silibinin, silydianin, and silychristin.
Milk Thistle seeds were consumed by European wet nurses to ensure a healthy milk supply. The heads of this Thistle formerly were eaten, boiled, treated like those of the Artichoke. Milk Thistle seeds help stimulate protein synthesis in the liver. They even can help reverse the damage done by eating poisonous mushrooms or from carbon tetrachloride, which destroys liver cells and usually causes death. When Milk Thistle seeds are used within 48 hours, the survival rate is almost 100%. When fed to animals that had partial hepatectomies, their livers grew back more quickly. Milk Thistle is a good supplement to use to protect the liver when needing to take pharmaceutical drugs.
Milk thistles are thistles of the genus Silybum Adans., flowering plants of the daisy family (Asteraceae). They are native to the Mediterranean regions of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.
Members of this genus grow as annual or biennial plants. The erect stem is tall, branched and furrowed but not spiny. The large, alternate leaves are waxy-lobed, toothed and thorny, as in other genera of thistle. The lower leaves are cauline (= attached to the stem without petiole). The upper leaves have a clasping base. They have large, disc-shaped pink-to-purple, rarely white, solitary flower heads at the end of the stem. The flowers consist of tubular florets. The phyllaries under the flowers occur in many rows, with the outer row with spine-tipped lobes and apical spines. The fruit is a black achene with a white pappus.
Only two species are currently classified in this genus:
Silybum eburneum Coss.Dur., known as the Silver Milk Thistle, Elephant Thistle, or Ivory Thistle Silybum eburneum Coss. Dur. var. hispanicum
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertner, the Blessed Milk Thistle, which has a large number of other common names, such as Variegated Thistle.
A number of other plants have been classified in this genus in the past but have since been relocated elsewhere in the light of additional research.
S. marianum is by far the more widely known species. It is believed to give some remedy for liver diseases(e.g. viral hepatitis) and an extract, silymarin, is used in medicine. The adverse effect of the medicinal use of milk thistle is loose stools.
- Milk Thistle: Silybum marianum, its botanical information, constituents, history, applications and administration guide.
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